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2015年8月

2015年8月31日 (月)

休眠預金法案 公正性の確保へ審議を尽くせ

10年以上休眠状態ったって、それは人のお金でしょう。
人権無視の狂った法案の可決には反対です。
これも多数決で押し切るつもりなのはみえみえです。
安倍首相はそろそろ退陣の時期ではないでしょうか。
少数意見を尊重するのも民主主義の大切なポイントです。

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Bill on using dormant accounts must be deliberated to ensure fairness
休眠預金法案 公正性の確保へ審議を尽くせ

A nonpartisan group of lawmakers has compiled a bill to use money in dormant bank accounts — accounts that have had no deposit or withdrawal activity for more than 10 years — for social welfare and other purposes.
 お金の出し入れが10年以上ない休眠預金を、社会福祉などに活用するための法案を、超党派の議員連盟がまとめた。

The group said that it would submit the bill for passage during the current Diet session.
 今国会に法案を提出して、成立を目指すという。

Every year, about ¥50 billion worth of deposits are categorized as dormant and recorded as profits of financial institutions. Britain and South Korea have a system to use such funds to support welfare and other activities. The nonpartisan group drafted the bill based on those and other examples.
 休眠預金は毎年、約500億円発生し、金融機関の利益に計上される。英国や韓国では、この休眠預金を福祉活動などの支援に使う制度がある。議連は、こうした例も参考に法案を作成した。

The bill stipulates that the money would be used for various welfare activities, including assistance for children, youth and impoverished people. But if depositors subsequently claim their money, it would be repaid, according to the bill.
 活用の対象として、生活困窮者や子供・若者に対する支援などが明記されている。預金者から請求があった場合は、休眠預金の払い戻しに応じる。

We think the bill’s aim to use such funds to improve welfare while paying due consideration to protecting depositors is reasonable.
 預金者保護に配慮しつつ、「眠れる資金」を福祉向上に役立てる趣旨は妥当だろう。

Private-sector organizations would be entrusted to distribute the funds to foster activities beyond the reach of the support from the government and other public-sector organizations. To coordinate the distribution, a general incorporated foundation called a “designated utilization organization” would be created.
 国などの公的支援が及ばない活動を助成する狙いから、資金配分を民間団体に委ねる。その司令塔が、一般財団法人として新設される「指定活用団体」だ。

This organization would choose several fund distribution organizations from among incorporated foundations around the country. Through the fund distribution organizations, aid funds would be given or loaned to nonprofit and volunteer organizations working on welfare projects.
 活用団体は、全国の財団法人などから公募で複数の「資金分配団体」を選ぶ。この分配団体を通じて、実際に福祉事業に取り組むNPOやボランティア組織に助成金の給付や貸し付けを行う。

With the wisdom of private-sector organizations involved, we expect the money to be used for assistance in a way that suits situations on the ground.
 民間の知恵を生かし、現場の実情に合った支援が行き渡ることを期待したい。

Legal compliance important

However, it is worrying to see that there are not a few who doubt if the bill guarantees fair and transparent distribution of the funds.
 気がかりなのは、法案の内容に関し、公正で透明な資金配分が行われるのか心もとない、とする声が少なくないことだ。

They particularly find problems concerning good governance and legal compliance of the envisaged utilization and distribution organizations. Many of them point out that measures to prevent corrupt conduct such as payoffs from fund recipients are obscure.
 活用団体と分配団体のガバナンス(組織統治)やコンプライアンス(法令順守)に関する問題提起が目立つ。特に、支援先からの利益供与などの不正を防ぐ手立てがあいまいだとの指摘が多い。

Both organizations, which would broker a huge amount of funds, would require strict management.
 多額の資金仲介を担う両団体には、厳格な運営が求められる。

New Cabinet Office ordinances would be made to set up details of the system to use the deposits, according to the bill. However, we think that a law should include more details concerning regulation to secure fair distribution of aid funds, such as an auditing method.
 制度の詳細は、内閣府令などで定める方向という。だが、監査の在り方など、資金配分の適正さを確保するための規定については、法律でもっと明確に定める必要があるのではないか。

A measure to prevent people involved in the distribution of funds from providing “peer support” to organizations they belong or are related to is essential.
 配分に関与する人物が所属、関係する団体への支援など「お手盛り」を防ぐ措置も欠かせまい。

After all, money in dormant accounts belongs to the account holders. As much of this money as possible should be returned to the original depositors. Britain and South Korea have an online system enabling the public to check easily whether they have dormant accounts. Japan, too, should consider efforts to reduce the amount of dormant deposits.
 そもそも休眠預金は預金者のお金である。できるだけ減らすことが望ましい。英国や韓国は、休眠口座があるかどうか、一般の人が気軽に調べられるオンラインシステムを設けている。日本でも減らす工夫を検討してはどうか。

It is important to win the public’s understanding of the system to utilize dormant deposits by eliminating various suspicions about it. The Diet should thoroughly deliberate the bill to improve the envisaged system.
 休眠預金の活用策を巡る様々な疑念を解消し、国民の理解を得ることが重要だ。より良い制度とするため、国会は法案審議を十分に尽くすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 30, 2015)

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2015年8月30日 (日)

自民党総裁選 無投票再選も前向きな選択肢

アベノミクスでは国民は永久に幸せになれない。
アベノミクスで幸せになれるのは大企業と株で儲けている人たちだけでしょう。
無能と称される民主党時代のほうが、人々は豊かに暮らすことができました。
高齢者にとっては民主党時代の政策のほうが幸せでした。
嫌な時代となりました。いったいいつまで続くのでしょうか。

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Unopposed reelection of Abe as LDP leader a positive course
自民党総裁選 無投票再選も前向きな選択肢

We think it appropriate that the schedule for election of the Liberal Democratic Party president has been decided from the standpoint of lessening its effects on Diet deliberations of the security-related bills, which are the most important business in the current session.
 今国会で最も重要な安全保障関連法案の審議への影響を小さくする観点を重視して、自民党総裁選の日程を決めたのは、妥当である。

Since Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s term as LDP president expires at the end of September, the main ruling party decided to hold its presidential election on Sept. 20, with the official campaign period to begin on Sept. 8.
 自民党が、安倍首相の9月末の総裁任期満了に伴う総裁選について、8日告示―20日投開票とすることを決定した。

An LDP presidential race at the expiration of a presidential term is normally held before an extraordinary session of the Diet in autumn. However, since the current ordinary Diet session has been significantly extended, the upcoming election is held during the session — an exceptional situation.
 任期満了に伴う総裁選は通常、秋の臨時国会前に行われる。今回は通常国会の大幅延長に伴い、異例の国会開会中となった。

The LDP considered other schedules, such as holding the vote on Sept. 27 with a campaign period starting on Sept. 15. However, since deliberations on the security-related bills are a little stagnant at the House of Councillors, the party has decided to hold the election as early as its election regulations permit after examining its effects on deliberations of and voting on the bills at the Diet, as well as a scheduled trip abroad by the prime minister.
 自民党は、15日告示―27日投開票の日程案なども検討した。だが、安保法案の参院審議がやや停滞している中、法案の審議・採決や首相の外遊日程への影響を考慮し、総裁選を規定上、最も早い日程で実施することにした。

In the presidential race, Abe is highly likely to be elected again without a contest.
 総裁選では、安倍首相が無投票で再選される公算が大きい。

All seven factions of the LDP, including the Hiroyuki Hosoda faction of which Abe was originally a member, have decided to support the prime minister. With such moves, the factions apparently aim to win posts for their members in the Cabinet reshuffle and the changes of LDP executives expected in October after the current Diet session adjourns.
 首相の出身の細田派など、党内の7派閥は、そろって首相への支持を決めた。国会閉会後の10月の内閣改造・党役員人事におけるポスト獲得をにらんだ動きだ。

Shigeru Ishiba, minister in charge of vitalizing local economies, competed with Abe in the LDP leadership race in September 2012, but he does not intend to run for the presidency this time because he is currently a member of the Abe Cabinet. Former LDP General Council head Seiko Noda is trying hard to run for the election but is said to be having difficulty collecting the support from 20 LDP lawmakers required for candidacy.
 2012年9月の総裁選で首相と争った石破地方創生相は今回、閣内にいることもあり、出馬しない意向だ。立候補を模索する野田聖子・前総務会長は、推薦人20人を確保できないとみられる。

No rival candidate

Considering the prime minister’s achievements in the last three years, it is certainly not easy to field a rival candidate. Abe has built a strong political foundation by scoring crushing victories in two House of Representatives elections and one upper house election. Even after a drop, his Cabinet still has a public approval rate above 40 percent.
 確かに、首相の3年間の実績を踏まえれば、対抗馬の擁立は簡単ではあるまい。衆院選2回と参院選に大勝し、強固な基盤を築いた。低下したとはいえ、40%台の内閣支持率も維持している。

In September last year, Abe reshuffled his Cabinet but retained ministers necessary to keep its basic frame, such as Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga and Finance Minster Taro Aso. At the same time, he appointed Sadakazu Tanigaki as LDP secretary general and Toshihiro Nikai as LDP General Council head, both executive posts of his party. The Abe regime has been made stable with his strategy of placing political heavyweights in important posts in anticipation of a long-term government.
 昨年9月には、菅官房長官、麻生財務相ら内閣の骨格を維持しつつ、党執行部に谷垣幹事長、二階総務会長を配した。長期政権を見据えて、重厚な布陣を敷く戦略が安倍体制を安定させている。

If several candidates run for the presidential race, it is likely to create an opportunity for policy discussions on the course of Japan for the next three years. However, can the LDP afford that now?
 複数の候補が総裁選に出馬すれば、今後3年間の日本の針路に関する政策論争を行う機会になる可能性はある。ただ、今の自民党にその余裕があるだろうか。

The global economy is destabilized, and the recovery of the Japanese economy is at a standstill. Is it really productive to spend energy on making counterproposals to Abenomics, the prime minister’s economic policy package, and fighting among members of the same party?
 世界経済は不安定化し、日本の景気回復も足踏みしている。首相の経済政策「アベノミクス」に対立軸を掲げて、政権内で戦い、エネルギーを費やすことが、果たして生産的なのか。

The security-related bills are extremely significant in terms of securing the peace and safety of Japan and the surrounding region, but the understanding of the bills is not necessarily spreading among the public.
 安保法案は、日本と地域の平和と安全を確保するうえで極めて重要だが、国民の理解は必ずしも広がっていない。

With Diet deliberations on the bills entering a crucial phase, it is also difficult to secure the environment necessary to hold a full-scale presidential election, including arrangements for a stumping tour of candidates around the country and voting by party members.
 法案審議が大詰めを迎える中、全国遊説や党員投票などを伴う本格的な総裁選を行う環境を確保するのが難しい事情もある。

It may be a positive course for LDP members to unite under Abe to overcome difficult challenges.
 難局を切り抜けるうえで、自民党が一致結束することも、一つの前向きな選択肢ではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 29, 2015)

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2015年8月29日 (土)

橋下氏維新離党 何とも分かりづらい内紛だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Hashimoto’s departure from JIP caps baffling intraparty squabble
橋下氏維新離党 何とも分かりづらい内紛だ

Conflict within the Japan Innovation Party has spiraled into the departure of two members who founded the party. Many people must be baffled at the events that led to this.
 維新の党の内紛が創業者のダブル離党に発展した。この経緯には、多くの国民が首をかしげているのではないか。

Toru Hashimoto, supreme adviser of the JIP and also Osaka mayor, and adviser Ichiro Matsui, who is also Osaka governor, have both announced they will leave the party.
 維新の党の橋下徹最高顧問(大阪市長)と松井一郎顧問(大阪府知事)が、そろって離党を表明した。

Hashimoto said he “plans to shift his focus from a national political party to Osaka’s regional politics” for Osaka gubernatorial and mayoral elections, which will be held in November. In the background to his decision was a lack of confidence in JIP leader Yorihisa Matsuno and other party executives, and there is a possibility that this intraparty friction could lead to a split.
 橋下氏らは、11月の大阪府知事選・市長選に向けて「国政政党から離れ、大阪の地方政治に軸足を移す」と語った。背景には松野代表ら執行部への不信感があり、党内対立は分裂含みとなった。

The origin of the squabble was JIP Secretary General Mito Kakizawa’s support for an expected candidate in next month’s Yamagata mayoral election who also was backed by the Democratic Party of Japan and other parties. Matsui regarded this as problematic and demanded Kakizawa resign from his party post. Kakizawa refused to step down. Consequently, Matsui lashed out at Kakizawa and some other members, saying, “They’re addicted to what’s going on in Nagatacho,” referring to the Tokyo area that is considered the nation’s political nerve center.
 発端は、柿沢幹事長が来月の山形市長選で、民主党などが推す立候補予定者を応援したことだ。松井氏は問題視し、柿沢氏の辞任を要求したが、拒否された。このため、「永田町ボケしている」などと柿沢氏らを激しく批判した。

As the JIP’s local organization in Yamagata had been maneuvering to support another expected candidate, party headquarters had refrained from supporting any specific contender. Although it is undeniable that Kakizawa’s actions, which disregarded the party situation, were indeed careless, the general consensus is that he had not done anything that warranted his resignation.
 市長選では、党の地元組織に別の立候補予定者を支援する動きがあり、党本部は特定候補の支持を見送った。そうした事情に配慮しなかった柿沢氏の行動が軽率だったのは否めないが、辞任するほどではないとの見方が一般的だ。

The decision by Hashimoto and Matsui to step away from the party was overly abrupt and shows a lack of responsible attitude.
 橋下、松井両氏が今回、離党に踏み込んだのは、あまりに唐突であり、責任ある態度ではない。

Questions must be raised about the behavior of two politicians who wield tremendous influence over the running of the second-largest opposition party. In particular, it is difficult to understand why Hashimoto left the party while he accepted Kakizawa staying in his post.
 野党第2党の運営に強い影響力を持つ政治家の振る舞いとしては疑問視せざるを得ない。特に橋下氏が柿沢氏の留任を容認しつつ、離党するのは分かりづらい。

Keep security talks on track

Matsuno’s inability to bring this fracas under control also displayed a lack of leadership.
 松野氏も、今回の騒動を収拾できず、指導力不足を露呈した。

Hashimoto and others are close to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and have taken stances toward the administration on an issue-by-issue basis. In contrast, Matsuno and Kakizawa have placed great emphasis on working with the DPJ and other parties, so a policy conflict continued within the JIP.
 橋下氏らは安倍首相と近く、政権に「是々非々」の姿勢を取ってきた。一方、松野、柿沢両氏は民主党などとの連携を重視し、路線対立が続いていた。

The party is scheduled to hold a leadership election in November. It is possible that many of the party’s Osaka-affiliated lawmakers in the Diet and local assembly members might follow Hashimoto, who is skilled at conveying messages to the public, and leave the party en masse. Such repeated splits and political realignments, which have been done so easily, will make it harder for the JIP to gain the support of the public.
 11月に代表選を控えているが、発信力が高い橋下氏に「大阪系」の国会・地方議員が追随し、大量離党に踏み切る可能性もある。安易に離合集散を繰り返すだけでは国民の支持は一段と離れよう。

This is a crucial moment for the JIP.
 維新にとっては正念場だ。

We also are concerned about the impact of the party’s ructions on discussions regarding security-related bills.
 気がかりなのは、安全保障関連法案の審議への影響である。

The JIP has submitted five counterproposals to the House of Councillors and planned to hold negotiations with the ruling coalition parties about possible amendments to the bills. It also is considering the joint submission — with the DPJ — of a territorial security bill and other bills.
 維新は対案5本を参院に提出しており、与党と修正協議に臨む予定だ。領域警備法案などの民主党との共同提出も検討している。

Wide gaps remain between the government-sponsored bills and the JIP counterproposals, so the negotiations were expected to be anything but smooth. Even so, it was hugely significant that constructive discussions were to be held on a range of key points.
 対案と政府案の隔たりは大きく、修正協議は難航が予想されるが、様々な論点について建設的な議論を行う意義は小さくない。

Hashimoto stressed, “When the security bills reach an important phase, it is not the time for internal dissension.”
 橋下氏は、「安保法制で重大な局面の時に内紛をやっている状況ではない」と強調している。

We hope Matsuno and other JIP bigwigs will sincerely engage in talks on possible amendments to the bills. The JIP’s ability to remain a “responsible opposition party” is on the line.
 松野氏ら執行部は、修正協議に真摯しんしに対応してもらいたい。維新が「責任野党」に踏みとどまれるかどうかも問われている。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 28, 2015)Speech

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2015年8月28日 (金)

企業年金改革 多くの人が活用できる制度に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Make corporate pension programs accessible for more employees
企業年金改革 多くの人が活用できる制度に

It is important to make many people eligible to participate in corporate pension programs, as a means of supplementing public pensions.
 公的年金を補完する手段として、多くの人が企業年金を活用できるようにすることが重要だ。

A bill to reform the corporate pension system is under deliberation at the House of Representatives. The government aims to get the bill passed into law during the current Diet session.
 企業年金改革関連法案が、衆院で審議されている。政府は、今国会での成立を目指している。

The central pillar of the bill is to review the defined contribution pension system, in which subscribers choose how their pension premiums should be managed, with the amount of their pension benefits to be determined by the results.
 法案の柱は、加入者本人が掛け金の運用方法を選び、その結果で年金額が決まる確定拠出年金制度の見直しである。

The bill calls for establishing “simplified defined contribution pension plans,” with the establishment procedures to be simplified so as to make it easier for even small and midsize corporations to introduce them for their employees.
 中小企業でも導入しやすくするため、設立手続きなどを簡素化した「簡易型」を創設する。

The bill also envisages creating a system to support the subscription of more people, by creating “individual-type defined contribution pension plans” for employees of companies unable to have such plans on their own and for self-employed people. Under this system, corporations, if only small and midsized firms, can add their contributions to their employees’ pension premiums.
 自前で制度を持てない会社の社員や自営業者向けの「個人型」についても、加入を後押しする仕組みを新設する。中小企業に限り、会社が社員の掛け金に加算できるようにする。

A corporate pension plan is a program to be established by each corporation voluntarily in addition to the kosei nenkin corporate employees pension scheme, part of the nation’s public pension system.
 企業年金は、公的年金である厚生年金の上乗せとして、会社ごとに任意で設ける制度だ。

As the level of benefits paid under the public pension system declines against the backdrop of a low birthrate and a graying population, the role of corporate pension plans is growing.
少子高齢化で公的年金の給付水準が下がる中、その役割は高まっている。

It is appropriate for the corporate pension plan to be utilized by workers other than only those at big companies.
 大企業の社員以外にも、普及を促す狙いは適切である。

At present, among subscribers to the kosei nenkin scheme, fewer than 40 percent also participate in corporate pension programs. And the ratio of companies that have introduced corporate pension programs is declining. Among smaller firms, with 30 to 99 employees, only 18.6 percent have introduced such programs.
 現在、厚生年金の加入者のうち、企業年金に入っている人は4割に満たない。企業年金を導入している会社の割合は減少傾向にある。社員30~99人の中小企業では18・6%にとどまる。

Major programs dissolving

On top of this, kosei nenkin kikin (corporate employees’ pension funds), which once were the leading corporate pension programs, are to be dissolved, with certain exceptions, by March 2019. Faced with management difficulty following the collapse of the bubble economy, one corporate employees’ pension fund after another became unable to stay afloat. As leading companies have pulled out of their schemes swiftly, most of the pension funds still operating are ones formed by smaller firms.
 しかも、代表的な企業年金だった厚生年金基金は、一部を除き2019年3月までに解散される。バブル崩壊後の運用難で、存続不能の基金が続出したためだ。大企業は早々に撤退し、残るのは中小企業で作る基金がほとんどだ。

It is an open question whether the reform will be sufficient to help those who will no longer be covered by corporate employees’ pension funds after they are dissolved. It is necessary to try one way after another to promote the spread of the corporate pension plans envisaged by the bill, while assessing the status of the introduction of schemes such as “simplified defined contribution pension plans.”
 基金廃止後の受け皿として、今回の改革が十分に機能するかどうかは不透明だ。「簡易型」の導入状況などを見極め、普及が進むよう工夫を重ねる必要がある。

Also incorporated in the bill is an expansion of the scope of people eligible to participate in “individual-type defined contribution pension plans,” by making full-time homemakers and public-service workers also eligible. In effect, anyone will be able to participate in defined contribution pension schemes.
 法案には、「個人型」の対象を専業主婦や公務員に拡大することも盛り込まれた。事実上、誰でも加入できるようになる。

As working styles have diversified, voluntary resignations and job-switching have become common. The number of nonregular workers who are not eligible to participate in corporate pension plans has also increased.
 働き方が多様化し、離職や転職が一般化した。企業年金に入れない非正規労働者も増えた。

We can understand the course of action to encourage people’s self-help efforts for their post-retirement years, by providing everyone with a means of supplementing the roles of public pensions.
すべての人に公的年金の補完手段を提供し、老後へ向けた自助努力を促す方向性は理解できる。

Open to question is the idea of making even homemakers eligible to participate in “individual-type defined contribution pension plans,” which offer preferential tax treatment, while keeping in place the system of “Category III insured,” under which a dependent spouse of a company or government employee is eligible for basic pension benefits without paying pension premiums themselves. Will the envisaged plan give them excessive preferential treatment?
 疑問なのは、専業主婦が保険料の負担なしに基礎年金を受け取れる「第3号被保険者」制度を残したまま、税制上の優遇措置がある個人型への加入も認めることだ。過剰な優遇にならないか。

Regarding nonregular workers, it is also vital to attempt to increase pension benefits for them, by expanding the scope of nonregular workers eligible to participate in the kosei nenkin scheme.
 非正規労働者については、厚生年金への加入拡大で、年金額の充実を図る視点も欠かせない。

It is important to discuss income security for people in their old age within the framework of the whole pension system.
 年金制度全体の枠組みの中で、老後の所得保障のあり方を検討することが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 27, 2015)Speech

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2015年8月27日 (木)

世界同時株安 市場不安の沈静化を急ぎたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Prompt efforts should be made to soothe concerns of markets
世界同時株安 市場不安の沈静化を急ぎたい

With China’s economy the focus of concern, turmoil continues to roil global markets.
 中国経済への懸念を震源に、世界的な市場の動揺が続いている。

The Nikkei Stock Average plunged 733 points from Monday’s close to end at 17,806 on the Tokyo Stock Exchange on Tuesday. This was the sixth straight trading day the market has declined, with the plunge totaling more than 2,800 points.
 東京市場の平均株価は25日、733円安の1万7806円と大幅に下落した。これで6日続落となり、下げ幅は計2800円を超えた。

The accelerated appreciation of the yen on the foreign currency market also helped send stocks plummeting.
外国為替市場で円高が加速したことも、株安に拍車をかけた。

The plunge in stock prices, which started on the Chinese market, has had a knock-on effect on other major markets — the United States, European and Asian countries — taking on an aspect of stock prices simultaneously falling the world over.
 中国市場に端を発した株価急落は、欧米やアジアの主要市場へと連鎖し、「世界同時株安」の様相を呈している。

We should not let our guard down, but a feature of the wild fluctuations of stock prices seems to be due to speculative moves.
 警戒は怠れないが、投機的な思惑で乱高下している面もある。

Economic revitalization minister Akira Amari said it is necessary to deal with the issue calmly. In fact, the economies of Japan, the United States and European countries are still on a firm footing. We should not become too pessimistic about the current situation.
甘利経済再生相は「冷静な対処が必要だ」と述べた。確かに、日本や欧米の経済は概おおむね堅調だ。過度な悲観は不要だろう。

It is vital to assuage the uneasiness in the market and prevent it from adversely affecting the real economy.
 肝心なのは、市場の不安を沈静化し、実体経済への波及を防ぐことである。

Japan, the United States, European countries and China have to strengthen policy coordination to calm the market.
日米欧と中国は混乱収拾へ政策協調を強めるべきだ。

The stock plunge was triggered by China’s devaluation of its currency, the yuan, on Aug. 11. This led to the view that China’s economy had deteriorated to such a degree that measures were needed to prop up its exports, leading to prices on the Shanghai Stock Exchange to nosedive.
 株安の引き金は、中国が11日に打ち出した人民元の切り下げだった。輸出テコ入れを要するほど中国景気が悪化しているとの見方から、上海市場の株価が崩れた。

China is maintaining its economic growth at 7 percent. But many of the country’s key economic indicators, such as consumption and exports, have shown signs of an economic slowdown. There is a deep-seated belief that the real state of the economy is even more serious.
 中国の経済成長率は7%を維持しているが、消費や輸出など経済指標の多くが景気減速を示している。実態はもっと深刻だとする観測は根強い。

China slowdown worse?

