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2015年11月30日 (月)

一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 26
EDITORIAL: Vote-value disparity a gross inequality that cannot continue
(社説)一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

The Supreme Court’s latest ruling on the issue of vote-value disparity has left us wondering how long it will take until this clear, outrageous inequality is corrected.
It seems that both the judiciary and the legislature lack awareness of the urgent need to fix this unacceptable situation.
 国民の間に厳然とある不平等をいつまで放置するのか。司法も立法府も、異常をただす切迫感に欠けるのではないか。

The Supreme Court’s Grand Bench ruled on Nov. 25 that the Lower House election in December last year was held in a “state of unconstitutionality,” citing a huge disparity in the relative vote-value among constituencies.
 昨年の衆院選での一票の不平等をめぐり、最高裁が「違憲状態」との判決を出した。

Given that the top court has handed down three similar rulings in the past four years, it has become almost routine to hear it declare that an election was held in a “state of unconstitutionality.”
同様の結論はこの4年間で3回目であり、慣例化した感も漂う。

The Diet has dragged its feet on reforming the electoral system, so a fundamental solution to the problem has yet to be found.
 国会では抜本的に身をただす選挙制度改革の動きは遅れたままだ。

We are concerned that the Supreme Court’s tepid ruling on the issue could be used by the Diet as an excuse for its inaction.
最高裁の手ぬるい判決が国会の免罪符にされてしまわないか、懸念が残る。

In its ruling in 2011, the top court argued that the method of first distributing one seat to each of the 47 prefectures before allocating the remaining seats in the single-seat constituency part of the electoral system in proportion to population was the main cause of the vote-value disparity. The court said this approach should be “abolished as soon as possible.”
 最高裁は2011年、各都道府県にまず議席一つずつを割り振る1人別枠方式が、不平等を生む要因と断じた。「できるだけ速やかな撤廃」を求めた。

In its 2013 ruling on the Lower House election held in December 2012, however, the court took note of the Diet’s last-minute move to reduce the number of seats slightly as “certain progress,” easing the pressure on the Diet. The court’s latest ruling is in line with the 2013 decision.
 ところが13年の判決では、国会が駆け込みで若干の定数削減を決めたことを「一定の前進」とし、手綱を緩めた。今回の判断もこの延長上にある。

In the Nov. 25 ruling, the Supreme Court had encouraging words for work by a Lower House expert committee on the election system to come up with measures to revamp the seat-allocation method, saying efforts to improve the situation are being made in line with the past rulings.
 有識者でつくる衆院の選挙制度調査会が見直し策を検討していることにも言及し、これまでの判決に沿って是正が進められていると高く評価している。

Let us ponder this problem from a basic standpoint.
 原点に戻って考えたい。

In the Lower House election last December, one vote in the nation’s least populated constituency was worth 2.13 votes in the most heavily populated district. In other words, the weight of one person’s vote in a certain district was less than half of the weight of another person’s vote in a different district.
今回の最大格差は2・13倍。ある選挙区での一票の重みは、別の選挙区での半分にも満たない。

Casting votes in elections is the most important of the few opportunities for the public to exercise their sovereign power that is invested in them by the Constitution.
 選挙で票を投じるという行為は、憲法に定められた国民主権を具現化する数少ない、そしてもっとも重要な権利である。

Allowing a situation to continue where a vote in one district is worth less than half of a vote in another represents an egregious inequality among the people that must be redressed immediately.
住む場所によって票の価値が倍以上も違うという不平等はただちに改善されるべき問題だ。

The fact that the flawed seat-allocation method remains basically unchanged four years after the Supreme Court criticized is testimony to the Diet’s gross negligence.
 最高裁が1人別枠方式の問題を指摘して4年がたってもなお事実上撤廃されていないのは、国会の怠慢というほかない。