By pursuing a “new normal” policy, which allows the country’s economic growth to slow down, can the Chinese government lead its economy to a soft landing through structural reforms? A sense of distrust in the Chinese government’s economic management has exacerbated market uneasiness.
 経済成長の鈍化を容認する「新常態」政策の下、構造改革を進めて中国経済を軟着陸させられるのか。中国政府の経済運営への不信感が、不安を増幅している。

The administration under Chinese President Xi Jinping needs to face up squarely to the reality that China has become the cause of the global market turmoil.
 習近平政権は、中国が世界市場混乱の火種となっている現実を直視する必要がある。

Although China decided to further ease monetary policy on Tuesday, it needs to do much more to stabilize its economy.
25日に追加金融緩和を決めたが、さらに景気安定に万全を期さねばならない。

Another major point of issue is whether the United States will raise interest rates in the near future. It has been pointed out that if the United States forcibly raises interest rates while markets are still in tumult, funds would immediately flow out of emerging markets, possibly resulting in currency and financial crises.
 米国が近く利上げに踏み切るかどうかも、大きな焦点である。市場の混乱が収まらないうちに利上げを強行すれば、新興国から一気に資金が流出し、通貨・金融危機を招く恐れが指摘されている。

The United States has to end its monetary relaxation policy eventually, but it should not send the world economy into disorder by hastily exiting from that policy. The Federal Reserve Board should keep a close eye on market trends and look for the proper time to increase rates.
 いずれ米金融緩和の幕は引かねばならないが、出口を急いで世界経済を混乱させてはなるまい。米連邦準備制度理事会(FRB)は市場動向を注視し、慎重に利上げの時期を探ってほしい。

Following the stock price decline, there are calls, including those within the Liberal Democratic Party, for a supplementary budget to initiate economic stimulus measures.
 日本では株安を受けて、自民党などから補正予算による景気対策を求める声が出ている。

But as the performance of Japanese companies is at a record high level, the government should refrain from taking fiscal action too quickly.
だが、企業業績は過去最高の水準である。安易な財政出動は慎むべきだ。

It is most important to steadily implement Abenomics, the economic policy pursued by the administration under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, and realize a full-fledged economic growth led by private-sector demand. The government should promote a comprehensive growth strategy to induce vitality into the private sector by easing regulations to encourage the fostering of new businesses.
 何より大切なのは、安倍政権の経済政策「アベノミクス」を着実に実行し、民需主導の本格成長を達成することだ。新ビジネスの育成を促す規制緩和など、民間活力を引き出す成長戦略をしっかり推進したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 26, 2015)

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2015年8月26日 (水)

南北高官協議 衝突の回避へ冷静に歩み寄れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
North, South Koreas must work toward concessions to avert armed conflict
南北高官協議 衝突の回避へ冷静に歩み寄れ

Escalating tensions through military provocations while seeking to win concessions through dialogue — North Korea should avoid this dangerous brinkmanship and practice self-restraint.
 軍事的挑発で緊張を高めつつ、対話で譲歩を引き出すことを狙う――。北朝鮮は、危険な瀬戸際戦術を自制すべきだ。

Given the heightening of military tensions between South and North Korea, representatives from the two countries entered into negotiations Saturday at the Panmunjom.
 韓国と北朝鮮の軍事的緊張の高まりを受けて、南北高官協議が板門店で開催された。

The South was lead by chief of the National Security Office of South Korea, and the North was lead by Hwang Pyong So, director of the General Political Bureau of the North Korean People’s Army. The exceptionally high-level bilateral talks were held on and off for three consecutive days. But the two sides are having difficultly reaching any kind of compromise.
 韓国は金寛鎮大統領府国家安保室長らが、北朝鮮は金正恩第1書記の側近の黄炳瑞・朝鮮人民軍総政治局長らが出席した。異例の高いレベルの対話は3日連続で行われたが、難航している。

To avoid the worst-case scenario of an armed conflict, we want the two sides to make an earnest effort to reach mutual concessions and find concrete measures to ease tensions.
 軍事衝突という最悪の事態を避けるため、双方は、積極的に歩み寄り、緊張緩和の具体的な措置を探ることが求められる。

Tensions were triggered after two South Korean soldiers were seriously injured when land mines, believed to have been laid by North Korea, exploded on Aug. 4 near the military demarcation line.
 緊張の発端は、4日に軍事境界線付近で、北朝鮮が設置したとみられる地雷が爆発し、韓国軍兵士2人が重傷を負ったことだ。

Seoul criticized Pyongyang for violating the Korean Armistice Agreement, and in response resumed anti-North Korea loudspeaker broadcasts for the first time in 11 years.
 韓国側は、休戦協定違反だと北朝鮮を非難した。対抗措置として、北朝鮮体制を批判する拡声機の宣伝放送を11年ぶりに再開した。

The North demanded a halt to the broadcasts and fired artillery shells into South Korean territory. Pyongyang proposed negotiations with Seoul while at the same time threatening to take further military action. North Korea has been alternating between a hard-line or moderate attitude to rattle the Park Guen-hye administration, which took retaliatory measures.
 北朝鮮は、放送中止を要求し、韓国内に砲撃した。さらなる軍事行動を予告したうえ、韓国側に協議を申し入れた。北朝鮮に応戦した韓国の朴槿恵政権に対する硬軟両様の揺さぶりである。

North Korea’s international isolation is regarded as a factor behind its latest provocative action. Its relations with China, historically the most friendly nation to the North, soured after Pyongyang carried out nuclear tests in defiance of international protests. Exchanges of leaders between the two communist countries have been suspended.
 この背景には、北朝鮮の国際的な孤立が指摘される。核実験の強行などにより、最大の友好国、中国との関係が冷え込み、首脳級交流は途絶えている。

Cool heads vital

The North’s artillery fire came immediately after Park announced she would attend a Chinese ceremony to mark the “victory in its war against Japan.” We wonder whether this action was aimed at cooling the relationship between Seoul and Beijing, which has become closer.
 中国の抗日戦勝記念行事への朴大統領出席が発表された直後に北朝鮮が砲撃したのは、中韓接近を牽制けんせいする狙いだろうか。

Kim Jong Un issued a decree declaring a “quasi-state of war” to the country’s frontline troops. Can Kim, who lacks leadership experience, deal adequately with such an explosive situation while the country's political situation is so unstable? This fear will be difficult to eliminate.
 前線部隊に「準戦時状態」を発令したのは、金正恩第1書記だ。国内体制が不安定な中、指導者の経験に乏しい金第1書記が、一触即発の状況に適切な対処ができるのか。不安は拭えない。

Park, on the other hand, declared that her country “will cope with the provocation resolutely.” She cannot make concessions easily due to a domestic situation in which popular support for her administration has declined and media organizations are insisting on a hard-line stance.
 一方、朴氏は「挑発には断固として対応する」と公言する。政権支持率は低迷し、韓国メディアは北朝鮮に対する強硬な姿勢を主張している。朴氏も、容易に妥協できない国内事情を抱える。

It is essential, however, for the two Koreas to consider the risk of a military conflict and deal with the situation with cool heads.
 だが、南北双方は、軍事衝突のリスクを直視し、冷静に対応することが肝要である。

The North Korean leadership is reportedly trying to tighten its grip on the military and the Workers’ Party of Korea, among others, by emphasizing the “threat” posed by South Korea. There is speculation that North Korea will test-launch an intermediate-range or a long-range missile to enhance its national prestige and time it to the 70th anniversary of the founding of the party on Oct. 10.
 北朝鮮指導部は、韓国の“脅威”を強調することで、軍や朝鮮労働党など国内の引き締めを図っているとされる。10月10日の党創建70周年に合わせて、国威発揚の目的で、中長距離弾道ミサイルを発射するとの観測もある。

Japan, South Korea and the United States must cooperate closely and bolster information-sharing on North Korean affairs. Preparing all possible deterrent measures is also essential to deal with the North’s new military provocation.
 日米韓3か国は、緊密に連携し、北朝鮮情勢の情報共有を強化する必要がある。新たな軍事的挑発を封じ込めるため、抑止に万全を期すことも大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 25, 2015)

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2015年8月25日 (火)

デジタルマーケティングの切り札HubSpot

HubSpot は、例えばインターネットを利用して行う電子商取引などで行われるマーケティングを、プロの手を借りてアグレッシブに推進する手法です。電子商取引で使われる手法はデジタルマーケティングと称されていますが、デジタルマーケティングに必要なあらゆる管理を総合的にテコ入れしてくれるのが、HubSpotのお仕事です。

ネット通販などに代表される電子商取引ですが、インターネットを駆使して行われるタクティクスは、相当広い範囲にわたります。SEO対策さえ完璧ならば、商品は売れると豪語する人たちも存在しますが、それは正しくありません。通販ショップで商品が売れるようにするためには、SEO対策のほかに、デジタルマーケティングに必要な手法を駆使しなければなりません。それらのひとつひとつを、プロの手により代行してくれるので、大助かりです。

HubSpotでは、SEO対策をはじめとして、顧客とのコンタクト管理やCMS、ブログ、ソーシャルメディア対策、メール配信対策などの面倒な作業を一手に引き受けてくれます。
CMSとはコンテンツ・マネジメント・システムのことで、HPやウェブサイトのコンテンツを管理し更新する仕組みです。HP、ブログ、CMSはとても大切なタクティクスなんです。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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(社説)自民と教科書 政治は採択に関わるな

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 23
EDITORIAL: LDP should not meddle in school textbook selection process
(社説)自民と教科書 政治は採択に関わるな

The process is under way for local governments to select textbooks that will be used in junior high schools from next spring.
 来春から中学校で使われる教科書の採択が、各自治体で進んでいる。

Given that, a league of lawmakers of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party has compiled a brochure that compares social studies textbooks issued by various publishers, and has distributed it to local LDP assembly members across the country.
 そんななか、自民党の議員連盟が社会科の各社の教科書を比べるパンフレットをつくり、全国の地方議員あてに配った。

The action is purportedly aimed at encouraging boards of education, through questions by local assemblies and other means, to select textbooks with a strong conservative slant.
 議会での質問などを通じて教育委員会にはたらきかけ、保守色の強い教科書を選んでもらうのが狙いだという。

Selections, after all, belong to the authority of education boards, which are supposed to make them on the basis of discussions from educational viewpoints on which textbooks are the most suitable for the children and schools of their communities.
 採択はあくまでも教委の権限で行うものだ。我が街の子どもや学校にふさわしい教科書は何か、教育の観点から議論して選ぶことになっている。

Political parties are free to have their own perceptions of the textbooks issued by different publishers. But they should refrain from encouraging the selection of textbooks that are more in line with their philosophies.
 各社の教科書をどう受け止めるかは、政党の自由である。
 だが、政党が自らの主張に近い教科書を選ぶよう、はたらきかける行為は慎むべきだ。

Local assembly members are there to approve the appointments of education board members. They should exercise self-restraint so that their actions will not be perceived as applying pressure. What they should do is to serve as a monitor to ensure that education boards can fulfill their primary functions.
 地方議員は教育委員の人事に同意を与える存在だ。行為が圧力と受け止められないよう自重してほしい。教委が本分を果たせるよう見守ってもらいたい。

The brochure, certainly, contains no text that explicitly recommends any particular publisher.
 パンフレットには、たしかに特定の社を推薦する明確な表現はない。

But the issues being taken up in the brochure include the national flag and the national anthem, the right to collective self-defense and constitutional amendment--pet issues of the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe--as well as the Nanking Incident and "comfort women," which the LDP has argued some textbooks contain “self-deprecating” statements about.
 だが、取り上げた論点は、安倍政権が重視する国旗・国歌、集団的自衛権、憲法改正や、自民党がこれまで「自虐的な記述がある」などと指摘してきた南京事件、慰安婦などだ。

Concerning the national flag and the national anthem, for example, the brochure presents strongly conservative textbooks in a favorable light, saying that one contains “detailed descriptions on a feature page.” Some other textbooks are portrayed in a negative light, as seen in a statement that “some textbooks contain no reference in the index” to the issue of the abduction of Japanese citizens by North Korea.
 たとえば国旗・国歌では、保守色の強い教科書について「特集ページで詳しく記述」など好意的に紹介。それ以外の教科書は、拉致問題で「索引に載っていない教科書がある」など否定的に評している。

School textbooks are not tools for inculcating arguments of a political party.
 教科書は、政党の主張を教え込む道具ではない。

Education board members should ensure they are making independent judgments and, even if they are asked questions at local assemblies, they should only regard these queries as the opinions of individuals.
 教育委員は、議会で質問されても、1人の意見として参考にしつつ独自に判断してほしい。

The education board system was reformed so that, starting this spring, the heads of local governments should set up a “general education council,” a forum for exchanging views with education boards.
 教育委員会の制度改革で、各自治体ではこの春から首長が「総合教育会議」を設け、教委と協議することになっている。

The education ministry has said the selection of school textbooks should not be a subject of discussions in the council, because it is believed that political neutrality is de rigueur in the textbook selection process.
 文部科学省は教科書採択について、この会議の議題にすべきではないとした。教科書採択は政治的中立性が強く求められると考えているからだ。

The LDP has proposed--and has realized--a revision in textbook screening rules so that textbooks must mention the government’s official position, wherever available. As 18-year-olds will be given suffrage from next year, the party has also proposed to Abe that law could be revised to punish senior high school teachers who have deviated from political neutrality.
 自民党は、教科書で政府見解があるものは取り上げるよう検定のルールの変更を提言し、実現させた。18歳選挙権に合わせ、政治的中立を逸脱した高校教員に罰則を科す法改正を安倍首相に提案してもいる。

We cannot accept the sequence of these moves, whereby the political sector is meddling in public education.
 政治が教育現場に踏み込む一連の動きはいただけない。

The selection process throughout the nation will continue through the end of August.
 各地の採択は月末まで続く。

The LDP brochure is titled, “To deliver better textbooks to our children.”
 自民党のパンフレットの題は「より良い教科書を子供たちに届けるために」。

Thought should be given again to what should be done and not be done by a political party and assembly members if that goal is to be achieved.
 そのために政党や議員は何をすべきで、何をすべきではないか。改めて考えてもらいたい。

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2015年8月24日 (月)

露首相択捉訪問 領土交渉に背向ける軽挙妄動

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Through rash actions, Russia turning its back on territorial talks with Japan
露首相択捉訪問 領土交渉に背向ける軽挙妄動

It is an action that will greatly set back the momentum toward improving bilateral ties between Japan and Russia and settling territorial disputes. By no means can we tolerate this.
 日露関係の改善と領土問題の解決の機運を大幅に後退させる動きだ。断じて容認できない。

Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev visited Etorofu Island in the northern territories on Saturday.
 ロシアのメドベージェフ首相が北方領土の択捉島を訪問した。

After inspecting the status of the development of harbor and airport facilities on the island, he announced, at a political forum for local youths, a policy of designating the islands of Etorofu and Kunashiri as “advanced development territories.”
港湾施設や空港などの整備状況を視察した後、若者向けの政治集会で、択捉島と国後島を「優先発展地域」に指定する方針を表明した。

The visit is apparently aimed at demonstrating that Russia’s effective control of the northern territories is entrenched, as this month marks the 70th year since the then Soviet Union occupied the islands.
 ソ連の占領開始から今月で70年となるのに合わせ、実効支配の固定化を印象づける狙いだろう。

By ignoring Japan’s request to cancel the visit, Medvedev’s arrival on the island constitutes a serious infringement of sovereignty.
 訪問は日本の中止要請を無視したもので、重大な主権侵害である。

It was reasonable that Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida told Russian Ambassador to Japan Evgeny Afanasiev on Saturday, “The visit hurt the feelings of the Japanese people and was extremely regrettable.”
岸田外相が駐日露大使に、「日本国民の感情を傷つける。極めて遺憾だ」と抗議したのは当然だ。

Lately, Russia’s hard-line stance on Japan has been intolerable. At the end of June, Russia decided to impose a ban, starting next year, on drift-net fishing for salmon and trout within Russia’s exclusive economic zone, where Japanese fishing vessels also operate. There are fears the Japanese fishing industry will be affected.
 ロシアは最近、対日強硬姿勢が目に余る。6月末、排他的経済水域(EEZ)内で、日本漁船も従事するサケ・マス流し網漁の来年からの禁止を決めた。日本漁業への打撃が心配される。

Since July, the Russian health minister and the deputy prime minister have successively visited the northern territories. Russia has also announced a “development program,” injecting about ¥120 billion over 10 years for the development of social infrastructure for the whole of the Kuril Islands.
 7月以降、保健相と副首相が相次いで北方領土を訪れた。千島列島全体の社会基盤整備などに、10年間で約1200億円を投じる「発展計画」も発表した。

Moscow makes threats

We can discern Russia’s intention of shaking the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and causing disarray in Japan’s cooperation with the United States and European countries, which are imposing sanctions on Russia over the Ukrainian crisis.
 安倍政権を揺さぶり、ウクライナ問題で対露制裁を発動中の米欧との連携を乱す意図が見える。

Japan has attached importance to dialogue with Russia to hold in check China’s military rise and to prevent China from forming a united front with Russia against Japan.
 日本は、中国の軍事的台頭を牽制けんせいし、ロシアとの「反日」共闘の構築を避けるため、日露間の対話を重視してきた。

By using the personal relationship between Abe and Russian President Vladimir Putin, Japan is seeking a possible visit to Japan by Putin sometime this year to advance bilateral negotiations over territorial issues. We can understand Abe’s strategic course of action.
 安倍首相とプーチン大統領の個人的な関係をテコに領土交渉を進展させようと、プーチン氏の年内来日も探っている。首相の戦略の方向性は理解できる。

But Russia’s recent moves vividly demonstrate that the Putin administration has no intention of earnestly dealing with the territorial issues with Japan.
 だが、最近のロシアの動きは、プーチン政権が領土問題を本気で前進させる意向がないことを如実に示しているのではないか。

Even if Putin’s visit to Japan is realized, it is hard to expect any substantial dialogue between Abe and Putin, nor any tangible results.
 仮に来日が実現しても、中身のある対話や目に見える成果は期待できまい。

Kishida said he would freeze for the time being the coordination for his planned visit to Russia, in preparation for Putin’s visit to Japan. Japan’s strategy is coming to an impasse.
岸田氏は当面、訪露の調整を凍結するという。日本側の戦略は行き詰まりつつある。

Behind Russia’s recent moves is the reality that Putin is utilizing as a unifying force for his administration his adoption of hostile views, particularly toward the United States, and inflaming patriotism in the Russian people.
 プーチン氏が米国を特に敵視し、露国民の愛国心を煽あおって政権の求心力としている現実が背景にある。

Putin has also referred to the possibility of using nuclear weapons, having repeatedly made threatening remarks to the United States and European countries.
プーチン氏は核兵器使用の可能性にも言及し、米欧に対する威嚇発言を繰り返してきた。

By undergoing a rapid military buildup, Russia also continues its military provocations toward the United States and European nations. Russia’s changing of the status quo by force, such as its annexation of the Crimean Peninsula, can never be permitted.
 軍備を急速に増強し、米欧への軍事的挑発も続けている。クリミア半島編入という力による現状変更は、到底許されない。

A Russia that abides by international rules and assumes a constructive role would benefit Russia. Japan, in cooperation with the United States, has to continue urging Putin to understand this point, on such occasions as the U.N. General Assembly and the summit talks of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, both scheduled for this autumn.
 国際ルールを守り、建設的な役割を担うことこそがロシアの利益になる――。日本は米国と連携し、今秋の国連総会やアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議などを通じて、この点をプーチン氏に説き続ける必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 23, 2015)

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2015年8月23日 (日)

年金情報流出 危機感の欠如が被害を広げた

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Low security consciousness at JPS exacerbated pension data breach
年金情報流出 危機感の欠如が被害を広げた

The Japan Pension Service can hardly be regarded as an organization properly handling a massive amount of personal information. Its sloppy information management must be corrected urgently.
 膨大な個人情報を扱う組織とは思えない。ずさんな情報管理体制を改めることが急務である。

An in-house investigation committee at the JPS and a third-party panel at the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry have released, separately, reports on the findings of each of their investigations into an incident in which 1.25 million cases of personal information, including the basic pension numbers of pension recipients, were compromised at the JPS.
 日本年金機構から受給者の基礎年金番号など125万件の個人情報が流出した問題で、機構の内部調査委員会と厚生労働省の検証委員会が、それぞれ報告書を公表した。

According to the JPS report, the organization received a total of 124 targeted e-mails carrying a virus from May 8 to 20. File attachments of five of the e-mails were opened, causing 31 personal computers to be infected with the virus and information to be compromised within three days from May 21.
 機構の報告書によると、5月8~20日にウイルスを仕込んだ「標的型メール」計124通を受信した。うち5通の添付ファイルなどを職員が開いてパソコン31台がウイルス感染し、21日から3日間で一気に情報が流出した。

There were several opportunities during that period for the JPS to prevent the damage from spreading.
 この間、機構が被害を食い止める機会は何度もあった。

However, the organization failed to block further e-mails from the address used for the first problematic e-mail following its receipt. It did not confirm properly from mail recipients whether they had opened attachments, and delayed action to cut off Internet connections for the entire JPS computer system.
 だが、最初のメール受信後に送信元アドレスの受信拒否設定をしなかった。メール受信者に添付ファイル開封の有無をきちんと確認せず、機構全体のインターネット接続を遮断する措置も遅れた。

JPS President Toichiro Mizushima said during a news conference Thursday, “I thought we had confirmed whether the attachment had been opened.” The comment is one indication of the lenient attitude within JPS of leaving everything to those in charge. It was natural for the report to say that “a sense of crisis was lacking.”
 機構の水島藤一郎理事長は記者会見で、「開封したかどうかの確認は行われていると思っていた」と釈明した。担当者任せの甘い対応ぶりがうかがえる。報告書が「危機感が十分ではなかった」としたのはもっともだ。

It is also problematic that sloppy information management has become everyday practice at the JPS.
 ずさんな情報管理が常態化していたことも問題である。

Personal information was permitted to be stored in an Internet-connected shared file server when deemed necessary. It can thus be said that the JPS faced a constant danger of the unauthorized exposure of information.
 必要があれば、インターネットに接続された共有ファイルサーバーへの個人情報の保存を認められていた。常に情報流出の危険にさらされていたと言える。

Absence of systematic checks

Rules such as setting passwords were not observed and the JPS did not have a system in place to check what was going on.
 パスワードの設定といったルールが守られず、機構が実態をチェックする仕組みもなかった。

The report identified that long-standing problems — carried over from the era of the JPS’s predecessor, the Social Insurance Agency — including a lack of unity as an organization, underlie the data breach. At the now defunct SIA, a lack of control was caused by a three-tier structure for employees, including those recruited by the SIA’s central and local offices. This led to a number of scandals, including a huge blunder with pension record-keeping.
 報告書は、組織の一体感の不足など、旧社会保険庁からの「積年の問題」が根底にあると分析した。旧社保庁では、本庁と地方など採用の異なる職員の「3層構造」が統制の欠如を招き、年金記録漏れなどの不祥事につながった。

Such an organizational culture likely remains pervasive within the JPS. A sweeping organizational reform is called for, in addition to the bolstering of information management systems.
 悪あしき体質が残っているのだろう。情報管理体制の強化に加え、組織の抜本改革が求められる。

The welfare ministry’s responsibility is also grave in this regard.
 厚労省の責任も重大である。

According to the report released by the ministry’s third-party investigation panel, adequate supervision could not be provided because it was not clear which department at the ministry was in charge of the JPS’s information systems.
 検証委員会の報告書によると、機構の情報システムに関する厚労省の担当部署が不明確で、適切な指揮監督ができなかった。

Despite the fact that the JPS had suffered a similar cyber-attack in April, before it received the targeted e-mail in May, the ministry provided no information on the incident nor did it issue an alert.
 機構が標的型メールを受信する前の4月に、類似の攻撃を受けていたにもかかわらず、情報提供や注意喚起を行わなかった。

It was natural for welfare minister Yasuhisa Shiozaki to say, “Both the JPS and the ministry must take responsibility [for the incident].” It is necessary to ensure that a recurrence of similar incidents is robustly prevented, and that work proceeds toward restoring confidence in the pension system.
 塩崎厚労相が「けじめは機構も厚労省もつけなければいけない」と述べたのは当然だ。再発防止を徹底し、年金制度への信頼回復に努める必要がある。

Joint efforts by private and public sectors are sought to deal with cyber-attacks, which are becoming more ingenious and shrewd.
 巧妙さを増すサイバー攻撃に対し、官民で対策を強化したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 22, 2015)

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2015年8月22日 (土)

社説:武藤議員離党 公認した自民の責任は

August 21, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: LDP's responsibility for money scandal involving legislator questioned
社説:武藤議員離党 公認した自民の責任は

House of Representatives member Takaya Muto has left the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) over a money scandal. The scandal has raised questions as for what purposes he became a legislator.
 一体、何のために国会議員になったのか。無論、未公開株購入をめぐる金銭トラブルが発覚したのを受けて自民党を離党した武藤貴也衆院議員(36)=滋賀4区=のことだ。
      
It is still fresh in people's memory that Muto, 36, came under fire for criticizing a group of students and other youths as "selfish" after they urged the public to participate in demonstrations against security bills. He just cannot draw a curtain on his own problem simply by leaving the LDP. The party's responsibility for endorsing him in elections is also serious.
 武藤氏が安全保障関連法案に反対するデモを呼び掛ける学生らのグループについて「『だって戦争に行きたくないじゃん』という極端な利己的考え」などとツイッターに記し、批判を浴びたのは記憶に新しい。離党すれば済む話ではない。自民党の責任も重大である。

According to the Shukan Bunshun weekly magazine, Muto recommended last year that acquaintances and others buy pre-listed shares of a software company, telling them that they could buy shares specially set aside for Diet members. He then collected approximately 40 million yen from 23 people as funds to buy shares. However, shares of the company were never purchased for these people, and some investors have not got back the money they paid. Some have pointed to the possibility that Muto communicated with others over share transactions, using a communication application, while he was attending a session of the lower chamber's Committee on Foreign Affairs.
 「週刊文春」によると武藤氏は昨年、ソフトウエア会社の未公開株購入を「国会議員枠で買える」と知人らに勧め、23人から計約4000万円を集めた。だが株は実際には購入されず、出資金の一部が戻っていないという。武藤氏が衆院外務委員会に出席している最中に通信アプリで関係者と株購入をめぐるやり取りをしていた可能性も指摘されている。

It is necessary to conduct a further probe to get to the bottom of the scandal because those involved have made conflicting statements.
 関係者の言い分は異なっており、さらなる事実解明が必要だ。

The latest scandal involving pre-listed shares apparently has reminded numerous members of the general public of the Recruit stock-for-favors scandal that came to light in 1988 and rocked the political world. In the Recruit case, pre-listed shares of a company, whose prices were certain to rise significantly after the stock was listed, were donated to prominent figures in the political and business worlds as well as bureaucrats, and a few of those involved were convicted of giving and accepting bribes.
ただし「未公開株」といえば、1988年に明るみに出て政界を揺るがせたリクルート事件を多くの人が思い起こすだろう。値上がり確実なリ社の関連会社の未公開株が政官財の有力者に譲渡され、一部は贈収賄の罪で起訴され有罪が確定した事件だ。

In the latest case, it remains unclear whether some shares of the software company were actually set aside for legislators. Still, it is common sense for politicians not to be involved in transactions in pre-listed shares. It is only natural that some legislators from opposition parties are demanding that Muto step down as a lawmaker.
 今回、本当に「議員枠」があったのかどうかも定かでない。しかし、未公開株と聞いただけで近づかないようにするのが政治家としての正常な感覚ではないのか。野党から議員辞職を求める声が出るのも当然だ。

In 2007, Muto reportedly joined the policy staff for an alliance of political parties within the Shiga Prefectural Assembly and individual assembly members that backed then Shiga Gov. Yukiko Kada, who was calling for suspension of dam construction projects. However, Muto did an about-face, and applied to run for the lower house on the ticket of the LDP that was critical of Gov. Kada after the party publicly sought candidates. He is currently in his second term as a member of the lower chamber. One cannot help but wonder how the LDP has evaluated and officially endorsed Muto, who appears to lack qualifications as a representative of the people, judging from his policies.
 武藤氏は当選前の2007年、ダム事業凍結を唱える当時の嘉田由紀子滋賀県知事を支える県議会会派の政策スタッフに入ったという。その後、一転して嘉田氏に批判的だった自民党の候補者公募に応募して同党の公認となり、現在当選2回目となる。その主張をはじめ国民の代表としての資質に欠けると思われる武藤氏を自民党はどう評価して公認してきたのだろうか。

Muto was also present at a study session in June among junior LDP legislators supporting Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, in which some attendees called for pressure on the news media. Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Taro Aso, leader of an LDP intraparty faction of which Muto was a member, has been quoted as warning Muto to "express your personal views after the security bills are passed into law" over Muto's criticism of the youth group opposing the proposed legislation. This suggests that Aso viewed the timing of Muto's remarks, and not their content, as a problem.
 武藤氏は最近では報道機関への圧力発言が飛び出した自民党内の安倍晋三首相を支持する若手勉強会にも出席していた。一方、武藤氏が所属していた自民党麻生派の麻生太郎会長は先のツイッターでの発言直後、「自分の気持ちが言いたいなら安保関連法案が通ってからにしてくれ」と注意したというが、発言の内容ではなく時期が問題だという口ぶりだった。

The LDP's responsibility for the money scandal and other scandals involving Muto is grave and the party's half-baked response is also inappropriate. Nevertheless, LDP Secretary-General Sadakazu Tanigaki and other top-ranking members of the governing party failed to question Muto in person over the details of the latest case. After Muto notified the party leadership that he would leave the party, Tanigaki said, "The legislator needs to fulfill his accountability," as if to regard the money scandal as someone else's problem, and not a problem involving the party.
 こうした中途半端な対応をしてきた点も含めて自民党の責任は重い。ところが谷垣禎一幹事長らは本人から詳細に話を聴くこともせず、離党届の提出後は「本人がきちんと説明責任を果たす必要がある」と、まるでひとごとのような口ぶりだ。

The LDP also has accountability for the money scandal.
 説明責任は自民党にもある。

毎日新聞 2015年08月21日 東京朝刊

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2015年8月21日 (金)

今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

無料MP3とライブチケットを貰おう♪いろんなゲームが楽しめる新感覚のSNS音楽ゲームをリリース! ダブリュジーパブリシング株式会社

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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:利己的なおとなたちへ /東京

August 16, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Learning not to jump to generalizations
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:利己的なおとなたちへ /東京

Twitter has become a tool even among politicians to express their opinions. A tweet recently posted by a House of Representatives lawmaker from the ruling Liberal Democratic Party has stirred controversy. He wrote that claims made by students protesting against the government-sponsored security-related bills are "based on their self-centered and extremely egoistic thinking that they don't want to go to war," and he went on to say that it was "very regrettable."
 今や政治家も意見発信の場として活用する短文投稿サイト・ツイッター。そこに自民党の衆院議員が書き込んだ発言が物議をかもしている。安全保障関連法案に反対する活動を行う学生たちについて「彼ら彼女らの主張は『だって戦争に行きたくないじゃん』という自分中心、極端な利己的考えに基づく」と指摘し、「非常に残念だ」と述べたのだ。

After learning about this incident, I thought to myself that this politician could only understand war as a general, abstract concept. A war in reality is not "a battle between right and wrong." Those who fight in the front are young people with different personalities and dreams. Behind those youths, furthermore, are their families and lovers. If a young man dies in a battle, people around him will also face drastic changes in their lives.
 ああ、この議員は戦争を抽象的な「一般論」としてしか見られないんだな、と思った。現実の戦争は「正義と悪の戦い」などではなく、前線で戦うのはそれぞれ個性や人生の夢を持った若者たちなのだ。そして、その後ろには家族や恋人がおり、もし若者が戦死すると彼らの一生も大きく変わってしまうことになる。

Though it is different from the topic of war, I always think about the effects of generalizations. It is easy to say, "depression is on the rise because people have become weaker," and speak in generalities, but each patient is in a different situation, faced with different problems.
 戦争とは問題が異なるが、診察室でもいつも同じようなことを考える。「うつ病が増加しているのは弱い人が増えたからだ」などと一般論を語るのは簡単だが、患者さんたちにはそれぞれの事情や問題というものがある。

Suppose there is a man who is a breadwinner in a family and he goes to see a doctor after developing depression. The doctor tells him, "Generally speaking, if the cause of depression is work-related stress, a person would not feel better unless the burden placed on them is released." What if he quits his job after seeing the doctor? There will be a significant impact on his family -- they may have to sell their house, the children may have to transfer to different schools, the daughter's wedding may be called off, and ultimately this could lead to the parents' divorce. People's lives may be ruined by a casual suggestion by a doctor.
一家の大黒柱の男性がうつ病になって受診したとする。もしそこで医者が「仕事でのストレスでのうつ病の場合は、一般的には一度、負荷から解放されなければ治りませんね」などと安易に口にし、その人が退職したとしよう。そうすると家族は大きな影響を受ける。自宅を手放す、引っ越しや転校をしなければならない、娘の結婚が破談になる、ついには離婚に至る、などみんなの人生がめちゃめちゃになる場合もあるのだ。

I can't always pay attention to the details of every single patient I see, but I tell myself at my clinic, "I should not just give out general opinions. I have to pay attention to individual situations."
もちろん、いつもすべての個別の事情に目を配ることはできないのだが、診察室では自分にも常に「一般論ではいけない。ひとりひとりを見なければ」と言い聞かせている。

At Rikkyo University in Tokyo, where I currently work as a professor, a committee of faculty and staff members of the university released a statement against the controversial security-related bills with nearly 1,000 people signing to support the movement. In the statement, there is the following passage:
 私がいま所属している立教大学でも「安全保障関連法案に反対する立教人の会」が立ち上がり、声明に1000人近くが賛同している。その中に、次のような一文がある。

"War is not an abstract idea. It means young people with names face each other on the battlefield and kill each other."
 「『戦争』とは決して抽象的なものではありません。具体的な名前をもった若者たちが戦場で向かい合い、殺し殺されることを意味します」

Today, teens and people in their 20s are not seeing war as something in the past or some generalities, but rather as something real, which they themselves may be dragged into.
 いま10代、20代の若者たちは「戦争」を過去のできごとや一般論としてでなく、自分がそこに巻き込まれるかもしれない、リアルなものとして実感しているのだろう。

For adults who can only consider young people's desire of not wanting to go to war as "selfish" and "egoistical," I recommend reading diaries, or even one memo, written by student soldiers who perished in the Pacific War and think about the lives of those who died.
「戦争に行きたくない」というその声を「自分中心、利己的」としか受け取れないおとなたちは、ひとつでもいい、太平洋戦争の戦没学生の手記を読んで、彼らの人生に思いをはせてみてほしい。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
毎日新聞 2015年08月11日 地方版
〔都内版〕

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2015年8月20日 (木)

GDPマイナス 景気の停滞を長引かせるな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Govt must take all possible steps to end lull in economic recovery
GDPマイナス 景気の停滞を長引かせるな

The national economy has been on a path of mild recovery, but its prospects have turned uncertain.
 緩やかに回復してきた景気の雲行きが、怪しくなっている。

The real-term gross domestic product for the April-June quarter declined 0.4 percent from the previous quarter for an annualized fall of 1.6 percent, according to preliminary figures released by the Cabinet Office, representing the first negative growth in three quarters.
 4~6月期の実質国内総生産(GDP)速報は、前期比0・4%減、年率1・6%減となった。3四半期ぶりのマイナス成長だ。

The slump in personal consumption and exports is a major reason behind the poor economic performance. Plant and equipment investment, which holds the key to full-scale growth, also declined, albeit slightly, for the first time in three quarters. Some analysts have pointed out that Japan has entered a lull in its business recovery.
 個人消費と輸出の不振が、主な要因である。本格的な成長実現のカギとなる設備投資も、小幅ながら3期ぶりに減少した。景気は回復が足踏みする「踊り場」に入ったとする見方も出ている。

The important thing is not to let the lull drag on. The government and the Bank of Japan must closely examine possible risky factors and do what it takes to prevent business from losing its steam.
 大切なのは、停滞を長引かせないことだ。政府・日銀はリスクを入念に点検し、景気失速の回避に万全を期さねばならない。

Private consumption — the pillar of domestic demand — dropped by 0.8 percent in the April-June period, compared with the previous quarter, marking the first quarterly fall since the April-June quarter of last year, when personal consumption plunged due to the impact of the consumption tax hike to 8 percent.
 内需の柱の個人消費は、前期比0・8%減だった。マイナスは、消費税率引き上げの影響で急減した昨年4~6月期以来である。

Economic revitalization minister Akira Amari cited the light vehicle tax hike and unseasonable weather as reasons for the shrinkage of consumption, indicating that the decline was “caused largely by temporary factors.”
 甘利経済再生相は消費減少の原因として軽自動車税増税や天候不順を挙げ、「一時的な要素が大きい」との見方を示した。

But it must be noted that the benefits of wage hikes have been offset by the continued rise in prices of food and other products, a consequence of high raw material prices amid the yen’s weakening. It is certain that households have become more budget-minded. Perhaps consumers have yet to break away from the bearish mind-set ingrained during long years of deflation.
 ただ、円安による原材料高で食品などの値上げが続き、賃上げの恩恵は相殺されている。家計が節約志向を強めているのは確かだ。デフレで染みついた弱気から、脱し切れていない面もあろう。

Excessive pessimism is unwarranted, but the government must analyze factors behind slack consumption from a multifaceted viewpoint and work out improvement measures.
 過度な悲観は無用だが、政府は消費不振の要因を多角的に分析し、改善策を練る必要がある。

Alarming overseas factors

A more alarming factor is the slowdown of overseas economies. It is necessary to keep a close watch especially on the volatile Chinese economy.
 さらに警戒すべきなのが、海外経済の減速だ。特に、波乱含みの中国経済から目が離せない。

China has posted a conspicuous slowdown of such economic indicators as industrial production and construction investment. Affected by this, the growth in emerging Asian countries has begun to slacken. The dull overseas demand, centering on China, has been dampening Japan’s exports.
 中国は工業生産や建設投資など経済指標の伸びの鈍化が目立つ。その影響で、アジア新興国の成長も減速気味だ。中国を中心とした外需の低迷が、日本の輸出の足を引っ張っている。

Given that the People’s Bank of China devalued the yuan on three consecutive days last week, many market dealers concluded that the Chinese economy has been worsening more seriously than expected. A loss of steam in China’s growth would have a big impact on the world economy.
 中国人民銀行が3日連続で人民元切り下げに踏み切ったことで、市場では中国経済が想定以上に悪化しているとの観測が強まった。中国の成長が失速すれば、世界経済への打撃は大きい。

Some point out that an increase of interest rates in the United States, which can be expected within this year, will trigger outflows of a huge amount of funds from emerging economies. Thus, the uncertainties in economic prospects have been increasing.
 年内にも予想される米国の利上げを引き金に、新興国から巨額の資金が流出するとの見方もある。先行き不透明感は増している。

To survive economic disturbances that originate overseas, the Japanese economy’s fundamental power of growth must be urgently augmented.
 海外発の波乱に耐えられるように、日本経済が基礎的な成長力を高めることが急務である。

It is also essential to enhance the motivation and vigor of the private sector. We suggest that the government expedite the implementation of growth strategies, including promotion of plant and equipment investment that will improve productivity and deregulation that can help expand growth industries.
 民間の意欲と活力を高めることが大事だ。生産性向上に資する設備投資の促進策や、成長産業の拡大につながる規制緩和など、政府の成長戦略を加速させたい。

It is right for the government to aim for a virtuous circle in which corporate profits are passed on to workers in the form of wage hikes and this leads to expanded consumption. To ensure this is realized, the government should steadily carry out measures that can deepen this dimension of the Abenomics economic policy package.
 企業利益を賃上げに還元し、消費拡大につなげる「好循環経済」を目指す方向は正しい。その実現を確かなものとするため、政府はアベノミクスを深化させる手を間断なく打っていくべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 18, 2015)

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2015年8月19日 (水)

(社説)マイナス成長 危うい政策目標と想定

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 18
EDITORIAL: Dismal GDP data highlights need to review policy targets
(社説)マイナス成長 危うい政策目標と想定

Japan’s economy shrank during the three months from April through June, its first decline in three quarters. The nation’s real gross domestic product--the value of total economic output adjusted for price changes--fell 0.4 percent during the quarter from the previous three months, according to preliminary data released Aug. 17 by the Cabinet Office. At this rate, the size of economic contraction will reach 1.6 percent on an annualized basis.
 内閣府が発表した4~6月期の国内総生産(GDP)速報値は3四半期ぶりにマイナス成長となった。物価変動の影響を除いた実質成長率は前期比0・4%減。このペースが1年間続くと想定した年率換算では1・6%減だった。

Consumer spending dropped in spite expectations of continued recovery. That is because a weaker yen triggered increases in the prices of food and other daily products while wage growth was weaker than expected. This only added to the financial burden on households.
 回復が進むと見られた個人消費が落ち込んだ。円安で食料品などが値上げされたが賃金はそれほど伸びず、実質的な家計の負担が増したためだ。

Exports declined for the first time in six quarters, even though they were expected to grow due to the effects of a weaker yen that makes Japanese products cheaper in overseas markets.
また、円安効果で伸びると期待された輸出も、6四半期ぶりのマイナスだった。

The consensus view was that the economy had been recovering gradually since the consumption tax rate increase in April last year, which depressed consumer spending.
 昨年4月の消費増税後、景気はゆるやかに回復していると見られていた。ここにきてのマイナス成長は日本経済の実像を考えるうえで示唆的である。

The fall in GDP was not caused by any specific factor that delivered a body blow to the economy.
 このマイナス成長は何か大きなショックによって引き起こされたものではない。

Rather, overall economic conditions were relatively good during the period.
むしろこの間、経済環境は比較的良好だった。

Corporate earnings improved further and the stock market rebounded.
企業業績は改善し株価は回復。

Job growth was strong.
雇用増の動きも活発だ。

A surge of foreign visitors to Japan was a big boon to related businesses.
訪日観光客の急増で関連産業は潤った。

The Bank of Japan continued its aggressive monetary easing, while public works spending remained at a high level.
日本銀行は金融緩和を続け、公共事業も高水準だ。

The contraction in the April-June quarter offers some important clues to what's going on in the Japanese economy.
Despite this favorable environment, the economy failed to expand.
 こんな好条件のもとでも日本の成長率はさえなかった。

And yes, there was some destabilizing factors in the world economy.
 もちろん、世界経済には不安定な動きも確かにあった。

In Europe, the debt crisis in Greece caused serious confusion. China’s economic slowdown became more pronounced.
欧州ではギリシャ債務問題による混乱があり、中国経済は減速傾向が次第にはっきりしてきた。

But these external factors are not temporary in nature. We should probably assume that instability in the global economy will continue for a while.
 とはいえ、こうした海外要因は一時的なものではない。しばらくこの不安定な状況が続くと見たほうがいい。

If so, it is hard to expect a dramatic rise in exports or a further sharp increase in spending in Japan by foreign tourists in the coming months. In short, we should not place too much hope on growth in external demand.
ならば、今後輸出が劇的に増えたり、日本を訪れる外国人観光客の需要がさらに飛躍的に盛り上がったりすることは想定しにくく、外需に過大な期待はできない。

In its policy efforts to restore fiscal sanity, the government is pursuing a target of a primary surplus--a situation where government tax revenue exceeds all its spending other than net interest--in fiscal 2020.
 政府は、2020年度に基礎的財政収支を黒字にするという財政健全化計画を掲げている。

In setting the target, however, the government assumed that the economy would pull off a strong real growth of 2 percent and expand by 3 percent in nominal terms.
その前提は実質2%、名目3%という高い成長率である。

A tough-minded analysis of Japan’s economic reality behind its negative growth during the April-June period, however, makes clear that it is risky to bet on any significant economic expansion in planning and executing policy measures to dig the nation out of a budget hole that is driving accumulated debt to dangerous levels.
だが、今回のマイナス成長という現実を冷静に分析すれば、成長期待だけで財政再建を進める危うさは自明と言える。

The latest GDP data also offers valuable reference information for the Bank of Japan, which has continued to provide huge monetary stimulus to the economy with an eye to achieving an inflation target of 2 percent.
 また2%インフレ目標を掲げて大規模な金融緩和を続ける日銀にも、貴重な指標となったはずだ。

The central bank started the radical monetary expansion campaign on the assumption that consumers will ramp up their spending when they expect prices to rise. Increased consumer spending then should bolster economic growth by pushing up overall domestic demand, according to the BOJ’s scenario.
消費者が先行きの物価上昇を予想すれば、消費を盛んにして需要を押し上げ、成長率は高まる。

But Japanese consumers have not behaved as the BOJ expected. It has become increasingly clear that the central bank’s monetary policy is not working.
そんな日銀のシナリオ通りの消費行動は現れていない。この政策に無理があることが、次第にはっきりしてきたのではないか。

The latest economic data points to the need for both the government and the BOJ to revise their growth and inflation projections so they are more in line with the reality and then readjust their economic strategy and monetary policy accordingly.
 政府も日銀も、現実を出発点にして、想定する成長率やインフレ率を修正し、経済戦略や金融政策を組み立て直す。そんな必要があることを、今回のマイナス成長は示唆している。

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2015年8月18日 (火)

戦没者追悼式 「深い反省」を世界の平和に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Emperor’s ‘feelings of deep remorse’ must be taken to heart for world peace
戦没者追悼式 「深い反省」を世界の平和に

We must not forget that Japan’s peace and prosperity after World War II have been built on the enormous sacrifices of the people who lost their lives in the war.
 戦後日本の平和と繁栄が、第2次大戦で亡くなった人々の犠牲の上に築かれていることを忘れてはなるまい。

Events were held throughout the country on Aug. 15, the 70th anniversary of the war’s end, to honor the souls of the war dead, who number an estimated 3.1 million. In the Nippon Budokan hall in Tokyo’s Chiyoda Ward, the National Memorial Service for the War Dead was held that day under the sponsorship of the government and in the presence of the Emperor and the Empress.
 70回目の終戦の日だった15日、310万人の戦没者を哀悼する催しが各地で開かれた。東京・日本武道館では、天皇、皇后両陛下をお迎えし、政府主催の全国戦没者追悼式が行われた。

In his address at the commemorative ceremony, the Emperor said, “Reflecting on our past and bearing in mind the feelings of deep remorse over the last war, I earnestly hope that the ravages of war will never be repeated.”
“[I] pray for world peace and for the continuing development of our country,” he said.
 天皇陛下は、追悼式のお言葉で、「さきの大戦に対する深い反省と共に、今後、戦争の惨禍が再び繰り返されぬことを切に願い、世界の平和と我が国の一層の発展を祈ります」と述べられた。

The words “deep remorse” were newly incorporated into the Emperor’s address for this year’s national commemoration ceremony. This can be said to reflect the Emperor’s feelings toward the last war.
 「深い反省」という言葉が、新たに盛り込まれた。先の戦争に対する陛下のお気持ちが反映されたものと言えよう。

In his New Year’s address this January, the Emperor emphasized, “It is most important for us to take this opportunity to study and learn from the history of this war, starting with the Manchurian Incident of 1931, as we consider the future direction of our country.”
 陛下は、今年の年頭にあたってのご感想でも、「満州事変に始まるこの戦争の歴史を十分に学び、今後の日本のあり方を考えていくことが、今、極めて大切なこと」と強調されている。

This can be taken as an expression of his Imperial Majesty’s desire to link the lessons of the war to Japan’s peace by reflecting upon the past.
 過去を顧みて、その教訓を日本の平和につなげたいという陛下のご心情の表れではないか。

The Emperor saw the war’s end at the age of 11 in Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture, where he was evacuated. He has been quoted as saying that when he returned to Tokyo, the capital had been reduced to “completely burnt-out ruins, which stand out especially clearly in my memory.”
 陛下は11歳の時、疎開先の日光で終戦を迎えられた。東京に戻り、「本当に焼け野原だった。それが非常に印象に残っている」と述懐されている。

As a member of the generation that experienced the war first-hand, the Emperor likely has special feelings for the bereaved families of the war dead.
 あの戦争を知る世代として、陛下の遺族に対する思いには、特別なものがおありだろう。

Preserve historic shelter

In April this year, the Emperor and the Empress made an official visit to the island of Peleliu in the Republic of Palau, which was one of the fiercest battlefields in the war. The Imperial couple laid flowers at both the Japanese and U.S. memorials.
 天皇、皇后両陛下は4月、第2次大戦で激戦地となったパラオ共和国のペリリュー島を訪問し、日米の慰霊碑に献花された。

The way the Imperial couple are squarely and sincerely facing the scars left by the war this year, the 70th anniversary of the war’s end, has made strong impressions both at home and abroad.
 戦後70年の今年、戦争の傷痕と向き合うお二人の真摯しんしなお姿は、内外に強い印象を与えた。

The Imperial Household Agency recently made public the master record and audio of the Imperial Rescript on the Termination of the War that then Emperor Hirohito, posthumously called Emperor Showa, announced via radio broadcast to the public. They were made public at the Emperor and Empress’ suggestion that the advisability of replaying the recording of the rescript be considered, according to the agency.
 宮内庁は先日、昭和天皇が国民に終戦を伝えた「玉音放送」の録音原盤と音声を公開した。両陛下から「録音盤の再生を検討してみては」と示唆されたためだ。

Also made public were photos and video footage of an underground air-raid shelter in the Imperial Palace, which was referred to as “Obunko fuzoku shitsu” (Room attached to the Imperial shelter), where Emperor Showa made a “sacred” Imperial decision to bring the war to an end. Its current state, with crumbled floors and fallen wall coverings, conveys the passage of a great deal of time.
 昭和天皇が終戦の「聖断」を下した皇居内の御文庫付属室(地下防空壕ごう)の写真と映像も公開された。床や壁が朽ち果てた現状が、歳月の流れを感じさせる。

In accordance with Emperor Showa’s personal desire that the shelter be not maintained, the room has reportedly never been repaired. But considering that the shelter was an important historical setting, the government may be better advised to study the wisdom of preserving it.
 「維持は無用」という昭和天皇の意向で、修繕がなされないまま、今に至っているという。
 歴史の重要な舞台だ。政府は保存を検討すべきではないか。

Of the about 5,000 bereaved relatives who attended the national memorial ceremony this year, about 60 percent were children of the war dead. Many children of the war dead are now older than 80.
 戦没者追悼式に参列した約5000人の遺族のうち、6割は戦没者の子たちだ。80歳を超えた子の世代も多い。

Spouses of the war dead accounted for no more than 15 of the attendees.
戦没者の配偶者は15人にとどまった。

The generation that personally experienced the war is aging rapidly. Steps must be taken to ensure that the memories of the miseries of the war are handed down to the next generation.
 戦争を直接体験した世代の高齢化が進む。悲惨な記憶を次代に語り継いでいかねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 16, 2015)

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2015年8月17日 (月)

終戦70年 平和の堅持へ国際協調貫こう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Enhance international cooperation to guard peace
終戦70年 平和の堅持へ国際協調貫こう

 ◆安保法案成立で抑止力の向上を◆

Aug. 15 this year marks the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II.
 15日は、70回目の「終戦の日」である。

We should take this occasion to offer silent, sincere prayers for the repose of the souls of more than 3 million people who perished against their will in that terrible conflict, while renewing our resolve for peace.
 先の大戦で心ならずも犠牲になった300万人以上の冥福を静かに祈るとともに、平和への誓いを新たにしたい。

Mayor Tomihisa Taue of Nagasaki, in a Peace Declaration he issued on Aug. 9, made reference to the security-related bills, stating, “There is widespread unease and concern that ... the peaceful ideology of the Constitution of Japan [is] now wavering.” He went on to say, “I urge the government and the Diet to listen to these voices of unease and concern ... and conduct careful and sincere deliberations.”
 長崎市の田上富久市長は9日の平和宣言で、安全保障関連法案に言及し、「憲法の平和の理念が、今揺らいでいるのではないかという不安と懸念が広がっている」と述べた。政府と国会がこの不安と懸念に耳を傾け、「慎重で真摯しんしな審議」を行うことも注文した。

Bills misunderstood
 ◆日米同盟は公共財だ

The set of security-related bills centering around endorsement of the exercise of Japan’s right of collective self-defense is aimed at ensuring Japan’s peace and security through strengthening defense cooperation between the Self-Defense Forces and U.S. forces and others.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認を柱とする安保法案は、自衛隊と米軍などの防衛協力を強化し、日本の平和と安全を確保することを目指すものだ。

It is regrettable that the bills’ aim has been taken as meaning the exact opposite.
正反対の受け止めをされているのは残念である。

Japan in the past 70 years has never been involved in any war, including the period of Cold War between East and West and the post-Cold War days. This record was not achieved simply by the grace of the pacifism based on the Constitution.
 日本はこの70年間、東西冷戦時代もポスト冷戦期も戦争に巻き込まれなかった。これは、憲法の平和主義のお陰だけではない。

Of greater significance are efforts to found the SDF in 1954 to upgrade the country’s defense capabilities in a way better suited to the changing times, and to revise in 1960 the Japan-U.S. security treaty to steadily strengthen the bilateral alliance.
 むしろ1954年に自衛隊を創設して、時代に即した防衛力を整備しつつ、60年に日米安保条約を改定し、同盟関係を着実に強化してきたことが大きい。

The Japan-U.S. alliance has now been broadly recognized as an international public good conducive to stabilizing the Asian region as a whole.
 日米同盟は今、アジア全体を安定させるための国際公共財として広く認知されている。

Examples illustrating the crucial importance of military might and deterrent power for the sake of defending a country’s territory and its populace are innumerable indeed, including the Korean War, the incursion by the former Soviet Union into Afghanistan, the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and Russia’s invasion of Georgia.
 朝鮮戦争や、旧ソ連によるアフガニスタンへの侵攻、イラクのクウェート侵略、ロシアのグルジア侵攻――。領土や国民を守る軍事力と抑止力の重要性を示す実例は枚挙にいとまがない。

A belief that peace can be secured merely by desiring “peace for all time” and “trusting in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world” as stipulated in the preamble of the Constitution is no better than an idealistic theory that disregards the harsh realities of international relations.
 憲法前文にある「恒久の平和を念願」し、「平和を愛する諸国民の公正と信義に信頼」するだけで平和が確保されるというのは、国際政治の冷徹なリアリズムを無視した理想論だろう。

Before the war, Japan withdrew from the the League of Nations, which was groping for ways of materializing the ideal of collective security, deliberately shattering the world order at that time.
 日本は戦前、集団安全保障を模索した国際連盟を脱退し、世界秩序を破壊する側に立った。

After the war, this county, because of soul-searching about that wartime past, placed excessively strict constraints on the activities of the SDF.
 戦後は、その反省から、自衛隊の活動を過度に抑制してきた。

There can be no denying that many Japanese, dependent on the United States for the nation’s security policy while blessed with peace and prosperity under the U.S.-led international order, have been apt to drift into a state of being unable to think about what should be done to secure the country’s peace and security.
米国主導の国際秩序による平和と繁栄を享受する中、安全保障政策を米国に依存し、思考停止に陥りがちだったことは否めない。

Record of trust
 ◆世界秩序を支える側に

The turning point came with the 1991 Gulf War. The SDF was dispatched after the fighting ended to conduct minesweeping operations and has since been involved in U.N. peacekeeping operations. The SDF built up a solid track record and steadily earned the trust of other nations.
 転機は91年の湾岸戦争だ。戦後の機雷掃海や国連平和維持活動に自衛隊を派遣して実績を積み、関係国の信頼を着実に得てきた。

The new security-related legislation, which will expand the international activities of the SDF, is an extension of this. As well as rectifying the previously overcautious interpretation of the Constitution, Japan must play its part as a nation willing to support the new international order and fulfill an appropriate level of responsibility.
 自衛隊の国際活動を拡充する安保法案は、この延長線上にある。慎重過ぎた憲法解釈を適正化するとともに、新たな国際秩序を支える有志国の一翼を担い、応分の責任を果たさねばなるまい。

The United Nations, which will mark the 70th anniversary of its founding in October, is prone to dysfunction for reasons including the veto power held by the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council. It is often a stretch to say the United Nations is effectively playing a role in resolving international disputes.
 今年10月に創設70年を迎える国際連合は、安全保障理事会の5常任理事国の拒否権などで機能不全に陥り易やすい。紛争解決に役割を十分果たしているとは言い難い。

At present, China is trumpeting its self-righteous logic in the East China and South China seas, where it is attempting to change the status quo through force. Russia is doing the same in Ukraine. Both of these nations, backed up by their massive military might, ignore international criticism of their behavior.
 今、中国は東・南シナ海で、ロシアはウクライナでそれぞれ独善的な論理を振りかざし、力による現状変更を試みている。いずれも強大な軍事力を背景にし、国際社会の批判にも耳を貸さない。

For Japan, China’s military buildup and maritime expansion are serious problems. If China’s defense budget continues to grow at its current pace, in five years it will be more than four times the size of Japan’s defense budget; a decade from now, it will be almost seven times the size.
 日本にとって、中国の軍備増強と海洋進出は深刻な問題だ。中国が現在のペースで国防費を伸ばせば、5年後には日本の4倍超、10年後には7倍近くに膨らむ。

North Korea possesses several hundred ballistic missiles that can reach Japan. The threat of terrorism is spreading, as exemplified by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant extremist group.
 北朝鮮は、日本を射程に収める弾道ミサイル数百発を保有する。過激派組織「イスラム国」などテロの脅威も拡散している。

To ensure Japan remains safe from these threats, it is essential to pass the security bills into law and strengthen multilayered cooperation with the United States, Australia and nations in Europe and Southeast Asia.
 日本の安全を確保するには、安保法案を確実に成立させ、米国や豪州、さらに東南アジア・欧州諸国との重層的な連携を強化することが欠かせない。

Diplomacy and military affairs are closely connected with each other and form a complementary pair. Making it possible for the SDF to provide a seamless response to any situation will help prevent conflict from erupting and provide backing to support peaceful diplomacy that stabilizes the region.
 外交と軍事は車の両輪として、相互補完関係にある。自衛隊による切れ目のない事態対処を可能にしておくことが、紛争を回避し、地域を安定させる平和外交を推進するための後ろ盾になろう。

Critics in some quarters have claimed the security-related bills will “make Japan a nation that can once again wage war” and “return the nation to the prewar days.” These assertions can only be described as twisted interpretations.
 安保法案には、「日本を再び戦争できる国にする」「戦前に回帰するものだ」といった批判が一部にある。曲解と言うほかない。

Japan firmly pacifist
 ◆「戦争できる国」は曲論

Modern-day Japan is decisively different from prewar Japan in several ways. Now, Japan stands staunchly by the pacifism enshrined in the Constitution, rejects aggression and territorial expansion, and attaches great weight to international cooperation. Civilian control of the SDF remains firmly in place.
 今の日本が戦前と決定的に異なるのは、憲法の平和主義を堅持し、侵略や国土拡張を否定して、国際協調を重視していることだ。文民統制(シビリアンコントロール)もしっかり確保されている。

Allowing the exercise of the right of collective self-defense, as stipulated in the new security-related bills, and expanding the SDF’s humanitarian and reconstruction support activities overseas and the logistic support it can provide to military forces of other nations, will all help reinforce international solidarity.
 法案が定める集団的自衛権の行使容認や、海外における自衛隊の人道復興支援や他国軍への後方支援活動の拡充は、いずれも国際的な連帯を強固にする。

This is precisely why the overwhelming majority of nations — with the notable exceptions of China and South Korea, which have rifts with Japan over perceptions of history — highly regard and support the content of the legislation.
 だからこそ、歴史認識を巡って日本と溝がある中国、韓国を除く圧倒的多数の国々が、法案内容を高く評価、支持しているのである。

Nations have extremely high expectations for the “proactive contribution to peace based on the principle of international cooperation” put forward by the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
安倍政権の「国際協調主義に基づく積極的平和主義」に対する各国の期待は極めて高い。

The prime minister should redouble his efforts to explain the significance and necessity of the security-related bills to the public and gain greater understanding of the legislation.
 安倍首相は、安保法案の意義と必要性を国民に説明し、理解を広げる努力を倍加させるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 14, 2015)

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2015年8月16日 (日)

戦後70年談話 歴史の教訓胸に未来を拓こう

英語学習教材として一番すぐれているのが読売です。
日英対訳で学習すれば数年でかなりのレベルまで到達できます。

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Let’s take to our hearts the lessons of history
戦後70年談話 歴史の教訓胸に未来を拓こう

 ◆反省とお詫びの気持ち示した◆

We positively evaluate Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s statement to mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II for clearly showing the new course Japan will take based on its remorse for the war.
 先の大戦への反省を踏まえつつ、新たな日本の針路を明確に示したと前向きに評価できよう。

The statement was approved by the Cabinet on Friday.
 戦後70年の安倍首相談話が閣議決定された。

The statement is significant to convey to the world what Japan is doing. Explaining Japan’s perception of history properly in discussing its future will increase the trust and expectations of the international community in this country.
 談話は、日本の行動を世界に発信する重要な意味を持つ。未来を語るうえで、歴史認識をきちんと提示することが、日本への国際社会の信頼と期待を高める。

In the prime minister’s statement, “aggression,” which is considered one of the keywords, was clearly specified.
 首相談話には、キーワードである「侵略」が明記された。