What is notable about the latest Supreme Court ruling is that three of the 14 justices of the Grand Bench criticized the Diet for its failure to tackle the problem, saying sufficient time had passed to realize equality in voting.
 注目すべきは、14人中3人の裁判官が、「投票の平等」を実現するのに必要な時間はもう十分あったと批判している点だ。

Two of the three dissenting justices argued for invalidating the Lower House election, and the remaining one called for declaring the election “unconstitutional” in the text of the judgment.
うち2人は選挙の無効を、1人は主文での「違憲」の宣言を、それぞれ主張している。

In the ruling, the top court maintained that the constitutional order should be formed through interactions between the judiciary and the legislature.
 最高裁は判決で、憲法の秩序は立法府との相互作用で形成されるとの趣旨を展開している。国会が法をつくる。

The interactions apparently work as follows. The Diet makes laws, and the Supreme Court sends its messages on certain laws through its rulings. The Diet then reforms the laws in response to the court’s rulings.
最高裁が判決でメッセージを出す。それにもとづいて国会が法を改める。

This seems to mean that the top court puts much importance on “dialogue” between the legislature and the judiciary.
立法府と司法との「対話」を重んじる考え方のようだ。

But history shows the Diet has repeatedly ignored messages from the judiciary or interpreted them in a way convenient to it.
 しかし振り返れば、司法のメッセージを国会は繰り返し無視したり、都合よく解釈したりしてきた。

In order to ensure meaningful “dialogue,” the top court should have made more specific demands, such as setting clear deadlines for corrective actions by the Diet.
「対話」を成り立たせるためには、今後の是正期限を明記するなど具体的な求めが必要だったのではないか。

The Supreme Court has repeatedly declared that both the Upper and Lower Houses have been elected in a “state of unconstitutionality.” This is simply an extraordinary situation.
 衆参両院が「違憲状態」で選ばれたと再三指摘されているのは異常事態である。

It is unacceptable that the Diet members, who are obliged to respect the Constitution, allow such serious inequality to remain unchanged.
憲法尊重の義務を負う議員が、不平等を野放しにすることは許されない。

This injustice should be rectified immediately.
早急に改めるべきである。

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日豪2プラス2 安保協力を重層的に進めたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan-Australia security relationship must be enhanced on multiple layers
日豪2プラス2 安保協力を重層的に進めたい

Security cooperation between Japan and Australia is an important foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. The collaboration must be deepened multilaterally by promoting bilateral communications.
 日本と豪州の安全保障協力は、アジア太平洋地域の平和と安定への重要な基盤である。意思疎通を図り、多角的に連携を深化させるべきだ。

After the so-called two-plus-two meeting of their foreign and defense ministers in Sydney, the two countries issued a joint statement calling for strengthening defense cooperation through joint military exercises and exchange between troops, among other things.
 日豪両政府はシドニーで外務・防衛閣僚会合(2プラス2)を開き、共同訓練や部隊交流など、両国の防衛協力を強化するとの共同声明を発表した。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida said the Japan-Australia relationship is “a special one sharing fundamental values and strategic interests.” His Australian counterpart, Julie Bishop, responded by saying the bilateral relationship is more important than ever.
 岸田外相は、日豪関係について「基本的な価値、戦略的利益を共有する特別な関係だ」と強調した。ビショップ豪外相は、「かつてないほど重要だ」と指摘した。

Former Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott, who had built a close relationship with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, resigned in September over an economic slump and other matters. As his successor, Malcolm Turnbull, who belongs to the same Liberal Party as Abbott, attaches more importance to relations with China, there was concern in some quarters before the two-plus-two meeting that Tokyo-Canberra relations would regress under his administration.
 安倍首相と親密だったアボット豪前首相は9月、経済不振などで退任した。同じ自由党のターンブル首相は、対中関係を重視しており、対日関係が後退することへの懸念が一部にあった。

Abe and Turnbull held their first conference in mid-November in Turkey. With the holding of the recent two-plus-two meeting, Tokyo-Canberra relations seem to be on track. The two governments must continue political dialogue as they work toward building confidence.
 安倍、ターンブル両氏は今月中旬、トルコで初めて会談した。今回の2プラス2開催で、両政権の関係は軌道に乗った、と評価できる。今後も、政治対話を重ね、信頼醸成を図ることが大切だ。

Defense Minister Gen Nakatani explained the security-related laws enacted in September. Bishop welcomed the security legislation, saying that it would allow Japan to make a greater contribution to peacekeeping activities, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
 中谷防衛相は、9月に成立した安全保障関連法を説明した。ビショップ氏は「平和維持活動、人道支援、災害救援でより多くの貢献をしてもらえる」と歓迎した。

The security legislation is primarily aimed at solidifying the Japan-U.S. alliance and international cooperation, thereby ensuring security for Japan and the world.
 安保関連法は日米同盟と国際連携を強化し、日本と世界の安全を確保することが主眼である。

Trilateral cooperation

The scope of Japan’s logistic support has been expanded to include troops other than those of the United States based on the assumption that Australian troops would be mobilized in case of emergencies around Japan.
 後方支援の対象を米軍以外にも拡大したのは、日本周辺での緊急事態に豪州軍が駆けつけるケースなどを想定している。

A multilayered cooperative relationship must be built through such efforts as joint drills between Self-Defense Forces and the Australian military and trilateral exercises involving U.S. troops.
 自衛隊と豪州軍、さらに米軍を交えた共同訓練などを通じ、重層的な協力関係を構築したい。

Australia will select a partner for joint development of its next-generation submarine from among Japan, France and Germany.
 豪州は、次期潜水艦の共同開発の相手について、日仏独の3か国の中から選定する。

Japan’s submarine manufacturing technology is said to be among the best in the world. In this connection, the government needs to hold sufficient talks with Australia to prevent the leak of technologies to third-party countries.
 日本の潜水艦製造技術は世界最高水準とされる。政府は、第三国への技術流出防止について、豪州側と十分協議する必要がある。

With China’s maritime advances in the East and South China Seas and construction of artificial islands in the South China Sea in mind, the joint statement expressed “strong opposition to any coercive and unilateral actions.” The statement also said all nations have the freedom of navigation and flight under international law.
 共同声明は、中国の東・南シナ海での海洋進出や人工島造成を念頭に、「あらゆる威圧的、一方的な行動に強く反対する」と表明した。すべての国が、国際法に基づいて「航行と飛行の自由」を持つとも明記している。

The U.S. Navy’s patrols within 12 nautical miles of the reclaimed islands embody the principle of international law. Japan and Australia need to support the United States through every possible means.
 人工島の12カイリ内での米軍の巡視活動は、国際法の原則を体現するものだ。日豪は、様々な手段で米国を後押しする必要がある。

Japan and Australia plan to provide assistance measures for Papua New Guinea and other island countries in the Pacific, such as enhancing the capabilities of ensuring maritime security and improving social infrastructure.
 日豪は、パプアニューギニアなど太平洋の島嶼とうしょ国に対し、海上保安能力の向上や社会基盤整備などを支援する方針だ。

Ensuring the safety of sea-lanes in the Western Pacific is of common interest to all the nations concerned. Japan should make a proactive commitment in this regard.
 西太平洋の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は、各国共通の利益だ。積極的に寄与したい。 

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 24, 2015)

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2015年11月29日 (日)

五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Take every possible antiterror step in preparation for 2020 Tokyo Games
五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

Preparations for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games stumbled significantly due to the withdrawal of plans for a new National Stadium and an emblem design.
 新国立競技場の建設計画とエンブレムの白紙撤回により、2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックの開催準備は、大きくつまずいた。