Using ‘aggression’
 ◆「侵略」明確化は妥当だ

“Incident, aggression, war — we shall never again resort to any form of the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes,” the statement said. “With deep repentance for the war, Japan made that pledge.”
 「事変、侵略、戦争。いかなる武力の威嚇や行使も、国際紛争を解決する手段としては、もう二度と用いてはならない」との表現である。「先の大戦への深い悔悟の念と共に、我が国は、そう誓った」とも記している。

It is significant that the prime minister has clearly admitted “aggression.” This means he has adhered to the views expressed in past statements made by Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the war’s end and by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi on the 60th anniversary.
 首相が「侵略」を明確に認めたのは重要である。戦後50年の村山談話、戦後60年の小泉談話の見解を引き継いだものだ。

Actions by the defunct Imperial Japanese Army after the 1931 Manchurian Incident were nothing but aggression. They also violated the 1928 General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy, an international pact that prohibited any war except one for self-defense.
 1931年の満州事変以後の旧日本軍の行動は侵略そのものである。自衛以外の戦争を禁じた28年の不戦条約にも違反する。

Particularly, attacks on Jinzhou, a city in northeastern China, by Japan’s Kwantung Army in October 1931 were indiscriminate bombings of civilians without prior warning and constituted violations of the Hague Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land. Targets of Japan’s air raids were expanded to Shanghai, Nanjing and Chongqing, significantly increasing the death toll of noncombatants.
 特に、31年10月の関東軍による中国東北部・錦州攻撃は、民間人に対する無差別・無警告の空爆であり、ハーグ陸戦規則に反する。空爆は、上海、南京、重慶へと対象を拡大し、非戦闘員の死者を飛躍的に増大させた。

We must never forget that the then Japanese government allowed part of the military to act on its own and ignited the disastrous war.
 一部の軍人の独走を許し、悲惨な戦争の発端を日本が作ったことを忘れてはなるまい。

“Politics must be humble to history,” the prime minister said at a press conference after reading the statement. “History must not be distorted with political or diplomatic intentions.”
 首相は記者会見で、「政治は歴史に謙虚でなければならない。政治的、外交的意図によって歴史が歪ゆがめられるようなことは決してあってはならない」と語った。

This remark was pertinent.
 的を射た発言である。

Admitting the objective fact of “aggression” is not a masochistic view of history nor will it disgrace Japan. Rather, it will increase the trust of the international community in Japan and overcome the doubts of some countries that Japan is engaged in “historical revisionism.”
 「侵略」の客観的事実を認めることは、自虐史観ではないし、日本を貶おとしめることにもならない。むしろ国際社会の信頼を高め、「歴史修正主義」といった一部の疑念を晴らすことにもなろう。

Also, the statement said, “We shall abandon colonial rule forever and respect the right of self-determination of all peoples throughout the world.”
 談話では、「植民地支配」について、「永遠に訣別けつべつし、すべての民族の自決の権利が尊重される世界にしなければならない」という表現で触れた。

As for people victimized in Japan or other countries by the war, the statement said, “I bow my head deeply before the souls of all those who perished at home and abroad. I express my feelings of profound grief and my eternal, sincere condolences.”
 談話は、国内外で犠牲になった人々に対し、「深く頭こうべを垂れ、痛惜の念を表すとともに、永劫えいごうの、哀悼の誠を捧ささげる」と記した。

This wording, which partially follows that made by a German leader, amounts to an expression equivalent to an “apology” in the Murayama statement and others. Abe’s sincere feelings were fully conveyed.
 ドイツ首脳の言葉を一部踏襲したもので、村山談話などの「お詫わび」に相当する表現だ。首相の真剣な気持ちが十分に伝わる。

Abe referred to the views of the Murayama statement and others by saying that “Japan has repeatedly expressed the feelings of deep remorse and heartfelt apology for its actions during the war,” adding, “Such a position articulated by the previous cabinets will remain unshakable into the future.”
 談話は、日本が先の大戦について「痛切な反省と心からのお詫びの気持ちを表明してきた」として、村山談話などの見解に改めて言及した。さらに、「こうした歴代内閣の立場は、今後も、揺るぎないもの」と明記している。

Women’s rights
 ◆女性の人権を尊重せよ

Some neighboring countries may not be satisfied with the wording of the statement. Even so, this does not mean that the statement should avoid references to remorse and apology.
 今回の表現では納得しない一部の近隣諸国もあろう。それでも、反省やお詫びに触れなくていい、ということにはなるまい。

It is important to convey the current thinking of Japan to the international community, including Europe and the United States, thereby expanding world understanding of Japan’s position.
 欧米諸国を含む国際社会全体に向けて、現在の日本の考え方を発信し、理解を広げることこそが大切な作業である。

In this sense, it was reasonable for the Abe statement to express heartfelt gratitude toward the help extended by Europe, the United States and China, among others, in the postwar period.
 その意味で、安倍談話が、戦後の日本に手を差し伸べた欧米や中国などに対する感謝の念を表明したことは妥当だろう。

The expression that “we will engrave in our hearts the past, when the dignity and honor of many women were severely injured during wars in the 20th century” is a reference to the so-called comfort women that was made out of consideration to South Korea.
 「戦時下、多くの女性たちの尊厳や名誉が深く傷つけられた過去を、この胸に刻み続ける」との表現は、慰安婦を念頭に置いたもので、韓国への配慮だ。

As expressed in the statement, Japan is required to “lead the world in making the 21st century an era in which women’s human rights are not infringed upon.”
 談話が表明したように、「21世紀こそ、女性の人権が傷つけられることのない世紀とするため、世界をリードする」ことが、今、日本に求められている。

It also emphasized that those generations who have no connection with the war must not be “predestined to apologize.”
 談話は、戦争とは何の関わりのない世代に「謝罪を続ける宿命を背負わせてはならない」とも強調している。

It is essential to draw the line on this issue so that Japan will not be called upon to apologize generation after generation. Understanding and self-restraint are called for on the part of China and South Korea in this regard.
 この問題に一定の区切りをつけて、子々孫々にまで謝罪行為を強いられないようにすることが大切である。中国や韓国にも、理解と自制を求めたい。

Draw line on issue
 ◆次世代の謝罪避けたい

During the news conference afterward, Abe said efforts were made to compile the statement that “can share the views of as many people as possible.” It can be said that various thoughts about historical perceptions have been aligned and condensed considerably by the statement.
 首相は記者会見で、談話について「できるだけ多くの国民と共有できることを心掛けた」と語った。歴史認識を巡る様々な考えは、今回の談話で国内的にはかなり整理、集約できたと言えよう。

Concerning the future course of Japan, the statement said, the country “will firmly uphold basic values such as freedom, democracy and human rights as unyielding values” while reflecting on the past “when Japan ended up becoming the challenger to the international order.”
 談話は、日本が今後進む方向性に関して、「国際秩序への挑戦者となってしまった過去」を胸に刻みつつ、自由、民主主義、人権といった価値を揺るぎないものとして堅持する、と誓った。

Hoisting the flag of “Proactive Contribution to Peace,” Japan must contribute to the peace and prosperity of the world more than ever before. This Japanese stance has been supported widely by Europe, the United States and Southeast Asian countries.
 「積極的平和主義」を掲げ、世界の平和と繁栄に貢献することが欠かせない。こうした日本の姿勢は、欧米や東南アジアの諸国から幅広く支持されている。

While listening to the “voices of history,” Japan must open itself to the future.
 「歴史の声」に耳を傾けつつ、日本の将来を切り拓ひらきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 15, 2015)

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クローズアップ2015:首相70年談話 歴史認識決着図る 随所に対中配慮

毎日新聞は英語版と日本語版とが、一致していない部分が多いので、英語学習教材としては、やや難がありますが、それでも大切な情報源です。

August 15, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Abe makes few references to South Korea in war anniversary statement
クローズアップ2015:首相70年談話 歴史認識決着図る 随所に対中配慮

 ◇韓国への言及少なく

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe called for summit meetings with South Korean and Chinese leaders on Aug. 14 as his statement marking the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II is aimed at resolving the long-running standoff with China, South Korea and other countries over perceptions of wartime history.
 安倍談話には、中国、韓国両国などとの間で歴史認識問題の決着を図る狙いがあり、安倍晋三首相は14日、記者会見などで中韓両国に対し、首脳会談開催を改めて呼びかけた。

Nevertheless, while incorporating his consideration for China into many parts of the statement, Abe made only a few references to South Korea. The Japanese government is poised to carefully see how the two Asian neighbors will respond to the statement.
ただ、談話は、中国への配慮を随所に盛り込む一方、韓国については言及が少なかった。政府は両国の反応を慎重に見極める構えだ。

"Because South Korea is a neighboring country, we have various issues with them. But we must not shut the door for dialogue. Because there are issues, we should hold a summit meeting," Abe said on an NHK news program on the evening of Aug. 14.
 「韓国は隣国であるがゆえにさまざまな課題があるが、対話のドアを閉ざしてはならない。課題があるからこそ首脳会談を開くべきだ」。安倍首相は14日夜のNHKのニュース番組に出演し、こう述べた。

On Japan's relations with South Korea, Abe emphasized that he had also given consideration to South Korea in the statement, saying, "I said in the statement that 'the dignity and honor of many women were severely injured.'" Abe incorporated his consideration for China in the statement with such passages as "the Chinese people who underwent all the sufferings of the war." But he made direct mention of South Korea only once in the statement along with other countries and regions such as Taiwan and China. Abe apparently tried to explain the "gap" in reference to China and South Korea in the statement.
さらに、日韓関係に関して「談話で『女性の尊厳が深く傷つけられた』と述べている」と語り、韓国に対しても配慮したとの姿勢を強調した。談話では、中国については「戦争の苦痛をなめ尽くした中国人の皆さん」など配慮した表現を盛り込む一方、韓国への直接の言及は台湾、中国などと並列で記述した1カ所にとどまっており、こうした「落差」を説明したとみられる。

The government is exploring the possibility of Abe visiting China in September and holding his first summit meeting with South Korean President Park Geun-hye. Abe said in a news conference after releasing the war anniversary statement, "I want the people of China to accept our country's frank feelings 70 years after the end of the war as they stand. If there is an opportunity of a summit, I would like to take advantage of it."
 政府は首相の9月訪中や、朴槿恵(パククネ)韓国大統領との初の首脳会談の実現時期を探っている。首相は中国についても、会見で「中国の皆さんには、戦後70年に当たってのわが国の率直な気持ちをありのままに受け止めていただきたい。首脳会談の機会があれば生かしていきたい」と語った。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida called his South Korean, British, French and Australian counterparts to explain the content of the statement. Administrative Vice Foreign Minister Akitaka Saiki met U.S., Chinese and South Korean ambassadors to Japan to convey the content of the statement. South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se was quoted as telling Kishida, "We will share the statement within the government of the Republic of Korea." Chinese Ambassador to Japan Cheng Yonghua was quoted as telling Saiki that he would convey it to the Chinese government.
 岸田文雄外相は韓国、英国、フランス、オーストラリアの4カ国の外相に電話で談話の内容を説明。斎木昭隆事務次官も米中韓3カ国の駐日大使と会い、談話の内容を伝えた。韓国の尹炳世(ユンビョンセ)外相は「韓国政府内で共有する」と応じ、中国の程永華駐日大使は「本国に伝える」と述べたという。

A senior government official expressed confidence that China and South Korea would take the statement positively, saying, "It was thoroughly thought out." Another high-ranking government official said, "The word 'deep repentance' goes further than the expressions used in previous statements. If the Chinese and South Korean governments say something, they will be isolated."
 政府高官は談話について「練りに練った内容だ」と語り、中韓両国に評価されるとの自信を表明。政務三役の一人は「『悔悟』は今までの談話より踏み込んでいる。ここまで書いて中韓両国が何か言えば、あちらの方が孤立するだろう」と語った。

On the evening of Aug. 14, Natsuo Yamaguchi, head of Komeito, the junior partner in the ruling coalition, told reporters, "There is a highly significant meaning in that a Cabinet decision was made to the effect that the position taken by the previous governments will be taken over and remain unshakable into the future while using such key words as aggression and colonial rule." On the fact that the key words used in the statement represent indirect expressions rather than those of Abe's own, Yamaguchi said, "It is clear that he pledged that Japan will never use force or threaten again."
 国内では14日夜、連立を組む公明党の山口那津男代表が記者団に「侵略や植民地支配などのキーワードを使って歴代内閣の立場を引き継ぎ、今後も揺るぎないと閣議決定したことは大変大きな意味がある」と評価。キーワードが首相自らの認識ではなく、間接的な表現である点にも「武力の行使や威嚇を二度と繰り返さないという誓いは明白だ」と理解を示した。

Hidetsugu Yagi, a conservative polemicist and professor at Reitaku University who is close to Abe, said on a BS NTV program on the evening of Aug. 14, "I want to rate it extremely high." He went on to say, "It relativized the statements by (then Prime Minister Tomiichi) Murayama and (then Prime Minister Junichiro) Koizumi and overwrote them. The Murayama statement has become just one of the statements issued by previous Cabinets and recovered by the Abe statement."
 一方、首相に近い保守派論客の八木秀次・麗澤大教授は14日夜のBS日テレの番組で「極めて高く評価したい」と談話を激賞。「村山談話、小泉談話を相対化し、上書きした。村山談話は歴代内閣の一談話となって安倍談話に回収された」との認識を示した。

Those comments show that Komeito, which called for Abe to stick to the Murayama statement, and conservatives who called on Abe to relativize the Murayama statement, are both giving high marks for the Abe statement. A senior Komeito official said, "It is significant that conservative Prime Minister Abe said the statements by the previous Cabinets were 'unshakable into the future'." It is based on the view that particularly because Abe is seen as a conservative hardliner, he could rein in the backlash from conservatives even if he take a flexible stance.
 村山談話の継承を求める公明党と「村山談話の相対化」を求めてきた保守層の双方が談話を評価したことになる。この点を、公明党幹部は「歴代内閣の談話を、保守の安倍首相が『今後も揺るぎない』と言ったのは大きい」と指摘した。保守強硬派と目されてきた安倍首相だからこそ、柔軟な対応を取っても保守層の反発を抑制できるとの理屈だ。

However, the government of Prime Minister Abe will have no option but to deal with difficult issues such as efforts to enact security-related bills, intensive negotiations over the relocation of the U.S. Marines' Air Station Futenma in Okinawa Prefecture and negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact. Prime Minister Abe will also need to clear many other hurdles as the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) is to hold a leadership election in September, followed by a Cabinet reshuffle and the formation of a new lineup of LDP executives.
 ただ、今後の安倍政権は、安全保障関連法案の成立や米軍普天間飛行場移設問題を巡る沖縄県との対立解消を目指した集中協議、環太平洋パートナーシップ協定(TPP)交渉の合意実現などの難題に取り組まざるを得ない。9月には自民党総裁選も予定され、その後の内閣改造・党役員人事など、首相は越えなければならない多くのハードルに直面することになる。

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クローズアップ2015:首相70年談話 安倍カラーを抑制 安保審議が誤算

毎日新聞は英語版と日本語版とが、一致していない部分が多いので、英語学習教材としては、やや難がありますが、それでも大切な情報源です。

August 15, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Abe refrains from showing political stripe in anniversary statement
クローズアップ2015:首相70年談話 安倍カラーを抑制 安保審議が誤算

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe refrained from explicitly exhibiting his political stripe in his statement on the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II due to a shaky political base as exemplified by declining approval ratings.

Abe had initially planned to play up a future-oriented message but opted instead to devote the bulk of his statement to perceptions of history in consideration of the potential effects on Diet deliberations on security bills as well as ties with junior coalition partner Komeito. But he did not mention as his own historical perceptions ''aggression,'' ''colonial rule,'' ''apology'' and other key words and phrases, which appeared in then Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama's 50th anniversary statement in 1995.

Many people had closely followed if Abe in his statement would mention four key words and phrases -- ''aggression,'' ''colonial rule,'' ''deep remorse'' and ''heartfelt apology.''
 戦後70年談話に盛り込まれるか注目されたキーワードは「侵略」「植民地支配」「痛切な反省」「心からのおわび」の四つだった。

Abe's statement did not quote a portion of the Murayama statement that says ''through its (Japan's) colonial rule and aggression, caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to those of Asian nations.'' Instead, Abe said, ''Incident, aggression, war -- we shall never again resort to any form of the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes'' without elaborating on how he recognizes aggression. He also stated, ''We shall abandon colonial rule forever'' without making any reference to Japan's colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula.
 安倍談話は、村山談話で「植民地支配と侵略によって、アジア諸国に多大の損害と苦痛を与えた」とした部分は引用しなかった。代わりに、「事変、侵略、戦争。いかなる武力の威嚇や行使も、国際紛争を解決する手段としては、もう二度と用いてはならない」と記述したが、侵略をどう認識しているかには触れなかった。「植民地支配」も「永遠に決別」と位置付けたが、韓国への「植民地支配」には踏み込まなかった。

As for ''remorse'' and ''apology,'' the prime minister declared that ''Such a position articulated by the previous Cabinets will remain unshakable into the future.'' But he did not issue an apology in his statement. He went on to say ''We must not let our children, grandchildren, and even further generations to come, who have nothing to do with that war, be predestined to apologize.'' This position appears to reflect the view of Abe and his aides and advisers, including Tomomi Inada, chairwoman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)'s Policy Research Council who said Aug. 11 that she senses that something is not right for Japan to keep apologizing forever.
 「反省」と「おわび」についても、「歴代内閣の立場は、今後も、揺るぎないもの」とはしたものの、自ら「おわび」する形にはならなかった。将来の日本人に「謝罪を続ける宿命を背負わせてはならない」との表現もあり、「未来永劫(えいごう)、謝罪をするのは違和感を覚える」(11日、自民党の稲田朋美政調会長)という首相や首相周辺の持論を反映させたとみられる。

The Abe statement was a product of hard work as it contained essential words and phrases and took into consideration Komeito and neighboring countries as well as the right-wing element, Abe's main support base.
 キーワードを盛り込み公明党や周辺国への配慮を示しつつ、首相の支持基盤である右派にも気を配る形になっており、談話作成に苦慮したことがうかがえる。

Abe is understood to have had no intention to mention ''aggression.'' Abe said during a meeting of the House of Councillors Budget Committee in April 2013 that his Cabinet would not inherit the Murayama statement per se. However, he said later that he would inherit the Murayama statement as a whole. He also said he sees no need to write another anniversary statement, suggesting he would prepare a statement to focus on the path Japan has taken over the past 70 years since the end of World War II and Japan's future.
 そもそも首相には「侵略」などの表現を盛り込む意図はなかったとみられる。首相は談話について2013年4月の参院予算委員会で、「(村山談話を)安倍内閣としてそのまま継承しているわけではない」と答弁。その後は「全体として引き継ぐ」と修正したものの、「もう一度書く必要はないだろう」とも語り、戦後70年の歩みと未来志向を中心に談話を構成する方針だった。

Abe had considered issuing a statement in a quiet atmosphere after winning passage of security legislation by early August. At one point, Abe had contemplated issuing a statement without a Cabinet decision to clearly mirror his own perception of history.
 安保関連法案を8月上旬までに成立させた上で国会を閉じ、静かな環境で談話を発表するという段取りを描いており、首相自身の歴史観を反映しやすくするために、閣議決定をせずに談話を発表することも一時検討していた。

But parliamentary deliberations on the security bills have protracted. Three constitutional scholars told the House of Representatives Commission on the Constitution on June 4 that the security bills violate the postwar Constitution. Then, young LDP lawmakers, during a study session, made remarks about suppressing the media, causing the Cabinet's support rate to plunge.
 誤算は安保関連法案の審議が難航していることだ。憲法学者3人が6月4日に衆院憲法審査会で、法案を「違憲」と発言。自民党若手勉強会での報道威圧発言問題なども起き、内閣支持率は下落。

The Abe government was forced to extend the Diet session through Sept. 27. In a Mainichi poll in July, the Abe Cabinet's disapproval rating topped the approval rating by a margin of 43 percent to 42 percent for the first time since the inauguration of the current Abe Cabinet in December 2012. The approval rating fell to 32 percent in a Mainichi survey in August.
国会会期の9月27日までの大幅延長に追い込まれる中、7月の毎日新聞の世論調査では第2次安倍内閣発足後初めて、支持率(42%)が不支持率(43%)を下回り、8月では32%にまで下がった。

For the Abe government and the LDP, Komeito's full-scale backing is essential amid dwindling support as they prepare for the upper house election next summer. The Abe government went along with Komeito's request for Cabinet approval because of the possibility that Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Minister Akihiro Ota, a Komeito lawmaker, may be questioned in the Diet about perceptions of the Abe statement. There were also conservative LDP lawmakers loyal to Abe who demanded a 70th anniversary statement to be adopted by the Cabinet, like the Murayama statement.
 支持率低下の中で来夏の参院選を控える政府・自民党にとって、政権運営には公明党の全面協力が不可欠。また、国会開会中の談話発表となれば、公明党の太田昭宏国土交通相が国会で談話への認識を問われる可能性もあり、公明党が求める閣議決定の判断に傾いた。首相を支持する保守系自民議員の間に、村山談話と「同格」の閣議決定を求める声が強かったのも影響した。

When Abe briefed Komeito leader Natsuo Yamaguchi during a meeting on Aug. 7 about a draft statement without referring to an apology, Yamaguchi asked Abe to issue a statement which conveys the inheritance of the previous prime ministerial statements to domestic and international audiences. Abe later telephoned Yamaguchi to say he will change the draft to include an apology. Abe also met U.S. Ambassador to Japan Caroline Kennedy on Aug. 10 and appeared to have sought her understanding.
 公明党の山口那津男代表は7日の首相との会談で、「おわび」に言及しない談話の素案を示された際に、「歴代内閣の談話を継承した意味が、国内外に伝わるものにしてほしい」と注文。首相はその後、山口氏に電話で素案を変更すると伝え、引用の形で「おわび」を盛り込んだ。10日にはケネディ駐日米大使とも官邸で面会し、談話への理解を求めたとみられる。

The prime minister had initially thought of issuing a future-oriented statement to demonstrate his leadership in foreign policy vis-a-vis China and South Korea and at home. But the fact of the matter is that he was forced to refrain himself in preparing the statement due to the aggravating climate surrounding his government.
 首相には当初、未来志向の談話にすることで、中韓両国との外交や内政で自身の主導権を確立する狙いがあったようだが、政権を取り巻く環境悪化から抑制した表現にせざるを得なくなったというのが実情だ。

An LDP lawmaker said Prime Minister Abe's top priority is the enactment of the security legislation. If his statement were a radical one to irritate Komeito and China and South Korea, it would have affected Diet debate, the lawmaker said, adding Abe subsequently compromised because his administration is almost up against the wall.
 自民党議員は「首相にとって最重要課題は安保法案の成立だ。公明党や中韓を刺激する過激な談話になれば審議に影響が出かねず、首相は妥協したのだろう。政権はそこまで追い込まれつつあるということなのだろう」と語った。

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(社説)戦後70年の安倍談話 何のために出したのか

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 15
EDITORIAL: Abe’s war anniversary statement falls way short of the mark
(社説)戦後70年の安倍談話 何のために出したのか

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s statement to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II has left us wondering for what purpose and for whom it was written.
 いったい何のための、誰のための談話なのか。

Issued Aug. 14, the statement falls grossly short as an accounting to sum up Japan’s modern history on the occasion of this landmark anniversary.
 安倍首相の談話は、戦後70年の歴史総括として、極めて不十分な内容だった。

The statement includes all of the terms that had been singled out as crucial elements and were the main focus of international attention: aggression, colonial rule, remorse and apology.
 侵略や植民地支配。反省とおわび。安倍談話には確かに、国際的にも注目されたいくつかのキーワードは盛り込まれた。

But the statement somewhat obscures the fact that Japan was the country that committed the aggression and carried out colonial rule.
 しかし、日本が侵略し、植民地支配をしたという主語はぼかされた。

The document referred to remorse and apology for the war only indirectly by mentioning the fact that past Cabinets expressed these sentiments.
反省やおわびは歴代内閣が表明したとして間接的に触れられた。

We feel strongly that the Abe administration did not have to issue, or rather, should not have issued this flawed statement.
 この談話は出す必要がなかった。いや、出すべきではなかった。改めて強くそう思う。

BACKING DOWN FROM POSITION SET BY MURAYAMA
 ■「村山」以前に後退

The Abe statement struck us as an awkward compromise between the views about history held by him and his supporters and the hard and weighty historical facts.
 談話全体を通じて感じられるのは、自らや支持者の歴史観と、事実の重みとの折り合いに苦心した妥協の産物であるということだ。

The statement issued in 1995 by Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama to mark the 50th anniversary of the end of the war has been internationally recognized as a document describing the Japanese government’s views about the nation’s wartime past. Its most important feature is that it clearly acknowledged Japan’s act of aggression and candidly expressed remorse for the nation’s past and apologies to peoples of Asian countries.
 日本政府の歴史認識として定着してきた戦後50年の村山談話の最大の特徴は、かつての日本の行為を侵略だと認め、その反省とアジアの諸国民へのおわびを、率直に語ったことだ。

In contrast, the Abe statement referred to Japan’s aggression in the following passage.
 一方、安倍談話で侵略に言及したのは次のくだりだ。

“Incident, aggression, war--we shall never again resort to any form of the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes.”
 「事変、侵略、戦争。いかなる武力の威嚇や行使も、国際紛争を解決する手段としては、もう二度と用いてはならない」

This declaration, in itself, is not wrong, of course. But this clearly represents a back down from the position set by the Murayama statement, which Abe himself had pledged to uphold.
 それ自体、もちろん間違いではない。しかし、首相自身が引き継ぐという村山談話の内容から明らかに後退している。

Even a report drawn up by a panel of personal advisers to Abe appointed to offer advice over the war commemorative statement made a clear reference to Japan’s aggression on the Asian continent.
 日本の大陸への侵略については、首相の私的懇談会も報告書に明記していた。

The new statement is also a back down from how past prime ministers of the Liberal Democratic Party who held office before the Murayama statement described Japan’s wartime behavior. These leaders said to the effect that there was no denying Japan’s aggressive acts, even if they didn’t use the word “aggression.”
侵略とは言わなくても「侵略的事実を否定できない」などと認めてきた村山談話以前の自民党首相の表現からも後退している。

Much the same is true with the issue of apology.
 おわびについても同様だ。

Abe’s statement says, “We must not let our children, grandchildren and even further generations to come, who have nothing to do with that war, be predestined to apologize.”
 首相は「私たちの子や孫に、謝罪を続ける宿命を背負わせてはなりません」と述べた。

Many Japanese certainly have the feeling of how long Japan has had to keep apologizing. On the other hand, China and South Korea have their reasons to keep demanding that Japan apologize.
 確かに、国民の中にはいつまでわび続ければよいのかという感情がある。他方、中国や韓国が謝罪を求め続けることにもわけがある。

Although the Japanese government has expressed remorse and apology, ministers and other top government officials repeatedly made remarks that cast doubt over the government’s statements. Prime ministers and other politicians paid many visits to Tokyo’s Yasukuni Shrine, which honors Japan’s war criminals along with general war dead. Japan itself has done things that undermine the credibility of its own words.
 政府として反省や謝罪を示しても、閣僚らがそれを疑わせる発言を繰り返す。靖国神社に首相らが参拝する。信頼を損ねる原因を日本から作ってきた。

SAD SPECTACLE OF FLIP-FLOPPING
 ■目を疑う迷走ぶり

If he wants to relieve Japan from the burden of having to keep apologizing, Abe, who is suspected by the international community to have biased views about history, should have gracefully offered his own apologies to end the cycle of negative sentiment that has been straining the relationship between Japanese and the peoples of other Asian nations. It is a pity that he failed to make that decision.
 謝罪を続けたくないなら、国際社会から偏った歴史認識をもっていると疑われている安倍氏がここで潔く謝罪し、国民とアジア諸国民との間に横たわる負の連鎖を断ち切る――。こんな決断はできなかったのか。

Aside from the content of the statement, the political process leading to the release of the document was a depressingly sad spectacle of flip-flopping by the administration.
 それにしても、談話発表に至る過程で見せつけられたのは、目を疑うような政権の二転三転ぶりだった。

Immediately after returning to power, Abe began expressing his desire to issue a “future-oriented statement fit for the 21st century.” His remarks indicated his intention to replace the history perceptions displayed by the Murayama statement with his own.
 安倍氏は首相に再登板した直後から「21世紀にふさわしい未来志向の談話を発表したい」と表明。村山談話の歴史認識を塗り替える狙いを示唆してきた。

As this move caused serious concern to not only China and South Korea, but also the United States, Abe tilted toward issuing only his personal statement without official Cabinet endorsement.
 そんな首相の姿勢に中国や韓国だけでなく、米国も懸念を深め、首相はいったんは閣議決定せずに個人的談話の色彩を強めることに傾く。