There will soon be 4½ years remaining before the opening of the sports extravaganza. The government must accelerate a diverse range of preparatory work based on the basic policy approved by the Cabinet.
 大会まで間もなく4年半となる。政府は、閣議決定した基本方針に基づき、多岐にわたる作業を加速させねばならない。

The basic policy defines the 2020 Games as “an opportunity for Japan to demonstrate to the world an advanced undertaking in a mature society.”
 基本方針は、大会を「成熟社会における先進的な取り組みを世界に示す契機」と位置付けた。

Above all, the policy calls for enriching Paralympic programs, saying that it “will contribute greatly to encouraging the impaired to become self-sustaining.” The term Paralympics was first used in the 1964 Tokyo Games. The 2020 Games will mark the first time a city has hosted the Summer Paralympics twice.
 中でも、「障害者の自立を促す大きな力となる」として、パラリンピックの充実を掲げた。1964年東京大会で、パラリンピックという用語が初めて使用された。20年大会は、同一都市で2回目の開催という初のケースとなる。

In view of this history, seeking to make the 2020 Paralymics the biggest ever is significant from the viewpoint of promoting the building of a symbiotic society.
 こうした経緯を踏まえ、過去最大規模のパラリンピックを目指すことは、共生社会の構築を推進する上で意義があろう。

A noticeable point in connection with the Olympics is that the basic plan set forth a goal of acquiring the highest number of gold medals in the country’s history. The past record of 16 was set at the 1964 Games in Tokyo and the Athens Olympics in 2004.
 五輪関連で目を引くのは、過去最多の金メダル獲得という目標を打ち出した点だ。64年東京五輪と04年アテネ五輪の16個がこれまでの最高だった。

As far as public money spent in reinforcing training programs for athletes, it is natural for the government to present a specific target. If Japanese athletes perform spectacularly, it will contribute greatly to generating excitement for the Games.
 選手強化に公費を投じる以上、政府が具体的な目標を示すのは、当然だろう。日本選手が活躍すれば、大会は大いに盛り上がる。

A strategic approach is crucial to achieving the goal. It is necessary to make effective use of limited fiscal resources through such means as allocating training expenses to promising athletes on a priority basis in preparation for the 2020 Games. The Sports Agency, which is in charge of fund distribution, has a grave responsibility.
 目標達成に重要なのは、戦略的な取り組みだ。20年に向けて、有望選手に強化費を重点配分するなど、限られた財源を有効に使う必要がある。配分を主導するスポーツ庁の責任は重い。

Anti-doping measures critical

Anti-doping measures are important for conducting fair athletic events. Against the background of the doping scandal that has hit the Russian athletics circle, eradication of doping has become a top priority in the sports world.
 競技を公正に実施するには、ドーピング対策も大切だ。ロシア陸上界の薬物汚染が問題になる中、ドーピングの撲滅は、スポーツ界の最優先課題である。

The basic policy, however, makes no concrete commitment on the issue, saying only that efforts will be made to “secure a well-prepared system” in cooperation with such organizations as the World Anti-Doping Agency. It is imperative to accelerate the study of specific measures to strengthen the doping test system.
 基本方針は、世界反ドーピング機関(WADA)などと連携し、「万全の体制整備を行う」との記述にとどまる。検査体制を強化する具体策の検討を急ぐべきだ。

To ensure the safety of athletes and spectators, utmost attention must be focused on antiterrorism measures.
 選手や観客の安全を守るために、最も注力せねばならないのが、テロ対策である。

The basic policy expressed a sense of crisis concerning terrorism, saying, “Terrorist threats are becoming a reality,” and pointed out the need to “ramp up intelligence gathering and analysis, border security and vigilance and security at venues, among others.”
 基本方針も「テロの脅威が現実のものになっている」と危機感を示し、「情報収集・分析、水際対策、会場の警戒警備などの強化」を挙げている。

It is indispensable for the private and public sectors to cooperate in enhancing the ability to cope with any possible situation.
 官民一体となって対処能力を向上させることが不可欠だ。

The basic policy enumerates various measures, including those on the expansion of roads and transport infrastructure and those to deal with the summer heat. To prevent expenses from swelling, it is necessary to list measures in the order of priority.
 道路・交通インフラの整備、暑さ対策など、基本方針には様々な施策が列挙されている。費用の膨張を避けるには、対策に優先順位をつける必要がある。

To smoothly prepare for the Games, the need to clarify the division of the roles and responsibilities to be undertaken by the government, the organizing committee and the Tokyo metropolitan government must not be forgotten.
 大会準備を効率的に進めるため、政府と大会組織委員会、東京都の役割分担と責任を明確にすることも忘れてはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 28, 2015)

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2015年11月28日 (土)

露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

The Yomiuri Shimbun
It’s not the time for lobbing criticism over downing of Russian warplane
露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

This situation has poured cold water on the opportunity for cooperation between Russia, the United States and Europe that arose due to the terrorist attacks in Paris earlier this month. Lobbing criticism at each other must not be allowed to derail unity among nations seeking to wipe out the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group.
 パリ同時テロで生まれた米欧とロシアの協調機運に水を差す事態だ。非難合戦で過激派組織「イスラム国」掃討の足並みを乱してはならない。

This week, a Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian bomber near the Turkey-Syria border. Turkey insists the Russian plane intruded into Turkish territorial airspace and the pilot did not respond to repeated warnings to leave the area. It reportedly had lodged protests against numerous previous violations of its airspace.
 トルコ軍機が、シリアとの国境付近で露軍の爆撃機を撃墜した。トルコは、露軍機が領空に侵入し、再三の退去警告にも応じなかった、と主張している。領空侵犯については、これまでも繰り返し抗議してきたという。

Russia, which in late September launched airstrikes in Syria, saying its aim is to stamp out ISIL, is supporting the administration of Syrian President Bashar Assad. Turkey supports Syrian antigovernment groups and gives priority to toppling the Assad administration. The diametrically opposed positions of Moscow and Ankara lurk in the background to the downing of the Russian warplane.
 9月末から「イスラム国」掃討を名目にシリアで空爆を始めたロシアは、シリアのアサド政権を擁護する。トルコはアサド政権の打倒を最優先し、反体制派を支援する。今回の撃墜の背景には、両国の立場の根本的な違いがある。

Russian President Vladimir Putin has denied the plane violated Turkish airspace and angrily retorted there would be “serious consequences.” Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov canceled a visit to Turkey, and Moscow has started taking other retaliatory measures such as restricting imports of agricultural products from Turkey.
 プーチン露大統領は侵犯を否定し、「重大な結果をもたらす」と強く反発した。ラブロフ外相がトルコ訪問を中止し、トルコ産農作物の輸入を制限するなどの対抗措置も取り始めた。

However, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has supported Turkey’s side of the story, and the U.S. military also confirmed the Russian aircraft received the warnings. Russia’s assertions seem to lack credibility.
 だが、北大西洋条約機構(NATO)はトルコの言い分を支持し、米軍も露軍機が警告を受けていたことを確認した。ロシアの主張は信用性に欠けるのではないか。

ISIL is common enemy

It is important that Russia and Turkey stop their tit-for-tat criticism, restore calm to the situation and move toward preventing a recurrence.
 重要なのは、ロシアとトルコが批判の応酬をやめ、再発防止と事態の沈静化へ動くことだ。

Russia and a coalition of willing nations led by the United States continue to conduct independent airstrikes in Syria. Setting up lines of communication between these military forces is an urgent task to help prevent unexpected situations like the downing of the Russian plane.
 米国を中心とする有志連合とロシアは個別に、シリアで空爆を続けている。今回のような不測の事態を防ぐために、軍同士の連絡体制を整えることが急務である。