But some close aides to Abe and Komeito, the LDP’s junior coalition partner, voiced an objection to the idea, saying that such a statement would not represent the government’s official position.
Abe then decided to have the statement approved by the Cabinet after all. It was distressing to see the administration change its mind repeatedly on the milestone statement.
 それでは公式な政府見解にならないと反発した首相側近や、公明党からも異論が出て、再び閣議決定する方針に。節目の談話の扱いに全くふさわしくない悲惨な迷走ぶりである。

Meanwhile, Western scholars as well as Japanese researchers called for Japan’s “unbiased” accounting of past wrongs. In opinion polls, a majority of Japanese also said the statement should acknowledge Japan’s “aggression” and other past wrongdoings.
 この間、国内のみならず欧米の学者も過ちの「偏見なき清算」を呼びかけた。世論調査でも過半数が「侵略」などを盛り込むべきだとの民意を示した。

In the first place, whether it is approved by the Cabinet or not, the prime minister’s statement cannot be cast merely as his “personal view.”
 そもそも閣議決定をしようがしまいが、首相の談話が「個人的な談話」で済むはずがない。

The statement is inevitably taken by the international community as Japan’s official view about its past based on the people’s collective will.
日本国民の総意を踏まえた歴史認識だと国際社会で受け取られることは避けられない。

After making a wrongheaded and miserably failed move to turn the statement into his personal credo, Abe pathetically ended up issuing a statement that is fuzzy about the responsibility for aggression and his intention to offer an apology.
 それを私物化しようとした迷走の果てに、侵略の責任も、おわびの意思もあいまいな談話を出す体たらくである。

CONFUSED POLICY PRIORITIES
 ■政治の本末転倒

It is simply impossible for Abe to push through a major revision to the standard history perceptions that have been accepted by many Japanese and the international community by taking advantage of the ruling camp’s majority control of the Diet.
 国会での数の力を背景に強引に押し通そうとしても、多くの国民と国際社会が共有している当たり前の歴史認識を覆す無理が通るはずがない。

Abe has been stressing the need to adopt a future-oriented attitude toward history. But making the present and the future better than the past requires coming to terms with the past.
From this point of view, there are still many problems concerning Japan’s past that have been left unsolved, despite the urgent need to settle them.
 首相は未来志向を強調してきたが、現在と未来をより良く生きるためには過去のけじめは欠かせない。その意味で、解決が迫られているのに、いまだ残された問題はまだまだある。

The biggest of these problems concerns Yasukuni Shrine and the issue of how the government should mourn the war dead.
 最たるものは靖国神社と戦没者追悼の問題である。

Diplomatic friction over Yasukuni has eased somewhat recently because Abe has not visited the Shinto shrine since the end of 2013.
But the issue will flare up immediately if he pays it another visit.
安倍首相が13年末以来参拝していないため外交的な摩擦は落ち着いているが、首相が再び参拝すれば、たちまち再燃する。

Even so, there has been no notable political move toward finding a solution to this problem.
それなのに、この問題に何らかの解決策を見いだそうという政治の動きは極めて乏しい。

No political consensus has been reached on any possible solution to the issue of “comfort women.” There has also been no progress either on the problem of the past abductions of Japanese citizens by North Korea, with which Japan has no formal diplomatic relationship. Tokyo’s negotiations with Moscow for a settlement of the territorial dispute over the Northern Territories, a group of islands off Hokkaido controlled by Russia, have become bogged down.
 慰安婦問題は解決に向けた政治的合意が得られず、国交がない北朝鮮による拉致問題も進展しない。ロシアとの北方領土問題も暗礁に乗り上げている。

While it has spent so much time and energy on a statement that did not have to be issued, the administration has done little to tackle these history related problems, which are crying out for effective political actions for solutions amid the aging of the Japanese and peoples of neighboring countries who experienced firsthand the ravages of war.
 出す必要のない談話に労力を費やしたあげく、戦争の惨禍を体験した日本国民や近隣諸国民が高齢化するなかで解決が急がれる問題は足踏みが続く。

We cannot help but wonder for what purpose and for whom the administration is making its policy efforts. Its priorities are totally wrong.
 いったい何のための、誰のための政治なのか。本末転倒も極まれりである。

The blame for this wretched situation should be borne by Abe himself.
 その責めは、首相自身が負わねばならない。

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2015年8月15日 (土)

Statement by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe 内閣総理大臣談話

Statement by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
内閣総理大臣談話

Friday, August 14, 2015
平成27年8月14日

On the 70th anniversary of the end of the war, we must calmly reflect upon the road to war, the path we have taken since it ended, and the era of the 20th century. We must learn from the lessons of history the wisdom for our future.
 終戦七十年を迎えるにあたり、先の大戦への道のり、戦後の歩み、二十世紀という時代を、私たちは、心静かに振り返り、その歴史の教訓の中から、未来への知恵を学ばなければならないと考えます。

More than one hundred years ago, vast colonies possessed mainly by the Western powers stretched out across the world. With their overwhelming supremacy in technology, waves of colonial rule surged toward Asia in the 19th century. There is no doubt that the resultant sense of crisis drove Japan forward to achieve modernization. Japan built a constitutional government earlier than any other nation in Asia. The country preserved its independence throughout. The Japan-Russia War gave encouragement to many people under colonial rule from Asia to Africa.
 百年以上前の世界には、西洋諸国を中心とした国々の広大な植民地が、広がっていました。圧倒的な技術優位を背景に、植民地支配の波は、十九世紀、アジアにも押し寄せました。その危機感が、日本にとって、近代化の原動力となったことは、間違いありません。アジアで最初に立憲政治を打ち立て、独立を守り抜きました。日露戦争は、植民地支配のもとにあった、多くのアジアやアフリカの人々を勇気づけました。

After World War I, which embroiled the world, the movement for self-determination gained momentum and put brakes on colonization that had been underway. It was a horrible war that claimed as many as ten million lives. With a strong desire for peace stirred in them, people founded the League of Nations and brought forth the General Treaty for Renunciation of War. There emerged in the international community a new tide of outlawing war itself.
 世界を巻き込んだ第一次世界大戦を経て、民族自決の動きが広がり、それまでの植民地化にブレーキがかかりました。この戦争は、一千万人もの戦死者を出す、悲惨な戦争でありました。人々は「平和」を強く願い、国際連盟を創設し、不戦条約を生み出しました。戦争自体を違法化する、新たな国際社会の潮流が生まれました。

At the beginning, Japan, too, kept steps with other nations. However, with the Great Depression setting in and the Western countries launching economic blocs by involving colonial economies, Japan's economy suffered a major blow. In such circumstances, Japan's sense of isolation deepened and it attempted to overcome its diplomatic and economic deadlock through the use of force. Its domestic political system could not serve as a brake to stop such attempts. In this way, Japan lost sight of the overall trends in the world.
 当初は、日本も足並みを揃えました。しかし、世界恐慌が発生し、欧米諸国が、植民地経済を巻き込んだ、経済のブロック化を進めると、日本経済は大きな打撃を受けました。その中で日本は、孤立感を深め、外交的、経済的な行き詰まりを、力の行使によって解決しようと試みました。国内の政治システムは、その歯止めたりえなかった。こうして、日本は、世界の大勢を見失っていきました。

With the Manchurian Incident, followed by the withdrawal from the League of Nations, Japan gradually transformed itself into a challenger to the new international order that the international community sought to establish after tremendous sacrifices. Japan took the wrong course and advanced along the road to war.
 満州事変、そして国際連盟からの脱退。日本は、次第に、国際社会が壮絶な犠牲の上に築こうとした「新しい国際秩序」への「挑戦者」となっていった。進むべき針路を誤り、戦争への道を進んで行きました。

And, seventy years ago, Japan was defeated.
 そして七十年前。日本は、敗戦しました。

On the 70th anniversary of the end of the war, I bow my head deeply before the souls of all those who perished both at home and abroad. I express my feelings of profound grief and my eternal, sincere condolences.
 戦後七十年にあたり、国内外に斃れたすべての人々の命の前に、深く頭を垂れ、痛惜の念を表すとともに、永劫の、哀悼の誠を捧げます。

More than three million of our compatriots lost their lives during the war: on the battlefields worrying about the future of their homeland and wishing for the happiness of their families; in remote foreign countries after the war, in extreme cold or heat, suffering from starvation and disease. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the air raids on Tokyo and other cities, and the ground battles in Okinawa, among others, took a heavy toll among ordinary citizens without mercy.
 先の大戦では、三百万余の同胞の命が失われました。祖国の行く末を案じ、家族の幸せを願いながら、戦陣に散った方々。終戦後、酷寒の、あるいは灼熱の、遠い異郷の地にあって、飢えや病に苦しみ、亡くなられた方々。広島や長崎での原爆投下、東京をはじめ各都市での爆撃、沖縄における地上戦などによって、たくさんの市井の人々が、無残にも犠牲となりました。

Also in countries that fought against Japan, countless lives were lost among young people with promising futures. In China, Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and elsewhere that became the battlefields, numerous innocent citizens suffered and fell victim to battles as well as hardships such as severe deprivation of food. We must never forget that there were women behind the battlefields whose honour and dignity were severely injured.
 戦火を交えた国々でも、将来ある若者たちの命が、数知れず失われました。中国、東南アジア、太平洋の島々など、戦場となった地域では、戦闘のみならず、食糧難などにより、多くの無辜の民が苦しみ、犠牲となりました。戦場の陰には、深く名誉と尊厳を傷つけられた女性たちがいたことも、忘れてはなりません。

Upon the innocent people did our country inflict immeasurable damage and suffering. History is harsh. What is done cannot be undone. Each and every one of them had his or her life, dream, and beloved family. When I squarely contemplate this obvious fact, even now, I find myself speechless and my heart is rent with the utmost grief.
 何の罪もない人々に、計り知れない損害と苦痛を、我が国が与えた事実。歴史とは実に取り返しのつかない、苛烈なものです。一人ひとりに、それぞれの人生があり、夢があり、愛する家族があった。この当然の事実をかみしめる時、今なお、言葉を失い、ただただ、断腸の念を禁じ得ません。

The peace we enjoy today exists only upon such precious sacrifices. And therein lies the origin of postwar Japan.
 これほどまでの尊い犠牲の上に、現在の平和がある。これが、戦後日本の原点であります。

We must never again repeat the devastation of war.
 二度と戦争の惨禍を繰り返してはならない。

Incident, aggression, war -- we shall never again resort to any form of the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes. We shall abandon colonial rule forever and respect the right of self-determination of all peoples throughout the world.
 事変、侵略、戦争。いかなる武力の威嚇や行使も、国際紛争を解決する手段としては、もう二度と用いてはならない。植民地支配から永遠に訣別し、すべての民族の自決の権利が尊重される世界にしなければならない。

With deep repentance for the war, Japan made that pledge. Upon it, we have created a free and democratic country, abided by the rule of law, and consistently upheld that pledge never to wage a war again. While taking silent pride in the path we have walked as a peace-loving nation for as long as seventy years, we remain determined never to deviate from this steadfast course.
 先の大戦への深い悔悟の念と共に、我が国は、そう誓いました。自由で民主的な国を創り上げ、法の支配を重んじ、ひたすら不戦の誓いを堅持してまいりました。七十年間に及ぶ平和国家としての歩みに、私たちは、静かな誇りを抱きながら、この不動の方針を、これからも貫いてまいります。

Japan has repeatedly expressed the feelings of deep remorse and heartfelt apology for its actions during the war. In order to manifest such feelings through concrete actions, we have engraved in our hearts the histories of suffering of the people in Asia as our neighbours: those in Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines, and Taiwan, the Republic of Korea and China, among others; and we have consistently devoted ourselves to the peace and prosperity of the region since the end of the war.
 我が国は、先の大戦における行いについて、繰り返し、痛切な反省と心からのお詫びの気持ちを表明してきました。その思いを実際の行動で示すため、インドネシア、フィリピンはじめ東南アジアの国々、台湾、韓国、中国など、隣人であるアジアの人々が歩んできた苦難の歴史を胸に刻み、戦後一貫して、その平和と繁栄のために力を尽くしてきました。

Such position articulated by the previous cabinets will remain unshakable into the future.
 こうした歴代内閣の立場は、今後も、揺るぎないものであります。

However, no matter what kind of efforts we may make, the sorrows of those who lost their family members and the painful memories of those who underwent immense sufferings by the destruction of war will never be healed.
 ただ、私たちがいかなる努力を尽くそうとも、家族を失った方々の悲しみ、戦禍によって塗炭の苦しみを味わった人々の辛い記憶は、これからも、決して癒えることはないでしょう。

Thus, we must take to heart the following.
 ですから、私たちは、心に留めなければなりません。

The fact that more than six million Japanese repatriates managed to come home safely after the war from various parts of the Asia-Pacific and became the driving force behind Japan’s postwar reconstruction; the fact that nearly three thousand Japanese children left behind in China were able to grow up there and set foot on the soil of their homeland again; and the fact that former POWs of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia and other nations have visited Japan for many years to continue praying for the souls of the war dead on both sides.
 戦後、六百万人を超える引揚者が、アジア太平洋の各地から無事帰還でき、日本再建の原動力となった事実を。中国に置き去りにされた三千人近い日本人の子どもたちが、無事成長し、再び祖国の土を踏むことができた事実を。米国や英国、オランダ、豪州などの元捕虜の皆さんが、長年にわたり、日本を訪れ、互いの戦死者のために慰霊を続けてくれている事実を。

How much emotional struggle must have existed and what great efforts must have been necessary for the Chinese people who underwent all the sufferings of the war and for the former POWs who experienced unbearable sufferings caused by the Japanese military in order for them to be so tolerant nevertheless?
 戦争の苦痛を嘗め尽くした中国人の皆さんや、日本軍によって耐え難い苦痛を受けた元捕虜の皆さんが、それほど寛容であるためには、どれほどの心の葛藤があり、いかほどの努力が必要であったか。

That is what we must turn our thoughts to reflect upon.
 そのことに、私たちは、思いを致さなければなりません。

Thanks to such manifestation of tolerance, Japan was able to return to the international community in the postwar era. Taking this opportunity of the 70th anniversary of the end of the war, Japan would like to express its heartfelt gratitude to all the nations and all the people who made every effort for reconciliation.
 寛容の心によって、日本は、戦後、国際社会に復帰することができました。戦後七十年のこの機にあたり、我が国は、和解のために力を尽くしてくださった、すべての国々、すべての方々に、心からの感謝の気持ちを表したいと思います。

In Japan, the postwar generations now exceed eighty per cent of its population. We must not let our children, grandchildren, and even further generations to come, who have nothing to do with that war, be predestined to apologize. Still, even so, we Japanese, across generations, must squarely face the history of the past. We have the responsibility to inherit the past, in all humbleness, and pass it on to the future.
 日本では、戦後生まれの世代が、今や、人口の八割を超えています。あの戦争には何ら関わりのない、私たちの子や孫、そしてその先の世代の子どもたちに、謝罪を続ける宿命を背負わせてはなりません。しかし、それでもなお、私たち日本人は、世代を超えて、過去の歴史に真正面から向き合わなければなりません。謙虚な気持ちで、過去を受け継ぎ、未来へと引き渡す責任があります。

Our parents’ and grandparents’ generations were able to survive in a devastated land in sheer poverty after the war. The future they brought about is the one our current generation inherited and the one we will hand down to the next generation. Together with the tireless efforts of our predecessors, this has only been possible through the goodwill and assistance extended to us that transcended hatred by a truly large number of countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European nations, which Japan had fiercely fought against as enemies.
 私たちの親、そのまた親の世代が、戦後の焼け野原、貧しさのどん底の中で、命をつなぐことができた。そして、現在の私たちの世代、さらに次の世代へと、未来をつないでいくことができる。それは、先人たちのたゆまぬ努力と共に、敵として熾烈に戦った、米国、豪州、欧州諸国をはじめ、本当にたくさんの国々から、恩讐を越えて、善意と支援の手が差しのべられたおかげであります。

We must pass this down from generation to generation into the future. We have the great responsibility to take the lessons of history deeply into our hearts, to carve out a better future, and to make all possible efforts for the peace and prosperity of Asia and the world.
 そのことを、私たちは、未来へと語り継いでいかなければならない。歴史の教訓を深く胸に刻み、より良い未来を切り拓いていく、アジア、そして世界の平和と繁栄に力を尽くす。その大きな責任があります。

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when Japan attempted to break its deadlock with force. Upon this reflection, Japan will continue to firmly uphold the principle that any disputes must be settled peacefully and diplomatically based on the respect for the rule of law and not through the use of force, and to reach out to other countries in the world to do the same. As the only country to have ever suffered the devastation of atomic bombings during war, Japan will fulfil its responsibility in the international community, aiming at the non-proliferation and ultimate abolition of nuclear weapons.
 私たちは、自らの行き詰まりを力によって打開しようとした過去を、この胸に刻み続けます。だからこそ、我が国は、いかなる紛争も、法の支配を尊重し、力の行使ではなく、平和的・外交的に解決すべきである。この原則を、これからも堅く守り、世界の国々にも働きかけてまいります。唯一の戦争被爆国として、核兵器の不拡散と究極の廃絶を目指し、国際社会でその責任を果たしてまいります。

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when the dignity and honour of many women were severely injured during wars in the 20th century. Upon this reflection, Japan wishes to be a country always at the side of such women’s injured hearts. Japan will lead the world in making the 21st century an era in which women’s human rights are not infringed upon.
 私たちは、二十世紀において、戦時下、多くの女性たちの尊厳や名誉が深く傷つけられた過去を、この胸に刻み続けます。だからこそ、我が国は、そうした女性たちの心に、常に寄り添う国でありたい。二十一世紀こそ、女性の人権が傷つけられることのない世紀とするため、世界をリードしてまいります。

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when forming economic blocs made the seeds of conflict thrive. Upon this reflection, Japan will continue to develop a free, fair and open international economic system that will not be influenced by the arbitrary intentions of any nation. We will strengthen assistance for developing countries, and lead the world toward further prosperity. Prosperity is the very foundation for peace. Japan will make even greater efforts to fight against poverty, which also serves as a hotbed of violence, and to provide opportunities for medical services, education, and self-reliance to all the people in the world.
 私たちは、経済のブロック化が紛争の芽を育てた過去を、この胸に刻み続けます。だからこそ、我が国は、いかなる国の恣意にも左右されない、自由で、公正で、開かれた国際経済システムを発展させ、途上国支援を強化し、世界の更なる繁栄を牽引してまいります。繁栄こそ、平和の礎です。暴力の温床ともなる貧困に立ち向かい、世界のあらゆる人々に、医療と教育、自立の機会を提供するため、一層、力を尽くしてまいります。

We will engrave in our hearts the past, when Japan ended up becoming a challenger to the international order. Upon this reflection, Japan will firmly uphold basic values such as freedom, democracy, and human rights as unyielding values and, by working hand in hand with countries that share such values, hoist the flag of “Proactive Contribution to Peace,” and contribute to the peace and prosperity of the world more than ever before.
 私たちは、国際秩序への挑戦者となってしまった過去を、この胸に刻み続けます。だからこそ、我が国は、自由、民主主義、人権といった基本的価値を揺るぎないものとして堅持し、その価値を共有する国々と手を携えて、「積極的平和主義」の旗を高く掲げ、世界の平和と繁栄にこれまで以上に貢献してまいります。

Heading toward the 80th, the 90th and the centennial anniversary of the end of the war, we are determined to create such a Japan together with the Japanese people.
 終戦八十年、九十年、さらには百年に向けて、そのような日本を、国民の皆様と共に創り上げていく。その決意であります。

August 14, 2015
平成二十七年八月十四日

Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan
内閣総理大臣  安倍 晋三

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2015年8月14日 (金)

(社説)難民受け入れ 手を差しのべる姿勢を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 13
EDITORIAL: Japan should open doors wider to welcome refugees
(社説)難民受け入れ 手を差しのべる姿勢を

One big humanitarian issue facing Japan is how it should deal with people who cannot remain in their own countries because of fears of possible persecution for race, religion or political opinions.
 人種、宗教や政治的意見などで迫害を受けるおそれがあり、母国にとどまれない難民を、どう受け入れていくか。

The Justice Ministry will shortly decide on a basic five-year plan on Japan’s stance on accepting foreign nationals.
 法務省が近く、今後5年間の外国人受け入れに関する基本計画を決めるという。

In the past three years, Japan has granted refugee status to only 35 people. Critics have long pointed out that Japan’s figure has been tiny in comparison with other industrialized countries, which accept 100 to 1,000 refugees for every one recognized by Japan.
 日本の難民認定数は過去3年間で計35人にとどまる。過去をさかのぼっても、受け入れは他の主要国より2、3けた違いで少ないと指摘されてきた。

Worldwide, the number of people seeking asylum last year jumped 54 percent over the previous year to reach an all-time high, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
 国連難民高等弁務官事務所(UNHCR)によると、昨年の世界の難民申請者は、前年の54%増で過去最多になった。

This rapid growth in refugees is one of the most pressing humanitarian challenges confronting the world. The Justice Ministry’s new plan for accepting foreign nationals should be designed to ensure Japan will fulfill its international responsibility to tackle the challenge.
 難民は、いまの世界で最も切迫した人道問題の一つである。新計画は、国際責任をきちんと果たすものにすべきだ。

The ministry published a draft of its plan in June. It stressed Japan’s willingness to only accept people from other nations that it needs, such as those with particular skills and others who can work in the construction sector to help alleviate an expected shortage of workers in the lead-up to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. However, the draft blueprint has created the impression that Japan is reluctant to accept more refugees.
 法務省は計画案を6月に公開した。高度な専門性のある人、東京五輪に向けて建設分野で働ける人など日本側が必要とする外国人の受け入れを強調する一方、難民については後ろ向きの印象を与えている。

In analyzing the situation of asylum seekers in Japan, the document points out there are many foreign nationals who try to abuse the asylum system by applying for refugee status despite having no good reason for fearing persecution in their homeland.
 迫害のおそれがあるとはいえないのに難民申請する乱用が多いと現状を分析。

The draft plan contains measures to deal with this problem. One measure would allow the ministry to reject asylum claims without full-scale screening in cases where the intention to abuse the program is clear. In such cases, the applicants would not be able to file a fresh application for refugee status until new relevant circumstances emerge.
そのうえで、乱用が明らかな場合は本格審査前に振り分け、一度認定されなければ再申請できるのは新しい事情が生じたときに限るなどの対策を盛り込んだ。

In the meantime, an advisory panel of experts for the ministry called for the creation of a system to provide relief to people who don’t qualify as refugees under the international treaty but who nevertheless need protection. Yet, the draft plan offers no specific road map toward the goal.
 一方で、法務省の有識者会議が、国際条約でいう難民には当たらないものの保護の必要性がある人を救済するしくみを求めていたが、計画案はその具体的な道筋を示さなかった。

In an unusual move, the UNHCR has officially voiced concerns about the content of the draft plan. The U.N. refugee agency has pointed out the risk that some people who really need protection could be rejected as fake refugees under the plan.
 そんな内容をめぐっては、UNHCRが懸念を公式に表明する異例の事態になった。真に保護が必要な人も偽装難民とされるおそれがあると指摘した。

The Justice Ministry should pay serious attention to the UNHCR’s warning as a candid opinion expressed by a legitimate, experienced international organization working in the area.
国際機関の率直な意見として、法務省は耳を傾けるべきだ。

Asylum seekers are allowed to work in Japan if they are residing legally in the country.
 難民申請中は、正規滞在の人であれば就労を認められる。

As there is a limit on the number of ordinary foreign nationals allowed to work in Japan, some people may apply for refugee status purely to be qualified to work here. But that does not justify being too eager to raise the bar for all asylum seekers.
ふつうの外国人が日本国内で働ける枠が限られる中、就労資格を求めて難民申請する人はいるかもしれない。だが、だからといって認定の幅を狭めることには慎重であるべきだ。

It is not easy even for people who clearly qualify as refugees to prove that they deserve refugee status.
 明らかに難民にあたる人でも自らそれを証明するのは簡単ではない。

Generally, people become refugees under various situations of confusion. It is not unusual that even legitimate asylum seekers are unable to produce documents to support their asylum claims.
難民になる事情にはさまざまな混乱が伴うのだから、証拠の文書を求められても困難な場合は珍しくない。

If the ministry intends to review the refugee screening process, the focus should be on why Japan has recognized only a far smaller number of refugees than other industrial nations and whether the screening is simply too rigorous.
 審査のあり方を見直すのであればむしろ、なぜ各国に比べてここまで認定が少ないのか、審査が厳格すぎないかを、焦点に据えるべきだろう。

Given the situation in such regions as the Middle East and Africa, an overwhelming majority of people who really need protection cannot reach Japan to seek asylum.
 中東、アフリカなどの状況では、保護を求めて日本までたどり着けない人が圧倒的に多い。

It is time for Japan to consider how it can provide effective relief to such people.
日本発でどう助けの手を差しのべるか、考えるときだ。

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2015年8月13日 (木)

日航機墜落30年 安全運航への誓いを新たに

The Yomiuri Shimbun
JAL must pledge anew safe flights on 30th anniversary of fatal accident
日航機墜落30年 安全運航への誓いを新たに

Wednesday marks the 30th anniversary of a JAL jumbo jet crash into Mt. Osutaka in Gunma Prefecture that claimed the lives of 520 passengers and crew members.
 日航ジャンボ機が群馬県・御巣鷹山に墜落し、乗員乗客520人が犠牲になった事故から、12日で30年を迎える。

It was the worst single-airplane accident in the history of world aviation. Time has passed, but it cannot erase the grief of families who lost loved ones. We want to see the anniversary day serve as an opportunity to pledge anew to ensuring the safety of air travel without letting the memory of the accident fade.
 単独機の事故としては今なお、世界の航空史上最悪の惨事だ。遺族の無念は、年月を経ても変わるまい。事故の記憶を風化させず、空の安全を改めて誓う日としたい。

The jumbo jet was involved in a tailstrike accident during a landing in 1978, seven years before the fatal 1985 crash. Due to subsequent inadequate repairs by Boeing Co. of the United States, the aircraft’s rear pressure bulkhead broke up in flight and this resulted in the crash, according to a conclusion by the then Aircraft Accident Investigation Commission.
 ジャンボ機は墜落の7年前の1978年、着陸時に尻もち事故を起こしていた。この際の米ボーイング社による修理が不適切だったため、後部の圧力隔壁が飛行中に破断し、墜落の原因となった。

The commission told Japan Air Lines (currently Japan Airlines) that “its inspection methods were not adequate.”
 当時の航空事故調査委員会は、こう結論付け、日本航空に対しても、「点検方法に十分とはいえない点があった」と指摘した。

After the 1985 disaster, the airline carried out improvement measures, including an overhaul of its maintenance system. Despite this, it received a business improvement order from the Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry in 2005 in the aftermath of the revelation of multiple instances of inadequate maintenance.
 日航は事故後、整備システムの全面見直しなどを実施した。それにもかかわらず、2005年に整備ミスなどが相次ぎ、国土交通省から事業改善命令を受けた。

As one countermeasure, JAL established the Safety Promotion Center in 2006 at Haneda Airport. The center has played a major role as the hub for safety education for its employees. Looking at the wreckage of the pressure bulkhead, as well as articles and notes left by the victims, helps to impress upon employees the importance of safe flight operations.
 対応策として、06年に羽田空港内に設けた「安全啓発センター」は、社員教育の拠点として大きな役割を果たしている。圧力隔壁の残骸や遺品、遺書を目にすることで、社員は安全運航の大切さを再認識する。

All 35,000 JAL employees, including those from its group companies, had taken part in seminars at the center as of last March. More than 90 percent of JAL’s current employees joined the airline after the accident. This makes the importance of inheriting lessons from the disaster even greater.
 グループ企業を含めた3万5000人の全社員が、今年3月までに研修を受けた。今では、事故後に入社した社員が9割以上を占める。事故の教訓を継承する安全教育の重要性は増している。

Cultivate safety-first mindset

At the time of its financial management crisis in 2010, JAL put forth “safe flight operations” as the primary goal of its management as it worked toward revitalization. We want JAL to establish corporate culture that gives top priority to safety.
 日航は10年の経営危機を機に、再生へ向けた経営目標の第一に「安全運航」を掲げた。その理念を忘れず、安全最優先の企業風土を築き上げてもらいたい。

Since the 1985 JAL accident, there have been no passenger fatalities due to domestic airline accidents. However, “serious incidents” that might very well have led to great disasters have not ceased to happen. In June at Naha Airport, for example, an All Nippon Airways jetliner ready to take off was interrupted by an Air Self-Defense Force helicopter flying across its path.
 日航機事故後、国内航空会社で乗客が死亡する事故はない。ただし、一歩間違えば大惨事となりかねない重大インシデントは後を絶たない。6月には那覇空港で、離陸直前の全日空機の前を自衛隊ヘリが横切るトラブルがあった。