The international community should be concentrating on weakening ISIL, which is a common enemy. Countries with a stake in this matter also must avoid discussions that go in circles on ways to end Syria’s civil war and on a transition of political power.
 国際社会は、共通の敵である「イスラム国」の弱体化に集中すべきだ。シリア内戦終結と政権移行に向けた関係国の協議の空転も避けねばならない。

The U.N. Security Council recently unanimously adopted a resolution that calls on member states to fight terrorism and newly spells out the council’s determination to crush ISIL. Britain has indicated a plan to expand airstrikes in Syria, and France has strengthened its aggressive stance by deploying an aircraft carrier to the region.
 国連安全保障理事会はテロ防止決議を全会一致で採択し、「イスラム国」打倒の決意を新たにしたばかりだ。英国はシリアへの空爆拡大方針を示し、フランスは空母投入で攻撃態勢を強化した。

French President Francois Hollande has embarked on a rapid series of diplomatic summits as he seeks to build a wide-ranging coalition that includes Russia. Hollande and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Washington, and they agreed to deepen cooperation to combat ISIL. We attach great important to this chain of international cooperation.
 オランド仏大統領は、ロシアも含めた大包囲網の構築を目指し、活発な首脳外交に乗り出している。オバマ米大統領とワシントンで会談し、「イスラム国」対策で協力を深めることで一致した。一連の国際連携を大切にしたい。

Putin considers France to be an antiterrorism “ally” and is taking a cooperative stance on this point. He probably aims to get the United States and European nations to relax sanctions imposed on Russia due to its intervention in Ukraine, and to break Moscow’s international isolation.
 プーチン氏は、フランスを対テロの「同盟国」と位置づけ、協調姿勢を見せている。ウクライナ介入に伴う米欧の制裁緩和を実現させ、国際的孤立から脱却する狙いがあるのだろう。

However, Russia’s position does not appear to change with its aim to keep Assad in power while seizing the initiative in the Syrian situation through the use of force. Under these circumstances, it will be difficult for the United States and Europe to “fight together” alongside Russia.
 しかし、アサド政権を温存したまま、軍事力に頼ってシリア情勢で主導権を握ろうとする戦略に変化は見られない。これでは、米欧が「共闘」するのは難しい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 27, 2015)

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2015年11月27日 (金)

衆院選違憲状態 国会に制度改革促した最高裁

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Top court urges the Diet to reform lower house electoral system further
衆院選違憲状態 国会に制度改革促した最高裁

While respecting the discretionary power of the legislature, the latest ruling can be seen as the judiciary making as much of a request as it can.
 立法府の裁量権を尊重する中で、司法として可能な範囲で注文を付けたということだろう。

The Grand Bench of the Supreme Court handed down a ruling Wednesday that the House of Representatives election in December last year, which had a maximum vote-value disparity of 2.13-to-1 in single-seat constituencies, was in a state of unconstitutionality.
 「1票の格差」が最大2・13倍だった昨年12月の衆院小選挙区選について、最高裁大法廷は、違憲状態にあったとの判決を言い渡した。

On the grounds that the current state of vote-value disparity runs counter to the vote-value equality called for by the Constitution, the top court told the Diet, “There is a need [for the Diet] to steadily continue improving the electoral system.”
 投票価値の平等という憲法の要請に反しているとして、「選挙制度の整備を着実に続ける必要がある」と国会に求めた。

It also acknowledged that a reasonable amount of time to correct the situation has not yet elapsed. The Diet has to make continued efforts to rectify the vote-value disparity.
格差是正に要する合理的な期間は過ぎていないとも認定した。国会は引き続き是正に努めねばならない。

The law concerning the establishment of the council on rezoning the electoral districts of the lower house stipulates the basic principle that the maximum vote-value disparity should not exceed 2-to-1.
 1票の格差について、衆院選挙区画定審議会設置法は「2倍以上にならないことを基本とする」と定めている。