The total number of landings at domestic airports has nearly doubled from 30 years ago. Given the market participation of low-cost carriers and other factors, domestic airline companies face harsh competition. But they can never be allowed to neglect efforts to ensure safety in flight operations.
 国内空港の総着陸回数は30年前の2倍近くに増えた。格安航空会社(LCC)の参入などで、航空会社は激しい競争にさらされているが、安全運航への取り組みを怠ることは、決して許されない。

Well known in this regard is Heinrich’s Law, which states, “For every accident that causes a major injury, there are 29 accidents that cause minor injuries and 300 accidents that cause no injuries.” It is essential to share information among those involved in the civil aviation industry and to prevent accidents by nipping them in the bud while they are still at the stage of small mistakes.
 重大事故の背景には、29件の軽微な事故と300件の小さなミスがあるとする「ハインリッヒの法則」が知られる。航空業界で情報を共有し、小さなミスの段階で事故の芽を摘むことが大切だ。

The transport ministry last year launched a system under which airlines are asked to voluntarily report even small operational mistakes, for which reporting is not mandatory, and information that should be made known is then published. The system must be used to prevent further accidents.
 国土交通省は昨年、報告義務のない小さなミスも航空会社に自発的に報告させ、周知すべき情報は公開する制度をスタートした。事故防止に役立てたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 11, 2015)

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2015年8月12日 (水)

(社説)「違憲」法案 限定なき兵站の中身

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 9
EDITORIAL: ‘Unconstitutional’ security bills set no limit on military logistical support
(社説)「違憲」法案 限定なき兵站の中身

Discussions on the content of military logistics (or “rear-echelon support” in the parlance of current politics) to be provided overseas by Japan’s Self-Defense Forces have emerged as a focus of attention during deliberations in the Upper House over a controversial package of new security-related bills.
 新たな安全保障関連法案をめぐる参院審議で、自衛隊が海外で行う兵站(へいたん)(後方支援)の中身の議論が焦点になっている。

We simply cannot believe our ears at the sheer extent of the limitlessness and the breadth of discretion to be given to the government.
 あまりの無限定ぶりと、政府の裁量の幅広さに耳を疑う。

During the last several days of debate, the government has explained that it would be legally allowed to provide the following services to foreign troops:
 ここ数日の審議で、政府が法律上、他国軍に対して可能だと説明したのは次の通りだ。

[Transport of weaponry and ammunition] Missiles and tanks of the U.S. military forces, chemical weapons, toxic gas weapons and nuclear weapons
 【武器弾薬の輸送】米軍のミサイルや戦車、化学兵器、毒ガス兵器、核兵器

[Supply of ammunition] Grenades, rocket bombs, tank ammunition, nuclear weapons, depleted uranium munitions, cluster bombs
 【弾薬の提供】手榴(しゅりゅう)弾、ロケット弾、戦車砲弾、核兵器、劣化ウラン弾、クラスター爆弾

[Refueling] Airborne and seaborne refueling of U.S. fighter jets and combat helicopters that are embarking on bombing missions, and refueling of fighter jets and bombers that carry nuclear missiles or nuclear bombs
 【給油活動】爆撃に向かう米軍の戦闘機や戦闘ヘリに対する空中給油や洋上の給油。核ミサイルや核爆弾を積んだ戦闘機や爆撃機への給油

There is no doubt that the bills would significantly expand the leeway for discretion to be used by the administration of the time when compared with the existing legislation, which does not allow Japan to supply ammunition or provide other services to foreign troops. At the very least, virtually no restriction is expected to be set by the text of the legislation.
 弾薬の提供などが認められていないこれまでの法制に比べ、時の政権の裁量の余地が大きく広がっているのは間違いない。少なくとも、法文上の歯止めはないに等しい。

For example, Defense Minister Gen Nakatani made a nuanced remark in regard to the transport of cluster bombs, which scatter bomblets over broad areas and create serious threats from unexploded bomblets. He said the transport of cluster bombs “will not be ruled out legally, but decisions will be made carefully, because Japan is signatory to an international convention that totally bans their use and manufacture.”
 たとえば広範囲に子爆弾が飛び散り、不発弾被害も深刻なクラスター爆弾の輸送について、中谷防衛相は「法律上排除はしないが、日本は使用や製造を全面禁止した条約締結国で、慎重に判断する」と含みを残した。

Nakatani also remained noncommittal on the transport of depleted uranium munitions, which contain radioactive substances, when he said, “I cannot say definitively if it will be allowed to transport depleted uranium munitions of other countries.”
放射性物質を含む劣化ウラン弾の輸送も「他国の劣化ウラン弾を輸送できるか確定的に言えない」と明言を避けた。

The government takes the stance that Japan will consider all factors at hand in making policy decisions on whether to actually put into practice something that is legally allowed. It is certainly true that Japan has no way to supply nuclear weapons, depleted uranium munitions or cluster bombs, none of which it possesses, to foreign troops.
 法律上は可能であっても、実際に行うかどうかは総合的に政策判断する、というのが政府の立場だ。事実、日本は核兵器や劣化ウラン弾、クラスター爆弾を持っておらず、他国軍に提供できないのはその通りだ。

But speaking in general terms, it appears unlikely for Tokyo to refuse Washington’s strong request for transport operations, except in extremely improbable cases, such as the transport of nuclear weapons.
 ただ、核兵器の輸送などおよそ想定しにくいケースはまだしも、一般的に米国から輸送を強く要請された時、日本政府が拒むことは考えにくい。

It has so far been believed that unconstitutionality of operations that are construed as constituting “integrated use of force with foreign troops” would apply the brakes of sorts on similar operations. It has been learned, however, that Japan’s SDF transported armed U.S. soldiers during its airlift operations in Iraq. Given that, there could be a situation where anything goes if the security bills become law.
 これまでは、他国軍との武力行使の一体化にあたり、憲法違反になることが一応の歯止めとされていた。それでも、イラクでの自衛隊の空輸活動では、武装した米兵らを輸送していたことが明らかになった。これで安保法案が成立したら、なんでもありにならないか。

The bills do not limit the beneficiary of logistical support to U.S. troops. They would allow logistical support to be provided anywhere except in areas of “ongoing combat.” They would allow Japan to supply ammunition to foreign troops, transport weaponry and ammunition for foreign troops, and refuel aircraft of foreign troops being prepared for takeoff. They would allow Japan to do so anywhere in the world.
 法案では、兵站の対象は米軍に限らない。実施地域も「現に戦闘を行っている現場」以外は容認される。世界のどこでも他国軍に弾薬が提供でき、武器弾薬を輸送でき、発進準備中の航空機への給油もできる。

And they allow leeway for policy decisions to be made and discretion to be used by the administration of the time to provide this much military logistical support, which could constitute “integrated use of force with foreign troops.”
 他国軍の武力行使と一体化しかねないこれだけの兵站が、時の政権の政策判断、裁量によってできる余地がある。

We are only led to suspect ever more strongly that the security bills are unconstitutional, not only because they are based on a controversial decision to lift the country’s self-imposed ban on exercising the right to collective self-defense, but also because they are expected to allow logistical support to this extent to be provided.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認だけでなく、兵站の中身をみても、違憲の疑いがますます濃い。

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2015年8月11日 (火)

(社説)川内再稼働を前に 避難の不安が置き去りだ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 8
EDITORIAL: Concerns about evacuations in nuclear emergencies continue unabated
(社説)川内再稼働を前に 避難の不安が置き去りだ

The 2011 nuclear disaster resulted in a horrifying scenario in which nuclear fuel inside reactors melted down, triggering a massive release of radioactive materials into the environment outside the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 原子炉内の核燃料が溶け、大量の放射性物質が発電所の外にばらまかれる。福島第一原発事故で、私たちが目の当たりにした現実だ。

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has proposed a system of five layers of safety measures for nuclear power plants. The nuclear watchdog urges each country operating nuclear power plants to adopt this approach, known as “defense-in-depth,” to ensure the facilities operate safely.
 国際原子力機関(IAEA)は、原発の安全を保つ対策を5層に分類して、各国に求めてきている。

The final barrier in this system is prevention of radiation exposure to people living in areas around nuclear power plants.
その「最後の壁」が周辺住民の被曝(ひばく)を防ぐ対策だ。

Specifically, this fifth and final stage of defense-in-depth should be implemented in the form of plans developed by the central and local governments to mitigate the consequences of nuclear accidents and evacuate local residents.
 これを具体化するのが国や自治体の防災計画と避難計画だ。

When the Fukushima disaster occurred, however, no effective plan existed for the mass evacuation of local residents in Japan. This is because the possibility of a severe nuclear accident had been ruled out.
 ところが「過酷事故は起きない」としてきた日本には、多数の住民が避難する想定もなかった。

As a result, the accident triggered utter chaos in local communities around the Fukushima plant.
実際に事故が起きると、被災地は大混乱に陥った。

Now, more than four years since the disaster unfolded, Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai nuclear power plant in Kagoshima Prefecture is expected to restart its No. 1 reactor as early as Aug. 11.
 あれから4年余り。九州電力川内原発(鹿児島県薩摩川内市)が11日にも再稼働する。

But the mitigation and evacuation plans currently in place are far from reassuring to local residents. The responsibility to establish the “final barrier” and ensure the safety of residents rests with the local government. There should be no headlong rush toward restarting the reactor when serious safety concerns persist.
 しかし、防災・避難計画は到底、住民が安心できるものではない。「最後の壁」を整え、住民の安全を守る責任は自治体にある。不安を残したまま、再稼働に突き進んではならない。

SERIOUSNESS OF EVACUATION PLANS QUESTIONED
 ■命を守る気があるか

After the Fukushima accident, the central government made it mandatory for all local governments within 30 kilometers of a nuclear power plant to develop disaster mitigation and evacuation plans.
 事故後、国は原発の30キロ圏の自治体に防災・避難計画づくりを義務づけた。

All the nine municipalities within 30 km of the Sendai plant have drawn up such plans. The total population of the areas covered is about 210,000.
川内原発周辺の7市2町はすべて作成済みだ。対象人口は21万人にのぼる。

Takuro Eto, 58, who operates a daytime care service for the elderly in Ichikikushikino, a city located about 17 km from the Sendai plant, is deeply skeptical about the evacuation plan crafted by the municipal government.
 原発から約17キロのいちき串木野市で、デイサービス施設を営む江藤卓朗さん(58)は、避難計画への不信感を募らせる。

“Are they really serious about protecting the lives of people?” he said.
「命を守る気があるのか」と。

Many of the 10 or so elderly people who regularly come to Eto’s facility are suffering from dementia. If a serious nuclear accident occurs, they are required to return to their homes before being evacuated, according to the city’s evacuation plan.
 施設に通う約10人のお年寄りの多くは認知症を患う。市の避難計画に従えば、いったん自宅に戻すことになる。

One of these patients lives alone in a house located within 10 km of the plant.
 だがある利用者の家は原発から10キロ以内にあり、ひとり暮らしだ。

“Are we supposed to have this patient return home, which is located closer to the plant?” Eto said indignantly. “How can we ask our staffers to escort the patient home (in such an emergency)?”
「わざわざ近くに帰すのか。職員にも『送って』と言えるのか」と江藤さんは悩む。

How to evacuate people who cannot move on their own, such as the residents of nursing homes and hospital inpatients, also poses a challenge.
 老人ホームの入所者や病院の入院患者ら自力では動けない人たちの避難も難題だ。

The Kagoshima prefectural government has secured evacuation destinations for the 17 nursing homes and hospitals within 10 km of the Sendai plant. As for the 227 facilities located between 10 and 30 km from the plant, however, the local government has decided to do computer searches after an accident happens to find facilities that can accommodate those evacuees.
 鹿児島県は10キロ圏の17施設は避難先を確保したが、10~30キロ圏の227施設は、県が事故後にコンピューターで避難先を探し、個別連絡することにした。

An employee at a home for elderly people requiring special care located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear plant voices anxiety about the plan.
“We have only one staff member on night duty," the employee said. "How can the staffer deal with evacuating the residents to an unfamiliar place in an emergency?”
 30キロ圏の特別養護老人ホーム職員は「夜勤時は職員が1人だけ。いきなり知らないところへ避難しろと言われてもどうすればいいのか」と不安を漏らす。

Despite such concerns, the prefectural government has no plan to carry out an evacuation drill involving local residents to test the effectiveness of the evacuation plan before the reactor is brought back online.
 だが県は、避難計画の実効性を確かめる住民参加型訓練を再稼働前には実施しない方針だ。

“Kyushu Electric Power currently has no time (for such a drill) as it is busy with inspections prior to the reactor restart,” Kagoshima Governor Yuichi Ito said.
伊藤祐一郎知事は「使用前検査で九州電力に余裕がない」と説明する。

An Asahi Shimbun survey revealed that 66 percent of medical institutions and 49 percent of social welfare facilities within 30 km of nuclear power plants across Japan have not compiled mandatory evacuation plans specifying evacuation destinations, routes and transportation means to be used in the event of an accident.
 朝日新聞の調べでは、全国の原発の30キロ圏にある医療機関の66%、社会福祉施設の49%が、避難先や経路、移動手段の避難計画をまだ作っていない。

DIALOGUE WITH LOCAL RESIDENTS ESSENTIAL
 ■住民との対話不可欠

The fifth level of the IAEA’s defense-in-depth safety approach--the final barrier--should be designed to work effectively to protect public health even in cases in which all the other four layers of defense have failed.
 IAEAの「最後の壁」は、ほかの4層がすべて突破されたことを前提とし、それでも有効に機能することが大原則だ。

In Japan, this stage of defense is the local government’s responsibility. Evacuation plans are not covered by the Nuclear Regulation Authority’s safety assessments. Such plans are to be simply approved by the nuclear disaster prevention council, headed by the prime minister.
 日本でこの対策を担うのは自治体だ。原子力規制委員会は避難計画を審査対象にしていない。首相がトップの原子力防災会議も計画を「了承」するだけだ。

It should be assumed that the responsibility for protecting local residents from nuclear accidents lies with the local government, which is abreast of special regional circumstances.
住民を守る責任はまず、地域の事情に通じた自治体が負っていると考えるべきだ。

According to experts, in the disaster at the Fukushima No.1 plant, even the nuclear fuel pool of the No. 4 reactor, which was offline at that time, was at risk of a severe accident.
 第一原発の事故では、運転休止中だった4号機燃料プールも過酷事故に陥る可能性があったと指摘されている。

One vital lesson from the catastrophe is that the mere existence of a nuclear reactor poses serious safety risks.
原発は存在するだけでリスクであることが、事故の教訓でもある。

Evacuation plans are indispensable, whether the reactors are restarted or not.
再稼働する、しないに関わらず、避難計画は必要不可欠なのだ。

To be sure, it is almost impossible to create a perfect evacuation plan. But it is possible to clarify what can be done, ascertain problems to be solved and explain them to local residents.
 確かに、完璧な避難計画を求めることには無理はある。だが、何ができて、どんな課題があるのかを明らかにし、住民に説明することはできる。

To do so, the local governments of areas where nuclear plants are located need to conduct drills to test the effectiveness of their mitigation and evacuation plans and hold the necessary dialogue with local residents.
そのために自治体は訓練を通じて防災・避難計画の実効性を検証し、住民と対話を重ねるべきだ。

It is said that a two-stage evacuation approach is effective during nuclear emergencies. Under this approach, residents within 5 km of the plant should be evacuated first. People living between 5 and 30 km from the plant should first take refuge indoors to wait for their own evacuation.
 原発事故時には、5キロ圏の住民がまず避難し、5~30キロ圏は屋内退避の後、避難する「2段階避難」が有効とされる。

It is obvious that this approach does not work without the understanding and cooperation of the local residents.
住民の理解と協力なしにうまくいかないのは、明らかだ。

If local governments are responsible for the safety of their residents, they should also be involved in the process of deciding on whether to restart reactors.
 自治体が住民の安全確保に責任を負うなら、原発再稼働の是非に関与するのは当然だ。

Currently, however, under agreements with electric utilities, only the prefectures and municipalities that host nuclear power plants have the right to agree to reactor restarts. But this right should also be given at least to all the local governments in the 30-km zone that are obliged to map out evacuation plans.
電力会社との協定を根拠に、今は原発が立地する道県と市町村だけが持つ「同意権」を、少なくとも、防災・避難計画づくりの義務を負う30キロ圏の全自治体に認めるべきだ。

Nuclear reactors should be considered to be too dangerous if the local governments of areas that can be affected by accidents involving the reactors refuse to support their operations. These reactors should be decommissioned as soon as possible.
被害が及びうる自治体の同意さえ得られない原発は危険度も高いといえる。早めの廃炉につなげるべきだ。

CONTINUED FAILURE TO ACT
 ■不作為を重ねるのか

The Diet’s investigative committee that looked into the Fukushima accident has pointed out that little serious effort has been made in Japan to establish even the fourth level of the IAEA’s defense-in-depth strategy for nuclear safety, or control of severe plant conditions, the stage before the final barrier.
 国会の事故調査委員会は、IAEAの5層の防護策のうち、「最後の壁」の前に位置する過酷事故への備え(4層)も、日本はほとんど取り組んでこなかった、と指摘している。

In 2006, the Nuclear Safety Commission tried to make a sweeping review based on the IAEA standards of the priority areas designated under the government’s nuclear disaster prevention policy. But the plan was dropped in the face of opposition from the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, which feared such a review would provoke anxiety among local residents, according to the findings of the investigation.
 旧原子力安全委員会は06年、IAEA基準に沿って防災対策重点地域を見直そうとしたが、原子力安全・保安院が「住民に不安を与える」と抵抗し、見送られたこともわかっている。

The radiation exposure that afflicted many residents around the Fukushima plant could have been avoided. Many patients in hospitals who were not evacuated quickly enough died due to deteriorating health conditions. More than 1,900 people in Fukushima Prefecture have died due to causes related to the nuclear accident.
 避けられたはずの被曝を住民は余儀なくされ、救出が遅れた病院で入院患者が体調悪化で相次いで亡くなった。福島県内の関連死は1900人を超す。

Have all the relevant lessons from the calamity been gleaned and absorbed to prevent any further casualties of administrative nonfeasance?
 行政の不作為による犠牲者を生まないため、教訓を徹底的に引き出しているのか。

This is the question local governments should ask first in examining and evaluating their abilities to protect residents from nuclear accidents.
自治体はそこから点検してほしい。

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2015年8月10日 (月)

「イスラム国」 弱体化へ国際社会は結束せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Intl community must unite in resolve to undermine ISIL’s strength
「イスラム国」 弱体化へ国際社会は結束せよ

To weaken and eventually eliminate a brutal extremist organization, the international community must work together to tighten its noose around it.
 残忍な過激派組織の弱体化、壊滅という目標に向けて、国際社会は包囲網を強化すべきだ。

One year has passed since U.S. forces launched airstrikes against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
 米軍が「イスラム国」に対する空爆を開始してから1年が過ぎた。

As a result of about 6,000 air raids carried out by the United States and an international “coalition of the willing” in Iraq and Syria so far, more than 15,000 ISIL fighters, including some of its leaders, have been killed. Some crude oil facilities, a major source of revenue for the ISIL, and its military installations have been destroyed.
 米国と有志連合の国々がイラクとシリアで実施した約6000回の空爆により、「イスラム国」の幹部を含む戦闘員1万5000人以上が死亡した。収入源の原油関連施設や軍事施設も破壊した。

Although the air raids have achieved some military gains, prospects for a complete victory over the ISIL remain questionable.
 一定の戦果を上げたものの、掃討の見通しは依然、厳しい。

The recruitment of fighters by the ISIL continues, and there is no sign the strength of the extremist group — believed to be between 20,000 and 30,000 fighters — is weakening. Mosul, Iraq’s second largest city captured by the ISIL last year, remains under its rule. Its fighting methods, such as suicide assaults, are reportedly getting more extreme.
 「イスラム国」への戦闘員の流入はやまず、2万~3万人とされる勢力に衰えは見えない。昨年制圧したイラク第2の都市モスルでの支配も続く。自爆攻撃など戦闘方法は過激化する一方という。

The menace of extremist groups aligned with the ISIL has spread alarmingly not only throughout the Middle East and Africa but also South Asia and Russia.
 同調する過激派の脅威は、中東やアフリカにとどまらず、南アジア、ロシアにも広がっている。

Multifaceted, tenacious endeavors are imperative to stamp out the ISIL. United efforts to address this challenge by the countries concerned must be strengthened even more.
 多角的で粘り強い取り組みが掃討につながる。関係国の結束を一段と強めていく必要がある。

The airstrike operations are fraught with many difficulties, such as how to distinguish targets that are hiding among civilians. To make the operations effective, deployment of ground troops is a prerequisite, and the United States has been exerting efforts toward this end by training local forces.
 空爆には、住民に紛れた標的の識別など、多くの困難が伴う。効果を上げるには地上部隊が欠かせないため、米国は、現地で戦闘要員の育成を進めている。

Turkish role key factor

Prospective local troops trained by the U.S. forces, however, number no more than 11,000 or so in Iraq and a few dozen in Syria. Training more local troops is urgently needed.
 しかし、米軍が訓練し終えた要員はイラクで約1万1000人、シリアでは数十人に過ぎない。部隊の養成へテコ入れが課題だ。

The United States has been looking for ways to restructure its strategy, as exemplified by an agreement with Turkey, a country bordering Syria, to expand air raids against the ISIL.
 米国は、シリアの隣国トルコと空爆拡大への協力で合意するなど戦略の再構築を模索している。

Earlier, it was noted that Turkey, after placing top priority on ousting the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad, has assumed a lukewarm attitude in responding to the ISIL. Recently, however, Turkey allowed U.S. bombers to use an air base located in Turkey, and that base has been used by U.S. drones to make sorties for the first time.
 トルコは従来、シリアのアサド政権打倒を優先し、「イスラム国」への対応が甘いと指摘されていた。だが、最近、米軍機に空爆のための国内基地使用を認め、米無人機が初めて出撃した。

With the aim of beefing up pressure on Raqqa, the key ISIL stronghold in northern Syria, U.S. forces are poised to conduct intensive air raids targeting ISIL fighters near the Turkish border. Attention should be focused on whether the planned air raids will prove to be the first step to turning around the course of the war.
 今後、「イスラム国」の牙城であるシリア北部ラッカへの圧力を高めるため、米軍はトルコとの国境沿いで戦闘員を狙った空爆を集中的に行う構えだ。戦況好転への一歩となるか、注視したい。

To stem the inflow of fighters and weapons for the ISIL across the Turkish border, bolstering surveillance at the border, which stretches more than 900 kilometers, is important.
 トルコからの戦闘員や武器の流入を阻むには、900キロを超える国境の監視強化も重要だ。

A problem in this connection is that Turkey has begun attacking minority ethnic Kurds in Iraq and Syria. This campaign is aimed at the possibility of those Kurds collaborating with Kurdish antigovernment armed groups operating in Turkey.
 懸念されるのは、トルコがイラクとシリアで少数民族クルド人勢力を攻撃し始めたことだ。自国のクルド系反政府武装組織との連携に対する警戒感が背景にある。

Weakening the influence of the Kurds that have been playing a part in the fight to eradicate the ISIL will undermine the effort to contain it. Turkey should exercise self-restraint in this respect.
 「イスラム国」掃討の一翼を担うクルド人勢力の力をそげば、包囲網は弱まる。トルコの自制が求められる。

In addition, improvement of the human rights situation in the conflict-racked region is a matter of urgency. In July, the Japanese government decided to provide about ¥1.2 billion in emergency assistance to Iraq — about 3.1 million Iraqis are internally displaced people. Japan must fulfill its responsibility in fields other than military affairs.
 人道状況の改善は急務だ。日本は7月、国内避難民が約310万人に上るイラクに約12億円の緊急援助を決めた。非軍事支援で応分の責任を果たさねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 9, 2015)

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2015年8月 9日 (日)

日朝外相会談 拉致問題解決を粘り強く迫れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan should patiently press issue of abductions with North Korea
日朝外相会談 拉致問題解決を粘り強く迫れ

The government is expected to move the issue of Japanese nationals abducted by North Korean agents forward by using the fact that a high-level meeting has been held between Tokyo and Pyongyang as leverage.
 高いレベルでの北朝鮮との会談の実現をテコにして、日本人拉致問題の前進を図りたい。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida met his North Korean counterpart, Ri Su Yong, on the sidelines of meetings held by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations in Malaysia.
 マレーシアで行われた東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の一連の関連会議に合わせ、岸田外相が北朝鮮の李洙●外相と会談した。(●は土へんに庸)

Kishida protested to Ri during their talks that although Pyongyang has conducted reinvestigations on the abduction of Japanese nationals by its agents for more than a year, it has not reported any results. Kishida called it “regrettable” and asked the North Korean government again to send all the abduction victims home as soon as possible.
 北朝鮮の拉致被害者再調査が1年以上行われているのに、報告が一切ないことについて、岸田氏は「遺憾だ」と抗議した。全被害者の早期帰国も改めて求めた。

Ri told him that his government has been reinvestigating the incidents sincerely based on the agreement made between Tokyo and Pyongyang.
 李氏は、「(日朝両政府の)合意に基づき、調査を誠実に履行している」と弁明した。

Only North Korean leader Kim Jong Un can make a political decision to clarify the whole picture of the abductions, which are a state crime, and allow the victims to come home quickly.
 拉致という国家犯罪の全容を明らかにし、被害者を速やかに日本へ帰国させる。その政治決断は、金正恩第1書記しか下せない。

In that sense, it is meaningful that Kishida could directly tell Ri, a powerful figure allegedly close to Kim, the importance of solving the abduction issue.
 金第1書記と近い実力者とされる李氏に拉致問題解決の重要性を直接伝えた意義は小さくない。

It is important not to make the foreign ministerial meeting between Japan and North Korea a one-time event but to connect it to the progress of the reinvestigation.
 重要なのは、日朝外相会談を1回限りのものにせず、再調査の進展に結びつけることだ。

Instead of only a brief contact, Ri agreed this time to 30-minute-long talks with his Japanese counterpart.
 李氏は今回、短時間の接触でなく、約30分間の会談に応じた。

Pyongyang intends to force Japan to relax sanctions and extend food aid to North Korea in return for the reinvestigation. It apparently wants to avoid international isolation by maintaining talks with Japan.
 北朝鮮には、再調査の見返りに、日本から制裁緩和や食糧支援などを引き出す思惑がある。国際的な孤立を回避するため、日本との交渉自体は継続したいのだろう。

Strategic move necessary

The government must make a strategic move that no longer allows North Korea to play for time or maneuver cleverly.
 政府に求められるのは、北朝鮮にこれ以上の時間稼ぎや駆け引きを許さない戦略的取り組みだ。

Pyongyang claims that it has been conducting a comprehensive reinvestigation of the abductions, including issues related to remains of Japanese victims. However, the priority of the reinvestigation should be on the abduction victims who cannot come home yet.
 北朝鮮は、日本人遺骨問題を含めた包括的な再調査を行っていると主張する。だが、最優先すべきは未帰国の拉致被害者である。

If the North Koreans remain unable to report even information about the fate of the abductees, resumption of sanctions, which were lifted last year, and introduction of new measures such as prohibition of money transfers to North Korea cannot be avoided.
 安否情報の通報さえない状況が続くなら、昨年解除した制裁の復活や、送金の原則禁止などの新たな措置を取らざるを得まい。

The government should strongly urge North Korea to report on the progress of the reinvestigation. One option might be setting a new deadline for progress.
 再調査の進捗しんちょく状況の報告を強く促すべきだ。再調査に改めて期限を設けるのも選択肢となろう。

In Malaysia, Kishida also held separate talks with Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi and South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung Se, both of whom also attended the ASEAN meetings.
 マレーシアで岸田氏は、会議に出席した中国の王毅、韓国の尹炳世両外相とも個別に会談した。

In reference to a statement Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is going to issue to mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II, Wan said that he expected Abe to “face history with a responsible attitude.” Yun said he expects Abe to “reconfirm the perception of history held by past cabinets.” Kishida replied to them that the Abe Cabinet will “succeed the positions of the past cabinets in general.”
 王氏は安倍首相の戦後70年談話に関し、「歴史に責任ある態度で向き合ってほしい」と語った。尹氏は「歴代内閣の歴史認識の再確認を期待する」と述べた。岸田氏は「歴代内閣の立場を全体として引き継ぐ」と説明した。

The Advisory Panel on the History of the 20th Century and on Japan’s Role and World Order in the 21st Century submitted a report to the prime minister that it compiled after discussing the planned statement. “Japan expanded its aggression” after the 1931 Manchurian Incident, the panel said in the report. “Based on the deep remorse [for the war], Japan has been reborn as a country that is completely different from what it was … ”
 談話内容を検討した有識者懇談会は、日本が満州事変以後、「侵略」を拡大し、戦後は先の大戦への「痛切な反省」に基づき、全く異なる国に生まれ変わったとする報告書を安倍首相に提出した。

In the planned statement, the prime minister should review Japan’s past based on the perception of history presented in the report and clearly announce his will to build future-oriented relations with both China and South Korea.
 首相は談話で、報告書の歴史認識を踏まえて過去を総括し、中韓両国と未来志向の関係を構築する意思を明確に打ち出すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 8, 2015)

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2015年8月 8日 (土)

70年談話懇報告 首相も「侵略」を明確に認めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Abe must clearly admit ‘aggression’ in anniversary statement on WWII
70年談話懇報告 首相も「侵略」を明確に認めよ

 ◆過去への反省と謝罪が欠かせぬ◆

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe must send a clear message that Japan made a fresh start in the postwar period based on its reflection on the past misguided war.
 戦後日本が過去の誤った戦争への反省に立って再出発したことを、明確なメッセージとして打ち出さねばならない。

The Advisory Panel on the History of the 20th Century and on Japan’s Role and World Order in the 21st Century has submitted to Abe a report compiled after its discussions on the statement he will release next week to mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II.
 来週発表される戦後70年談話を巡って議論を重ねてきた21世紀構想懇談会が、安倍首相に報告書を提出した。

The report evaluated the postwar international contribution Japan made after learning lessons from its prewar failures and pointed out the need to make greater efforts to realize its proactive contribution to world peace.
 報告書は、戦前の失敗に学んだ戦後日本の国際協調の歩みを評価し、積極的平和主義を一層具現化していく必要性を指摘した。

The report determined that Japan expanded its “aggression” against the continent after the Manchurian Incident of 1931. This historical perspective can be regarded as hitting the nail on the head.
 その中で、日本が1931年の満州事変以後、大陸への「侵略」を拡大したと認定した。的を射た歴史認識と言える。

A turning point
 ◆「満州事変」が分岐点だ

However, the report contained a footnote that there were some dissenting views among panel members concerning the use of the word “aggression.” According to the report, the reasons for this included that the definition of “aggression” has not been established under international law and there is an objection from a historical perspective to stating that the series of events from the Manchurian Incident onward constituted “aggression.”
 一方で報告書は、「侵略」に脚注を付し、一部委員から異議が出たことも示した。国際法上「侵略」の定義が定まっていないこと、歴史的にも満州事変以後を「侵略」と断定するには異論があることなどが理由に挙げられた。

But acts of sending troops into territories of a foreign country and infringing on its sovereignty have been defined by historians as “aggression.”
 だが、歴史学者の間では、軍隊を送り込んで他国の領土や主権を侵害することが「侵略」だと定義されてきた。

In this sense, the series of acts from the Manchurian Incident onward obviously constituted “aggression.” It is irrational to refute that it was for the purpose of defense. The events also constituted a violation of the antiwar treaty signed in 1928 that banned wars except for defensive purposes.
 その意味で、満州事変以後の行為は明らかに侵略である。自衛のためという抗弁は通らない。自衛以外の戦争を禁止した28年の不戦条約にも違反していた。

It is not acceptable to argue defiantly that the United States and European countries also committed aggression. It is also wrong to assert that Japan waged the war for the liberation of Asia.
 他の欧米諸国も侵略をしたという開き直りは通用しない。日本はアジア解放のために戦争をしたという主張も誤りと言えよう。

The report also said: “Japan acted counter to the tide of self-determination. Colonial rule became particularly harsh from the second half of the 1930s on.”
 報告書はまた、日本が「民族自決の大勢に逆行し、特に30年代後半から、植民地支配が過酷化した」との見解を示した。

It added that “Japan’s postwar trajectory is based on a thorough reflection of its actions in the 1930s and the first half of the 1940s.” The report also pointed out the need to work toward achieving reconciliation with China and South Korea. Both points are significant.
 戦後日本の歩みは「30年代から40年代前半の行動に対する全面的な反省の上に成り立っている」と記した。中国や韓国との和解に向けた努力が必要なことにも言及した。いずれも重要な指摘だ。

The report expresses no opinion on whether Abe should offer an apology. “Whether or not to make an apology is the prime minister’s decision,” Shinichi Kitaoka, the panel’s deputy chairman and president of International University of Japan, said at a press conference. Even so, we think it would have been good if the panel had considered how such an apology might be offered.
 報告書は、謝罪に関しては提言していない。座長代理の北岡伸一国際大学長は記者会見で、「お詫わびするかどうかは首相の判断だ」と述べたが、お詫びの仕方を検討してもよかったのではないか。

National interests at stake
 ◆誤解招けば国益を害す

The report’s introduction states, “The Panel hopes that this Report serves as a reference for the statement to be issued on the 70th anniversary of the end of the war.”
 報告書前文には「戦後70年を機に出される談話の参考となることを期待する」と記されている。

One closely watched element of Abe’s statement will be his handling of key words that were contained in the statement issued by then Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama to mark the 50th anniversary of the end of the war, and the statement by then Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to mark the 60th anniversary. Both of these statements explicitly expressed “deep remorse” for Japan’s “colonial rule and aggression” and stated a “heartfelt apology.”
 安倍首相談話で注目されているのは、戦後50年の村山首相談話と60年の小泉首相談話に盛り込まれたキーワードの扱いだ。これら二つの談話には「植民地支配と侵略」への「痛切な反省」と「心からのお詫び」が明記されていた。

We don’t think the political meaning of Abe’s statement should be judged automatically by its use — or omission — of key words from the earlier statements. Be that as it may, the international community will be carefully observing what kind of historical perception is displayed by the Japanese prime minister.
 過去の首相談話のキーワードの有無だけで、今回の談話の政治的意味を機械的に判断すべきではないだろう。とはいえ、日本の首相がどのような歴史認識を示すのか、国際社会は注視している。

Abe previously stirred up controversy when he said the word “aggression” has no established definition in the international community.
 安倍首相は「侵略の定義は国際的にも定まっていない」と語り、物議を醸したことがある。

In an article contributed to The Yomiuri Shimbun, former Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone asserted, “From the viewpoint of those peoples, the Japanese military stepped into their countries with their boots on, and this was unmistakably an act of aggression.”
 中曽根元首相は、本紙への寄稿の中で「現地の人からすれば日本軍が土足で入り込んできたわけで、まぎれもない侵略行為だった」と明言している。

Sense of apology
 ◆心に響くお詫びの意を

If Abe omits the word “aggression” from his statement, he will inevitably be viewed as not wanting to accept the fact that Japan committed aggression. If suspicions are harbored over Japan’s actions and trust in Japan is shaken because of this, it will damage the national interest.
 談話に「侵略」と書かなければ、首相は侵略の事実を認めたくないと見られても仕方がない。それにより、日本の行動に疑念が持たれたり、対日信頼感が揺らいだりすれば、国益を損なう。

There are strong concerns that not offering any gesture at all to the many people who were forced to endure tremendous suffering and sacrifice because of Japan’s actions before the end of the war could generate the misunderstanding that “Japan does not feel remorse for what happened.”
 日本の戦前の行為により多大な苦痛と犠牲を強いられた人々に対し、何の意思表示もしないことは、「反省なき日本」という誤解を与える恐れが強い。

We can understand why many Japanese people feel uncomfortable about continuing to apologize generation after generation.
 子々孫々の代まで謝罪を続けることに、国民の多くが違和感を抱くのは理解できる。

We suppose it is time to draw a line, and make this the final apology, for once and for all.
 今回限りということで、けじめをつけてはどうか。

Even if Abe’s statement uses expressions that indirectly touch on the views of previous cabinets, such as quotes from the Murayama statement, it should also include words that convey sincere feelings of apology regarding Japan’s “aggression” and “colonial rule.”
 安倍談話は、村山談話の引用など歴代内閣の見解を踏まえる間接的な表現であっても、「侵略」と「植民地支配」に対する心からのお詫びの気持ちが伝わる言葉を盛り込むべきである。

Or it should incorporate words of apology from the prime minister himself that will resonate in the hearts of people who suffered during the war.
 あるいは、戦争で被害を受けた人々の心に響く、首相自身のお詫びの言葉を示すことだ。

Leaders of Germany, a nation that has squarely reflected on its Nazi-era past, have gained the confidence of France and other nearby countries by using heartfelt expressions, even if they did not use direct words of apology.
 ナチス時代を率直に反省したドイツの指導者たちは、お詫びを示す直接の言葉でなくても、思いのこもった表現で、フランスなど周辺諸国の信頼を得てきた。

This could be an example from which Japan can learn.
 そうした例も参考になろう。

Abe has spoken of his desire to issue a future-oriented statement. However, he should keep in mind that properly reviewing the past is precisely the way to ensure that Japan’s international contributions and policy of proactive contribution to peace are positively evaluated.
 首相は未来志向の談話を目指したい、と述べている。しかし、過去をきちんと総括した上でこそ、国際貢献も、積極的平和主義も評価されることを銘記すべきだ。

Opinions within the government and ruling parties are split over whether the 70th anniversary statement should be issued after a decision by the Cabinet to support it. Considering that this is a statement for which the Cabinet should take responsibility, we think the Cabinet needs to make such a decision.
 政府・与党内では、70年談話を閣議決定すべきか否かで意見が分かれている。内閣として責任を持つべき談話である以上、やはり閣議決定する必要がある。

The statement should confidently tell the world about the path Japan has taken in the 70 years since the war ended.
 戦後70年の日本の歩みを堂々と世界に発信すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 7, 2015)Speech

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2015年8月 7日 (金)

原爆忌 被爆地訪問で核軍縮に弾みを

The Yomiuri Shimbun
For sake of peace, world leaders should visit Hiroshima in person
原爆忌 被爆地訪問で核軍縮に弾みを

Thursday marks the passage of 70 years since an atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. On Sunday, Nagasaki will also mark the 70th anniversary of becoming a victim of an atomic bomb during the war.
 広島に原爆が投下されてから、6日で70年が経過した。長崎は9日に原爆忌を迎える。

Many years have passed since the day when a nuclear weapon was used for the first time in human history. The average age of atomic bomb survivors is now above 80.
 人類史上、初めて核兵器が使用されたあの日から長い歳月が流れ、被爆者の平均年齢は80歳を超えた。

About 70 percent of Japanese people do not know the dates when atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This finding came through a public poll taken by NHK. The importance of handing down the memory of the atomic bombings from generation to generation has grown greater than ever.
 今や、広島、長崎への原爆投下の日付を知らない人が約7割を占める。NHKの世論調査の結果だ。被爆の記憶を語り継いでいく重要性は一段と増している。

Rose Gottemoeller, U.S. undersecretary of state for arms control and international security, will attend this year’s peace memorial ceremonies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki — the first time for a senior U.S. government official to be sent from Washington to attend an annual ceremony.
 広島と長崎の式典には今回、米国のゴットムラー国務次官が参列する。ワシントンから高官が派遣されるのは初めてだ。

In a peace declaration to be announced at the peace ceremony, Hiroshima Mayor Kazumi Matsui will call on U.S. President Barack Obama and other leaders from across the world to visit the sites of the atomic bombings.
 松井一実・広島市長は平和宣言で、オバマ米大統領ら各国指導者に被爆地訪問を呼びかける。

Next spring, a summit meeting of the Group of Seven major nations (the Ise-Shima summit) will be held in Japan, and Hiroshima is slated to host a related meeting of foreign ministers. It will be a good occasion for them to encounter the reality of a place where an atomic bomb was dropped.
来春、日本で主要国首脳会議(伊勢志摩サミット)が開かれ、広島は外相会合の会場となる。被爆地の実相に接する好機となろう。

Presently, an atomic bomb exhibition, sponsored by the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and other entities, is being held in Washington, the first such exhibition there in 20 years. Included on display are a watch whose hands stopped at the time when the atomic bomb was dropped on the city, and the Hiroshima Panels, joint works by the artists Iri Maruki, a Hiroshima native, and his wife Toshi Maruki.
 ワシントンで、広島、長崎両市などが主催する原爆展が20年ぶりに開かれている。原爆投下の時刻で止まった時計や、広島出身の画家、丸木位里、俊夫妻の「原爆の図」などが展示されている。

Fraught topic in U.S.

When a similar exhibition was held in the United States 20 years ago, there was controversy over what was to be displayed. The organizers planned to display some mementos of the atomic bomb victims, together with Enola Gay, the plane that dropped the first atomic bomb. But war veterans and others in the United States strongly opposed the proposed exhibit, calling it “an insult” to all U.S. soldiers.
 20年前には、展示内容を巡る論争があった。原爆を投下した爆撃機「エノラ・ゲイ」と共に、被爆者の遺品を展示する企画に対し、退役軍人らが「全米兵への侮辱だ」と猛反発した。

The proposed plan fell through, and the mementos were put on display at another event.
企画は頓挫し、遺品は別の催しで公開された。

In the United States, there is a deep-rooted historical perspective that the atomic bombing brought the war to a quick end, thus saving the lives of many American soldiers.
 米国では、原爆投下で戦争終結が早まり、多数の米兵の命が救われた、という歴史観が根強い。

In recent years, however, changes in that perception appear to be occurring.
 近年、変化もうかがえる。

The U.S. government plans to turn facilities related to the Manhattan Project — a program that led to the development of atomic weapons in the United States — into a national historical park. Emerging as part of the establishment of the park is a proposal to put some materials related to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on display within the park.
 米政府は、原爆を開発したマンハッタン計画の関連施設を国立歴史公園にする予定だ。そこに広島、長崎の被爆資料を展示する案が浮上している。

The idea came as the U.S. government has taken into consideration the wishes of the two cities for the park to convey correctly the realities of the damage wrought by the bombings.
原爆被害の実態を正確に伝えてほしいという両市の要望に配慮したものだ。

There are still more than 15,000 nuclear warheads in the world. President Vladimir Putin of Russia, which annexed the Crimean Peninsula of Ukraine last year, said later that Russia was ready to put its nuclear forces on alert over the crisis there.
 世界には今なお、1万5000発以上の核弾頭が存在する。昨年、ウクライナのクリミア半島を編入したロシアのプーチン大統領は後に、「核戦力を戦闘態勢に置く準備があった」と述べた。

China is building up its nuclear capability. During the process of working to compile final documents of agreement at the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in May, China had some of the original wording deleted from the draft. The wording, based on a Japanese request, called on leaders and young people of the world to visit Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
 中国は核戦力を増強している。今年5月には、核拡散防止条約(NPT)再検討会議の最終文書案の作成過程で、世界の指導者や若者に被爆地訪問を呼びかける日本提案の記述を削除させた。

China criticized Japan, saying it was trying to depict itself as a victim. But issues related to historical perceptions should not be linked with nuclear disarmament.
 中国は、日本が被害者の立場を取ろうとしていると非難した。核軍縮に歴史認識問題を絡めてはならないだろう。

Teaching the world about the misery wrought by nuclear weapons, and linking the appeal to nuclear disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation. This is a mission Japan, the sole country where atomic bombs were dropped, is obliged to assume.
 核兵器がもたらす惨状を世界に訴え、核軍縮や核不拡散に結びつける。それが唯一の被爆国である日本に課せられた使命だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 6, 2015)

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2015年8月 6日 (木)

生命の果実を発見、ナツメヤシの実からつくられるデーツシロップ

その昔シルクロードを行きかう旅人たちの命を守ったのがナツメヤシです。
ナツメヤシは単糖類ですから、身体に吸収されやすくて、すぐに燃焼してエネルギーとなります。
シルクロードを行きかう旅人たちのエネルギー補給にはもってこいだったのでしょう。

このナツメヤシ、実は紀元前から知られている砂漠の栄養補給食品だったのです。
それが現代の技術でよみがえりました。
それはデーツシロップ です。

単糖類で身体に吸収されやすいデーツシロップは、忙しくて食事の時間がままならない現代の猛烈ビジネスマンたちにはうってつけです。
また、美容や健康のために利用されている人たちは意外と多いです。
デーツシロップには料理のお味をまろやかにする効果がありますので、その結果、使用する食塩の量を減らすことができます。
高血圧などの治療を受けている人々には最適な食品なんです。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ  レビューブログからの情報です

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(社説)政権と沖縄 「休戦」で終わらせるな

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 5
EDITORIAL: Tokyo-Okinawa 'temporary truce' too good an opportunity to waste
(社説)政権と沖縄 「休戦」で終わらせるな

Since a window of dialogue between the Abe administration and Okinawa prefectural government seems to have finally opened, every effort must be made to keep it open for continued talks.
 ようやく安倍政権と沖縄県の対話の窓が開いたのだろうか。これを継続的な話し合いの場に育てなければならない。

Tokyo and Naha agreed Aug. 4 that all work related to the planned relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to the Henoko district in Nago will be suspended for one month, starting Aug. 10. The parties also agreed to use this period for intensive talks until Sept. 9.
 米軍普天間飛行場の沖縄県名護市辺野古への移設に伴う新基地建設をめぐり、安倍政権と沖縄県が9月9日まで1カ月間、すべての工事を中断し、集中的に協議することで合意した。

Without this agreement, the situation inevitably would have deteriorated into a quagmire, with both sides resorting to measures to outdo one another. Tokyo was poised to start shortly reclamation work for the construction of the new air base, and Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga was about to void the land reclamation permit issued by his predecessor.
 近く本体工事に着手する方針だった政権と、前知事の埋め立て承認を取り消す方針だった沖縄県。このまま進めば、双方が対抗措置を繰り出す泥沼の衝突に発展するのは必至だった。

The one-month moratorium came just in time to avert a showdown. For the first time since Onaga became governor eight months ago, Tokyo and Naha, which could never agree on anything, are finally sitting down together at the negotiating table. We welcome this development.
 その寸前に、かろうじて1カ月の猶予期間が生まれた。翁長雄志(おながたけし)知事の誕生から8カ月、すれ違いが続いてきた国と県が、本格的な話し合いの席に着くことは評価したい。

However, it will certainly not be easy for them to narrow their distance.
 だが、互いの歩み寄りは容易ではない。

The duration of the talks is limited to only one month, and there is nothing to indicate that the Abe administration will deviate during this period from its set policy, which is that the relocation to Henoko is the only solution.
 協議期間は1カ月に区切られている。政権が、辺野古移設が唯一の解決策という方針を転換する気配もない。

The administration's decision to suspend work for one month was probably motivated by the following events scheduled during that period: The Upper House will be deliberating highly contentious bills on national security and the administration grapples with another divisive issue of restarting a nuclear reactor. Should the administration go ahead with the Henoko reclamation in disregard of the vehement resistance put up by the people of Okinawa, its already declining approval rating could go further south.
 おそらく政権にはこんな事情があるのだろう。
 これからの1カ月は、世論の批判が広がっている安全保障関連法案の参院審議と重なる。原発再稼働など国民の評価が割れる課題もある。そのうえに、沖縄県の強い反対を押し切って辺野古の埋め立てを強行すれば、内閣支持率のさらなる低下を招きかねない――。

We cannot help suspect that the administration sees the period until Sept. 9 as nothing more than "temporary truce" until the national security bills become law.
 9月9日までの協議期間は、安保法案が成立するまでの、つかの間の「休戦期間」なのか。そんな疑念がぬぐえない。

Onaga is sticking to his position that construction of a new facility in Henoko is absolutely unacceptable. He has all the popular backing he needs from the results of last year's Nago mayoral election, the gubernatorial election and the Lower House election, each of which represented a triumph of the people's will to oppose the relocation plan.
 翁長知事も「辺野古新基地建設は不可能」とする姿勢を貫く構えだ。昨年の名護市長選、知事選、総選挙で繰り返し示された新基地建設反対の民意が知事の背中を押している。

Both Tokyo and Naha obviously have their own interests to consider, but we strongly hope they will let this precious opportunity for dialogue become the first step toward breaking the impasse.
 双方に事情はあろうが、せっかくの対話の機会を問題の打開につなげてほしい。

The first thing they need to confirm is that the either/or argument of "Henoko or Futenma" has got to end.
 まず確認すべきは「辺野古か普天間か」の二者択一の議論はもう終わりにすることだ。

Rather, the questions that should be asked include the following: What sort of foreign policy strategy does Japan need to establish a stable, long-term relationship with China? Where should U.S. forces and Japan's Self-Defense Forces be positioned in that strategy? What is the significance of concentrating U.S. bases in Okinawa? And are U.S. Marine Corps bases really necessary in Okinawa?
 中国と長期的に安定した関係を築くには、どんな外交戦略が必要なのか。そのなかに米軍や自衛隊をどう位置づけるべきなのか。沖縄に基地が集中することに意味があるのか。海兵隊の基地は本当に必要なのか。大きな構図の中で、白紙から再考すべきである。

All these issues must be reworked from scratch against the big picture, and the task requires more than just the Abe administration and the Okinawa prefectural government.
 それは、安倍政権と沖縄県だけで成り立つ議論ではない。

Specifically, the central government must hold serious talks with the U.S. government. The Abe administration cannot be considered to be taking Okinawa seriously so long as it continues to avoid such talks with Washington.
 解決には米国との本格協議が必要であり、それを避けている限り、政権が本気で沖縄と向き合っているとは言えない。

The coming month must be used to get the ball rolling in the right direction.
この1カ月を、こうした議論を深めるための転機とすべきだ。

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英語力アップに王道はありません、その秘訣とは

英語力アップに王道はありません。
その秘訣とはいったいなんなのでしょうか?
それは毎日規則的にひたすら英会話の学習を継続するということなんです。

ネイティブオンライン英会話「スキマトーク」が画期的なレッスンを提供しています。
これを見逃す手はないと思います。
オンライン英会話だったら、英会話学校にお出かけして英会話を習うよりもはるかに安上がりで済みます。
企業の英語研修 あたりでも、こちらの方式が採用されれば、大幅に経費の削減が可能となります。

ネイティブオンライン英会話「スキマトーク」ではネイティブ講師陣が充実しています。
優秀な講師陣たちは世界50カ国以上から集められています。それぞれが個性を持ち、専門性を備えています。講師陣の多様性は大いに利用価値があります。
例えばエンジニアの英会話だったら、ネイティブエンジニアから教われば、専門用語を含めて完璧なレッスンが受けられます。

スキマトークの毎日レッスンプランは、毎日25分、50分の2プランからなりますが、私のお勧めは25分プランです。
人が集中して学習できる時間はその人にもよりますがだいたい1時間以内なんです。
毎日25分間集中して学習することができれば、英会話の実力は確実についてきます。



ネイティブ講師数が1,000名を突破!国内最大級のネイティブオンライン英会話「スキマトーク」が1レッスン690円~で毎日マンツーマン英会話ができるサービスを開始



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2015年8月 5日 (水)

(社説)礒崎氏の発言 首相の任命責任を問う

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 4
EDITORIAL: Isozaki’s views reflect the cowboy mind-set of Abe & Co.
(社説)礒崎氏の発言 首相の任命責任を問う

Yosuke Isozaki’s controversial remarks about security legislation have become a major political issue, not simply because they were mouthed by a special adviser on national security to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
 問題は首相補佐官としての発言の是非にとどまらない。

Isozaki’s comments, which belittled the importance of legal stability, have raised questions about Abe’s responsibility for appointing this individual to the key security policy post and also about the administration’s overarching tendency to make light of the Constitution.
安倍首相の任命責任、さらには憲法を軽視してきた政権全体の姿勢が問われている。

Talking about the package of government-drafted security bills now before the Upper House, Isozaki, in a July 26 speech, said: "What we have to think about is whether the measures are necessary to protect Japan. Legal stability has nothing to do with it."
Isozaki on Aug. 3 testified before an Upper House special committee on the security legislation as an unsworn witness.
 安全保障関連法案をめぐって「考えないといけないのは、わが国を守るために必要な措置かどうかで、法的安定性は関係ない」と講演で発言した礒崎陽輔首相補佐官が、参院特別委員会で参考人として釈明した。

He acknowledged that his remarks had been “inappropriate” and apologized, but refused to resign as adviser to the prime minister.
 自らの発言を「不適切だった」と認め、陳謝したが、首相補佐官の辞任は否定した。

The unacceptable part of his testimony is his claim that his remarks produced a “big misunderstanding.” In a posting on his website dated July 19, before the speech in question, Isozaki said the following:
 納得できないのは、礒崎氏が「大きな誤解を与えてしまった」と述べている点だ。
 たとえば問題発言のあった講演より前、7月19日付の礒崎氏のホームページには当初、次のような記述があった。

"It doesn’t serve the national interest to become preoccupied with making the formalist argument that (the security legislation) lacks legal stability with the traditional government interpretation of the Constitution when there have been significant changes in the international situation surrounding Japan.”
 「日本を取り巻く国際情勢が大きく変化しているにもかかわらず、従来の憲法解釈との法的安定性を欠くなどという形式議論に終始しているのは、国家にとって有益ではありません」

In this positing, too, Isozaki dismissed the argument for legal stability as a “formalist” view.
So there was no misunderstanding. This is what he truly thinks.
 ここでも法的安定性を「形式議論」と切り捨てていた。誤解でも何でもない、これこそが偽らざる本音だったのだろう。

While he was an elite bureaucrat at the former home affairs ministry (now the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications), Isozaki, as a Cabinet counselor, was involved in the drafting of legislation to deal with security emergencies.
Then he entered politics by running successfully in an Upper House election as a candidate of the Liberal Democratic Party.
 総務省出身の礒崎氏は、内閣参事官として有事法制の整備を手がけた後、自民党参院議員に転身。

Since he was appointed as an adviser to Abe, Isozaki has been working as a coordinator for the prime minister’s office to push the series of security policy initiatives.
Among security policy moves in which he has been involved are the establishment of the state secrets protection law, the change in the government’s interpretation of the Constitution to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense under certain conditions and the drafting of the security legislation that recently cleared the Lower House.
首相補佐官に起用され、特定秘密保護法の制定や、集団的自衛権の行使を一部容認する憲法解釈の変更、安保法案の作成に首相官邸の代表として調整にあたった。

In February, Isozaki, speaking as the secretary-general of the LDP’s headquarters for promoting constitutional amendments, said, “We are going to give the people a taste of constitutional amendments.” That comment also triggered public criticism.
2月には自民党の憲法改正推進本部事務局長として「憲法改正を国民に一回味わってもらう」と述べ、物議を醸したこともある。

Isozaki has been acting as a flag waver for Abe’s constitutional amendment agenda, so to speak.
 いわば安倍首相の改憲路線の旗振り役でもある。

Abe has cautioned members of his administration to “refrain from making remarks that arouse doubt.”
Given the depth of the relationship between Abe and Isozaki, however, what this adviser said cannot be dismissed simply as a gaffe by a close aide to the prime minister.
 首相は「疑念をもたれるような発言は慎まねばならない」と述べたが、その関係の深さを考えれば、単なる側近議員の失言で片付けるわけにはいかない。

Senior LDP lawmakers have made remarks that indicate they are putting greater importance on security policy than on the Constitution. “The nation could fall into ruin while protecting the Constitution” is a typical refrain.
 「憲法守って国滅ぶ」。自民党幹部からは憲法より安保政策の方が優先だ、と言わんばかりの発言が聞かれる。

Remarks such as this, which is similar in essence to what Isozaki said, reflect a mind-set of treating the Constitution and legal stability lightly.
礒崎氏の発言と根っこは同じ憲法軽視、法的安定性軽視の姿勢だ。

Isozaki’s words have underscored afresh an inherent lack of legal stability in the security legislation.
 礒崎氏の発言は、安保法案の法的安定性の本質的な欠如をも改めて浮かび上がらせた。

The administration has made a 180-degree change in the official interpretation of the Constitution with regard to whether Japan can exercise the right to collective self-defense, from “no” to “yes,” while stressing the qualifier “under certain circumstances.”
 限定行使の名のもとに、集団的自衛権を「行使できない」から「行使できる」に百八十度転換したこと。

The administration has also exhibited a propensity to secure the government as much leeway as possible to make its own security policy decisions.
時の政権の裁量の余地を、できるだけ限定せずに残しておこうとする姿勢。

It is obvious that the security legislation lacks legal stability.
 法案が法的安定性を欠くのは明らかである。

The blame for this serious flaw with the legislation should be borne by the prime minister himself and the entire ruling camp, including Komeito, the LDP’s junior coalition partner.
その責めは、首相自身と、公明党を含む政権全体が負うべきものだ。

Isozaki’s testimony as an unsworn witness before the Diet alone cannot put an end to this serious political problem.
礒崎氏の招致で済む話ではない。

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SIMフリーのスマートフォン新発売、LTEとLolipopを搭載

携帯通信端末で有名なコヴィアがSIMフリーのスマートフォン「FLEAZ POP」 を新発売しました。
LTEとLolipopが搭載されていますが、お値段が、かなり安いのが大きな特徴です。
おそらく、スマホでは最安値レベルではないのでしょうか。

スマホでも、SIMフリーにするメリットは計り知れません。
今まで長年にわたって使ってきた愛用の携帯電話番号だって、そのまま踏襲されるのです。
契約携帯電話会社を他社に変更する場合にも心配はありません。新しい携帯を購入しなくても、コヴィアの開発したこちらの新しい端末で対応できるのです。

手にしっかりとなじむサイズで、コーナーの縁取りラインがとても美しいです。
これなら、資金力のとぼしい若者たちから、比較的裕福な高齢者にいたるまで、幅広く使われることも、当たり前のことなんです。
充実した機能と美しいフォルムが売りの新製品です。



Covia SIMフリースマートフォンFLEAZシリーズにLTE対応製品が登場!Android 5.1(Lolipop)、4インチIPS液晶を搭載した「FLEAZ POP(ポップ)」を発売開始!



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2015年8月 4日 (火)

南シナ海情勢 中国は規範から逃れられない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Beijing must honor code of conduct in S. China Sea to prevent conflicts
南シナ海情勢 中国は規範から逃れられない

Making its control over the South China Sea a fait accompli by buying time on the pretext of continuing dialogue, China’s posture has now become crystal clear with Beijing turning its back on efforts to formulate international rules pertaining to the disputed waters.
 対話の継続で時間を稼ぎ、南シナ海の支配強化を既成事実化する。国際的なルール作りに背を向ける中国の姿勢が鮮明になった。

To lay down a “code of conduct” to prevent conflicts in the South China Sea, senior officials from China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations held talks last week in Tianjin, China.
 南シナ海での紛争防止を図る「行動規範」の策定に向けて、中国と東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)が中国・天津で、公式高官協議を開いた。

Regarding the issue of creating the code of conduct, both sides stressed what they called the positive fruits of the talks, declaring, each participant county had agreed that we would enter a new phase of consultations to discuss highly important and complex issues. No time frame or related steps for drawing up the envisioned code of conduct were spelled out, however, meaning that the China-ASEAN talks failed to make any substantive progress.
 双方は行動規範について、「各国が、重要で複雑な問題を議論するため、新たな段階に入ることに同意した」と成果を強調した。だが、策定時期などは明示されず、実質的な前進はなかった。

The proposed code of conduct is to be a set of legally binding rules that would regulate behavior of such countries as China, the Philippines and Vietnam that are disputing territory in the South China Sea. Studies are being made to incorporate in the code of conduct such rules contained in the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea and creation of a framework to oversee the behavior of the respective countries concerned.
 行動規範は領有権を争う中国とフィリピンやベトナムなど関係国の行動を法的に拘束するものだ。国連海洋法条約の尊重や各国の行動を監視する枠組みの創設などを盛り込むことを検討している。

It appears that China, while showing that it is prepared to sit at the negotiating table with ASEAN, wants to prevent the United States from having any say in the region, in a bid to claim the South China Sea as “China’s own waters.”
 中国はASEANとの協議に応じる一方で、米国の影響力を排除し、南シナ海を「自国の海」として囲い込むつもりなのだろう。

If a code of conduct was actually drawn up, Beijing probably would try to make its binding power as weak as possible, with the aim of emasculating the content of the pact.
 仮に行動規範をまとめる場合でも、できるだけ拘束力を弱め、中身を骨抜きにする意図があるのではないか。

Bid to divide ASEAN members

The main reason for the failure to make progress in the talks, which began in September 2013, is China’s efforts to stymie progress, as Beijing is averse to any attempt to put constraints on its endeavor to change the status quo.
 2013年9月に始まった協議が進展しない最大の原因は、自らの現状変更の試みが制約されるのを嫌う中国の消極姿勢にある。

Meanwhile, China is going all-out to reclaim reefs of the Spratly Islands one after another, by building such installations as a 3,000-meter-class runway and military facilities. Should a surveillance network with radar be installed there, there would be fears that a huge area of the South China Sea would come under the influence of China.
 この間、中国はスプラトリー(南沙)諸島で岩礁を次々に埋め立てて、3000メートル級滑走路や軍事施設の建設を急いでいる。監視レーダー網が設置されれば、南シナ海の広大な区域が中国の影響下に入ることも懸念される。

It goes without saying that China, a major power that should fulfill its responsibility to ensure the region’s peace and stability, is responsible for the strained situation in the South China Sea.
 地域の平和と安定に責任を果たすべき大国である中国が南シナ海情勢を緊張させていることは、看過できない。

In the middle of this week, foreign ministers and other officials from Japan, the United States, China, ASEAN members and others will hold the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in Kuala Lumpur to discuss security issues. The discussion will focus on such issues as “freedom of navigation” in the South China Sea.
 今週半ばには、日米中やASEANなどの外相らがクアラルンプールで、安全保障問題を話し合うASEAN地域フォーラム(ARF)を開催する。南シナ海の「航行の自由」などが焦点となる。

China presumably used the senior officials’ talks last week ahead of the ARF meeting to cause internal divisions within ASEAN, probably aimed at isolating the Philippines, as problems between the two countries have intensified.
 中国はその前の高官協議でASEAN内部を分断し、中国との対立が先鋭化するフィリピンを孤立させる思惑もあったのだろう。

Problematic in this connection is that on the eve of the talks, Chinese forces carried out military exercises in the vicinity of Hainan Island in the South China Sea that were one of the largest in scale ever carried out by the Chinese military, with more than 100 vessels, scores of aircraft and strategic missile troops mobilized. The war games were apparently designed to keep the U.S. forces, which have been beefing up surveillance activities in the South China Sea, in check.
 問題なのは、中国軍が協議前日、南シナ海の海南島周辺で、艦艇100隻以上と航空機数十機、戦略ミサイル部隊による過去最大規模の演習を行ったことだ。南シナ海の警戒監視を強める米国を牽制けんせいする狙いがあるとみられる。

Japan, in cooperation with such countries as the United States and the Philippines, must press China repeatedly to help draw up an effective code of conduct as early as possible and suspend the projects to militarize the reefs in the South China Sea.
 日本は、米国やフィリピンなど関係国と連携し、実効性のある行動規範の早期策定と、南シナ海での軍事拠点化の中止を、中国に繰り返し促さねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 3, 2015)

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海外でもアンドロイドでテレビがみられます

長期海外赴任などで日本のテレビがみられない人たちは意外と多いです。
実は私もそのうちの一人なんです。
海外生活で大変なのが日本のテレビがみられないということです。

今朝、ネットで大発見をしました。
「sMedio TV Suite for Android」 なんですが、アンドロイドタブレットさえ持っていれば、 Google Playからダウンロードできます。
録画といえども情報は最新のものばかりですね。
まったく、驚きました。

ダウンロードするのに若干の費用がかかるようですが、これで海外でも安心して日本の民放TVをみることができます。



Android版 DTCP-IP/DLNAプレーヤー「sMedio TV Suite for Android」8月3日(月)よりGoogle Playにて提供開始 期間限定で初回特価キャンペーンも実施



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2015年8月 3日 (月)

最低賃金上げ 中小企業の体力強化が重要だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Small, midsize companies must be helped amid minimum wage hikes
最低賃金上げ 中小企業の体力強化が重要だ

Increasing minimum wages is of key importance to shoring up consumer spending and materializing stable economic growth.
 賃金の底上げは、消費を下支えし、安定した経済成長を実現するためにも重要である。

A Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry panel — the Central Minimum Wages Council — has decided on a bellwether for minimum hourly wages for fiscal 2015, calling for minimum wages to be raised by a national average of ¥18. This is the steepest increase since fiscal 2002, when the government started indicating a bellwether minimum hourly wage.
 厚生労働省の中央最低賃金審議会が、2015年度の最低賃金(時給)について、全国平均で18円引き上げるという目安を決定した。目安を時給で示すようになった02年度以降で、最大の上げ幅だ。

Using the bellwether as a reference, respective prefectural government councils will set increases in minimum wages based on the circumstances of their regional economies.
 目安を参考に、各都道府県の審議会が地域の実情を踏まえて、それぞれの引き上げ額を決める。

Minimum wages are applied to all workers in all fields of businesses in each prefecture, and it is illegal to pay less than the minimum.
 最低賃金は、すべての労働者に適用される。この金額を下回る賃金は違法となる。

If minimum wages are raised in line with the bellwether, the national average will stand at ¥798 per hour. Full-time employees working for the minimum wage would take home about ¥130,000, up around ¥3,000 from the previous year.
 目安通りになれば、最低賃金は全国平均で798円になる。フルタイムで働いた場合の月収は約13万円で、前年より3000円程度増える計算だ。

Mainly because of an increasing number of nonregular workers, approximately 1.9 million people now work for minimum wage. If materialized, the recommended minimum wage hike would directly improve such people’s working conditions. This is of considerable significance.
 非正規労働者の増加を背景に、最低賃金で働く人は190万人に上る。引き上げは、こうした人たちの処遇改善に直結する。その意義は小さくない。

In this spring’s annual shunto pay raise negotiations between labor unions and employers, many companies — especially big ones that saw their business results improve — granted large pay hikes. But such pay raises have yet to spread to small and midsize enterprises and nonregular workers.
 今春闘では、好業績の大企業を中心に大幅賃上げが相次いだ。だが、中小・零細企業や非正規労働者への波及は遅れている。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has expressed a strong intention to realize a sharp increase in minimum wages, instructing his Cabinet members in charge of economic affairs to proactively press the issue. It was apparently aimed at spreading the trend toward higher wages to a wide spectrum of employees to ensure the effects of his Abenomics economic policy permeate.
 安倍首相は、最低賃金の大幅アップに強い意欲を示し、関係閣僚に前向きな取り組みを指示していた。賃上げの流れを幅広い層に広げ、経済政策「アベノミクス」の効果を浸透させる狙いだろう。

Regional gaps must be fixed

But it remains a question whether small and midsize companies, the business environment of which has remained stringent, can afford large pay raises. Many such companies have been plagued with ballooning raw-material costs and related expenditures because of the yen’s weakening.
 問題は、厳しい経営状況にある中小・零細企業が、大幅な引き上げに対応できるかどうかだ。円安による原材料費などの高騰に苦しんでいる企業は多い。

Will some companies find themselves unable to afford rises in personnel costs due to higher minimum wages and therefore cut their payrolls? The government should be vigilant in this respect.
 最低賃金引き上げによる人件費の増加に耐えられず、雇用の縮小に動く企業はないか。政府はきちんと目配りする必要がある。

It is important to craft an environment in which businesses feel comfortable about raising wages.
 企業が無理なく賃上げを続けられる環境の整備が大切だ。

To this end, it is essential to strengthen the management of small and midsize enterprises. Government assistance for such projects as investment in plants and equipment that would enhance productivity should be further expanded.
 中小企業の経営体力を強化することが欠かせない。生産性アップに役立つ設備投資などへの政策支援を拡充したい。

It is also important to extend support for job skills training for employees to enable them to find jobs with more favorable working conditions. In this connection, job training programs should be enhanced.
 労働者の技能向上を後押しして、より好条件の仕事に就けるようにすることも有効だろう。職業訓練の充実が求められる。

One problem is that regional disparities in minimum wages have been widening.
 気がかりなのは、最低賃金の地域格差が拡大していることだ。

According to the council’s bellwether for minimum hourly wages, Tokyo tops the list of minimum wages with ¥907. But in seven prefectures, including Okinawa and Tottori, the minimum wage is ¥693. The difference between the highest and lowest minimum wages stands at ¥214, an increase by ¥3 from fiscal 2014. The gap is more than twice that in fiscal 2002.
 目安では、最高の東京都907円に対し、最低の鳥取、沖縄など7県は693円にとどまる。その差は昨年度比3円増の214円となった。02年度の2倍超だ。

A continuation in the outflow of workers from regions with low pay into major urban areas could jeopardize the government’s goal of vitalizing regional economies.
 低賃金の地方から都市部への人口流出が続けば、地方創生も望めない。

Efforts in both the private and public sectors must be redoubled to rectify the regional minimum wage disparities by creating jobs attractive to people in nonmetropolitan regions.
地方に魅力ある雇用を生み出し、格差を是正するため、官民で大いに知恵を絞りたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 2, 2015)

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今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

徳川の天下取りなるか?名古屋・徳川美術館キャラクター「トクさん」がミュージアム キャラクター アワード 2015に緊急参戦。愛知県民や日本史ファンならずとも注目の戦いです。9/11まで投票受付中! 株式会社simpleshow Japan

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2015年8月 2日 (日)

東電「強制起訴」 高度な注意義務求めた検察審

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Judicial review panel condemns ex-TEPCO execs for negligence
東電「強制起訴」 高度な注意義務求めた検察審

Executives must face criminal charges for their failure to take sufficient measures to prevent a disaster even though it was caused by an unprecedented natural disaster. This appears to be the judgment of a citizens prosecution inquest panel.
 未曽有の自然災害が原因でも、事故の防止策を十分に講じなかった刑事責任を経営陣は問われるべきだ。それが市民で構成する検察審査会の判断なのだろう。

Concerning the nuclear disaster that occurred at Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, the judicial review panel voted for a second time Friday that three of the then top executives of the utility, including chairman Tsunehisa Katsumata, should be indicted on charges of professional negligence resulting in death and injury. Prosecutors have twice previously decided not to indict them.
 東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故を巡り、検察審査会は、検察が不起訴とした勝俣恒久元会長ら当時の経営陣3人を、業務上過失致死傷罪で起訴すべきだとする2度目の議決をした。

As a result, the three former executives will have to stand trial after being forcibly indicted.
 これにより、3人は強制起訴され、裁判が開かれる。

The panel condemned Katsumata and two other executives, charging that they continued to operate the nuclear plant without taking necessary safety steps and that this led to the disaster caused by the tsunami, which resulted in reactor core damage.
 勝俣元会長らは、必要な安全対策を取らないまま、漫然と原発の稼働を継続させた結果、東日本大震災の津波により、炉心損傷などの重大事故を発生させた。検察審は議決で指弾した。

True, TEPCO had operated under a safety myth. The utility cannot be allowed to evade responsibility for having caused such social and economic damage as a result of dispersing radioactive substances.
 確かに、東電は安全神話にとらわれていた。結果的に放射性物質を拡散させ、社会・経済に深刻な打撃を与えた責任は免れない。

But under the criminal code, individuals are charged with criminal responsibility, not businesses. To file a charge for professional negligence resulting in death and injury, it is necessary to prove that the accused was guilty of negligence evidently while recognizing concrete dangers, not just having a vague sense of alarm.
 ただし、刑法上、刑事責任の対象は企業ではなく、あくまで個人だ。業務上過失致死傷罪を適用するには、漠然とした危機感にとどまらず、具体的な危険を認識しながら、明白な過失を犯していたことを立証する必要がある。

Duty to ensure safety

The panel said: “Those in responsible positions in nuclear power generation are responsible for preparing measures by taking into consideration every possibility of a serious accident being caused by tsunami.”
 検察審は「原子力発電に関わる責任ある地位の者は、重大事故を引き起こす津波が『万が一にも』発生する場合まで考慮して備える責務がある」と指摘した。

This reflects the panel’s view that executives of power companies have a higher obligation of diligence than usual.
 電力会社の役員には、通常よりも高度な注意義務があるという検察審の見方が表れている。

Based on the analysis of a government institution, TEPCO estimated in 2008 that the highest conceivable tsunami could be more than 15 meters high. The panel cited this estimate to argue that the former TEPCO executives could have foreseen the damage.
 東電は2008年、政府機関の分析を踏まえ、襲来する津波の高さを15メートル超と試算した。検察審はこの点を、元会長らに予見可能性があったことの根拠に挙げた。

But according to interviews with experts, the prosecutors had recognized that the data of the government institution had a low degree of reliability and concluded that it was difficult at the time to recognize the actual possibility of such a gigantic tsunami.
 だが、検察は専門家の聴取結果から、政府機関の分析は信頼度が低く、当時、巨大津波が発生する現実的可能性を認識するのは難しかったと結論づけていた。

In judging whether there was negligence, the key point is whether the former top executives committed professional negligence by leaving an apparent danger unaddressed based on the state of scientific knowledge before the nuclear disaster. We wonder whether the panel held sufficient discussions in this connection.
 過失の有無の判断では、原発事故が起きる前の科学的知見などを前提として、元会長らが職務上、明白な危険を放置していたかどうかがポイントになる。検察審は、こうした観点からの議論を十分に尽くしたのだろうか。

We want the court to hold prudent hearings in light of evidence.
 裁判所には、証拠に照らした慎重な審理を望みたい。

Most important of all is to use lessons from the Fukushima nuclear disaster to prevent a recurrence of a similar crisis.
 何より大事なのは、事故の教訓を再発防止につなげることだ。

Nuclear regulation standards were made stricter in the aftermath of the Fukushima disaster. Based on new regulation standards, the Nuclear Regulation Authority has been conducting safety screenings of nuclear power plants in various places around the country based on new regulation criteria, a process that is necessary to restart nuclear power plants. It is imperative for utilities to conduct risk management thoroughly, thereby enhancing the safety of nuclear plants.
 事故後、原発の規制基準は厳格化された。原子力規制委員会は新たな基準に基づき、各地の原発の再稼働に必要な安全審査を進めている。電力会社がリスク管理を徹底し、原発の安全性を高めることが肝要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 1, 2015)

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siifaa math 2015-08-02

siifaa math 2015-08-02

0.
พี่สูง 172 เซนติเมตร พี่สูงกว่าน้อง 64 เซนติเมตร
น้องสูงกี่เซนติเมตร
1. โจทย์ถามอะไร
ตอบ น้องสูงกี่เซนติเมตร
2. โจทย์กำหนดอะไรให้บ้าง
ตอบ พี่สูง172เซนติเมตรพี่สูงกว่าน้อง64เซนติเมตร
3. จะหาความสูงของน้องได้อย่างไร
ตอบ วิธีลบ 172-64=108 เซนติเมตร
4. ได้คำตอบเท่าไร
ตอบ ๑๐๘ เซนติเมตร
5. สรุปคำตอบได้อย่างไร
ตอบ น้องสูง 108 เซนติเมตร

1.
เมื่อวานนี้ร้านค้ารับขนมมาขาย 95 ถุง วันนี่รับมาอีก 112 ถุง รวมสองวันร้านค้า
รับขนมมาขายกี่ถุง
วิธีทำ
เมื่อวานนี้ร้านค้ารับขนมมาขาย           95  ถุง
                                                    +
วันนี่รับมาอีก                                112  ถุง
                                         --------------
รวมสองวันร้านค้ารับขนมมาขายกี่ถุง   207  ถุง
ตอบ
รวมสองวันร้านค้ารับขนมมาขาย ๒๐๗ ถุง

2.
วารีซื้อเป็ด 165 ตัว ซื้อไก่ 80 ตัว วารีซื้อไก่
น้อยกว่าเป็ดกี่ตัว
วิธีทำ
วารีซื้อเป็ด                        165 ตัว
                                           -
ซื้อไก่                                80 ตัว
                                  ---------------      
วารีซื้อไก่น้อยกว่าเป็ดกี่ตัว       85 ตัว
ตอบ
วารีซื้อไก่น้อยกว่าเป็ด ๘๕ ตัว

3.
ชั้น ป.2 มีนักเรียน 125 คน ชั้น ป.3 มีนักเรียน 173 คน ชั้น ป.2 มีนักเรียน
น้อยกว่าชั้น ป.3 กี่คน
วิธีทำ
ชั้น ป.3 มีนักเรียน                         173 คน
                                                    -
ชั้น ป.2 มีนักเรียน                         125 คน
                                             -------------- 
ป.2 มีนักเรียนน้อยกว่าชั้น ป.3 กี่คน     48 คน
ตอบ
ป.2 มีนักเรียนน้อยกว่าชั้น ป.3 ๔๘ คน

4.
สัปดาห์แรกชาวสวนปลูกมะพร้าว 324 ต้น
สัปดาห์ที่สองปลูกได้มากกว่าสัปดาห์แรก 128 ต้น
สัปดาห์ที่สองปลูกมะพร้าวได้กี่ต้น
วิธีทำ
สัปดาห์แรกชาวสวนปลูกมะพร้าว                     324 ต้น
                                                                   +
สัปดาห์ที่สองปลูกได้มากกว่าสัปดาห์แรก          128 ต้น
                                                         --------------
สัปดาห์ที่สองปลูกมะพร้าวได้กี่ต้น                   452 ต้น
ตอบ
สัปดาห์ที่สองปลูกมะพร้าวได้ ๔๕๒ ต้น

5.
วิชามีดินสอ 320 แท่ง ต้องการบริจาคให้โรงเรียน 400 แท่ง วิชาต้องซื้อดินสอมา
เพิ่มอีกกี่แท่ง
วิธีทำ
วิชาต้องการบริจาคให้โรงเรียน        400 แท่ง
                                                   -
วิชามีดินสอ                               320 แท่ง
                                           --------------
วิชาต้องซื้อดินสอมาเพิ่มอีกกี่แท่ง      80 แท่ง
ตอบ
วิชาต้องซื้อดินสอมาเพิ่มอีก ๘๐ แท่ง
                                          
6.
พี่มีรูปลอก 172 รูป น้องมีน้อยกว่าพี่ 64 รูป น้องมีรูปลอกกี่รูป
วิธีทำ
พี่มีรูปลอก                       172 รูป
                                         -
น้องมีน้อยกว่าพี่                  64 รูป
                                --------------
น้องมีรูปลอกกี่รูป               108 รูป
ตอบ
น้องมีรูปลอก ๑๐๘ รูป

7.
เทศบาลจะสร้างถนนยาว 803 เมตร สร้างไปแล้ว 210 เมตร จะต้องสร้างต่ออีก
กี่เมตรจึงจะเสร็จ
วิธีทำ
เทศบาลจะสร้างถนนยาว                     803 เมตร
                                                        -
สร้างไปแล้ว                                    210 เมตร
                                              ------------------
จะต้องสร้างต่ออีกกี่เมตรจึงจะเสร็จ         593 เมตร
ตอบ
จะต้องสร้างต่ออีก ๕๙๓ เมตร

8.
ปรีดามียางรัด 757 เส้น ปรีดามียางรัดมากกว่าปรานี 94 เส้น ปรานีมียางรัดกี่เส้น
วิธีทำ
ปรีดามียางรัด                          757 เส้น
                                                - 
ปรีดามียางรัดมากกว่าปรานี           94 เส้น
                                     ----------------
ปรานีมียางรัดกี่เส้น                   663 เส้น
ตอบ
ปรานีมียางรัด ๖๖๓ เส้น

9.
สวนสัตว์มีเต่า 38 ตัว มีเต่าน้อยกว่านก 144 ตัว
ส่วนสัตว์มีนกกี่ตัว
วิธีทำ
สวนสัตว์มีเต่า               38 ตัว
                                    +
มีเต่าน้อยกว่านก          144 ตัว
                             -------------
ส่วนสัตว์มีนกกี่ตัว         182 ตัว
ตอบ
ส่วนสัตว์มีนก ๑๘๒ ตัว

10.
มีนักท่องเที่ยวหญิงมากกว่าชาย 45 คน ถ้ามีนักท่องเที่ยวหญิง 382 คน จะมี
นักท่องเที่ยวชายกี่คน
วิธีทำ
มีนักท่องเที่ยวหญิง                         382 คน
                                                      -
มีนักท่องเที่ยวหญิงมากกว่าชาย           45 คน
                                              ---------------
มีนักท่องเที่ยวชายกี่คน                    337 คน
ตอบ
มีนักท่องเที่ยวชาย ๓๓๗ คน

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2015年8月 1日 (土)

北京冬季五輪 雪不足の地では不安が大きい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Great anxiety as un-snowy Beijing picked to host ’22 Winter Olympics
北京冬季五輪 雪不足の地では不安が大きい

The International Olympic Committee has chosen Beijing as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics.
 国際オリンピック委員会(IOC)が、2022年冬季五輪の開催都市を北京に決めた。

It will be the first city in Olympic history to host both summer and winter Games since Beijing already hosted the 2008 Summer Games. We hope Beijing will expend all possible efforts in making perfect preparations.
 08年の夏季五輪に続く史上初の夏冬開催だ。準備に万全を期してもらいたい。

Beijing won a one-to-one duel with Kazakhstan’s Almaty by stressing the stability of its financial resources supported by the Chinese government and a wealth of experience in organizing international athletic events.
 北京は、中国政府の支援を受けた安定した財源や、国際大会の豊富な運営経験などをアピールし、アルマトイ(カザフスタン)との一騎打ちを制した。

Hosting the Winter Olympics has a public approval rating of 92 percent in China. Chinese President Xi Jinping apparently intends to maintain his government’s leadership and boost the nation’s prestige by hosting an Olympiad again.
 冬季五輪開催に対する中国国民の支持率は、92%に上っている。再度の五輪開催を勝ち取ることで、政権への求心力を維持し、国威発揚につなげようという習近平国家主席の意図は明白だろう。

Meanwhile, there are many worries about Beijing’s plan to host the Olympics. First, Beijing receives only light snow each winter. Competitions to be held within the city will mainly be skating events. Skiing and other events are planned to be held in Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province, located next to Beijing. However, Zhangjiakou has to rely on artificial snow that is inferior in quality to natural snow.
 一方で、北京の開催計画には不安が多い。そもそも、北京は降雪量が少ない。市内では主にスケート競技が行われる。スキー競技などは隣接する河北省張家口で実施する予定だが、ここでも雪質が劣る人工雪に頼らざるを得ない。

To make a huge amount of artificial snow, water from a reservoir will be used. Though the delegation from Beijing stressed at the IOC plenary meeting that it will hardly have an impact on the environment, some experts pointed out the possibility of negative effects on water resources.
 貯水池の水で大量の人工雪を作ることについて、北京の代表団は、IOC総会で「環境には、ほとんど影響がない」と強調したが、水資源への悪影響が指摘される。

Many problems ahead

Also, deep concerns are expressed over Beijing’s air pollution.
 大気汚染への懸念も強い。

When it hosted the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games, the city decided to enforce heavy-handed traffic controls and to suspend operations of factories to show the world a blue sky.
 北京は08年の五輪当時、青空を見せるために、強引な交通規制や工場の稼働停止に踏み切った。

Beijing Mayor Wang Anshun told IOC members this time that the city is working hard to be a clean-energy city. But, it remains a question how much the air pollution will be reduced in the next seven years.
 王安順・北京市長は今回、「クリーンエネルギー型都市へ邁進まいしんしている」と、IOC委員に訴えた。あと7年で汚染がどこまで改善するのだろうか。

Though the city has various problems, the right to host the 2022 Games has rolled into Beijing because other promising cities, such as Oslo, pulled out of the bidding race one after another.
 様々な問題点を抱えながらも、オスロなどの有力都市が次々と招致レースから撤退したため、北京に開催権が転がり込んだ形だ。

A huge financial burden is the main reason why more and more cities are becoming hesitant to bid to host a Winter Olympics. Russia spent a huge amount of money, said to be ¥5 trillion, on the 2014 Sochi Olympics. This no doubt has made more cities back away from bidding to host a Winter Games.
 冬季五輪開催に尻込みする都市が増えている最大の要因は、重い財政負担だ。14年ソチ五輪に、ロシアが5兆円と言われる巨費を投じたことが、敬遠ムードに拍車をかけたのは間違いない。

The costs of building a ski jump and courses for sledding events such as bobsledding for a Winter Games are huge. They are likely to be a negative legacy because fewer users are expected at them after the Olympics compared to venues for a Summer Games.
 冬季五輪では、スキーのジャンプ台やボブスレーといったそり競技のコース整備などに費用がかさむ。夏季五輪の競技場に比べ、五輪後の利用者は限られるため、負の遺産になりかねない。

But the Summer Games are also growing expensive. For instance, Boston decided to exit the bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics.
 夏季五輪についても、24年の開催を目指していた米国のボストンが撤退した。

The IOC has naturally become concerned over the situation and launched an Olympic reform urging utilization of existing facilities to reduce financial burdens on host cities.
 IOCが危機感を持ち、開催都市の負担軽減のために、既存施設の活用などを促す五輪改革に乗り出したのは、必然の流れだ。

Asian cities are now set to host two Winter Olympic Games in a row, with Pyeongchang, South Korea, in 2018 and Beijing in 2022. Sapporo has already announced its bid to host the 2026 Winter Olympics. If it is named an official candidate of Japan, Sapporo will need to make strategic bidding efforts.
 18年冬季五輪は韓国の平昌、22年は北京と、アジアでの開催が続くことになった。26年五輪の招致には、札幌が名乗りを上げている。正式に国内候補地となれば、戦略的な招致活動が求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 1, 2015)

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