Prior to last year’s poll, the Diet cut the number of lower house seats by five in single-seat constituencies to reduce the disparity to less than 2-to-1. When the election was held, however, the disparity exceeded 2-to-1 in some constituencies, due to demographic change.
昨年の衆院選に先立ち、国会は選挙区定数の「0増5減」で、2倍未満に抑えた。
 人口変動で選挙の時点では2倍を上回った。

Yet the top court acknowledged the Diet’s effort, calling it “a certain amount of progress toward realizing the correction.” It is a realistic view that takes into consideration the fact that it requires time to rectify the disparity.
だが、最高裁は、国会の取り組みを「是正実現に向けた一定の前進」と評価した。格差是正には時間がかかることを踏まえた現実的な見解と言えよう。

Imprudent court decisions have become conspicuous in recent years, with some high courts ruling, for instance, that the 2012 lower house election was “unconstitutional” and the results of the election were “invalid.”
 2012年の衆院選について、一部の高裁が「違憲・無効」とするなど、近年は行き過ぎた判決も目立っていた。

Self-restraint shown

The top court reiterated its view that “even if the court judges that there is a problem under the Constitution, it cannot establish any specific systems on its own.” This is a reasonable judgment showing the top court has restrained itself in its consideration of the role of the judicature.
 最高裁は今回、「裁判所は憲法上問題があると判断したとしても、自ら具体的な制度を定め得るものではない」との考え方を改めて示した。司法の役割を抑制的に捉えた妥当な判断である。

The Supreme Court has been saying the vote-value disparity primarily stems from the current seat-distribution system, which allots one seat to each prefecture and then decides, in proportion to the population, how many additional seats each prefecture should be allocated in the single-seat section of the election.
 最高裁は、各都道府県に1議席を割り振ったうえで定数配分する「1人別枠方式」を格差の主因と指摘してきた。

In response, the Diet has already revised a related law to abolish the provision concerning the seat-distribution system.
これを受け、国会は、別枠方式の規定を廃止する関連法改正を既に行っている。

The top court again said in its latest ruling that the vote-value disparity exceeds 2-to-1 due to the fact that the allotment of seats based on the seat-distribution system was kept in place in single-seat constituencies in Tokyo and other prefectures, which were not included in the prefectures where a combined total of five seats were reduced.
 今回も、0増5減の対象外だった都道府県で、別枠方式に基づく配分が残存することを、格差が2倍を超えた要因に挙げている。

A research panel of experts tasked with reform of the lower house electoral system is studying the possibility of adopting, in place of the current system, the so-called Adams’ method, which would better reflect the population ratio than the current one. With this method, the vote-value disparity is expected to be held to less than 2-to-1, at least for the time being.
 衆院選挙制度改革に関する有識者調査会は、別枠方式に代えて、より人口に比例する「アダムズ方式」の採用を検討している。この方式なら、当面、格差を2倍未満に抑えられるとみられる。

The discussion concerning the reduction of the overall number of lower house seats is worrying. Takeshi Sasaki, chairman of the research panel, has said that in light of the fact that political parties are calling for reducing lower house seats in their public pledges and otherwise, we “cannot ignore political promises.”
 気がかりなのは、定数削減の議論だ。調査会の佐々木毅座長は、各党が公約などで定数削減を唱えていることを踏まえ、「政治的な約束を無視できない」と語る。

Should the overall number of lower house seats be reduced, however, it would become more difficult for diverse public opinions to be reflected in the election.
 だが、定数を減らせば、選挙で多様な民意を反映しにくくなる。

It may also scale down the Diet’s primary functions of making laws and overseeing the administration through the deliberation of bills.
法律を作り、法案審議を通じて行政を監視するという国会本来の機能も低下しかねない。

When looking at the number of seats compared to the population, the number of Diet members is not as large as in European countries.
人口比でみれば、日本の国会議員は欧州諸国などより多くはない。

The research panel may also need to seriously consider the negative aspects of reducing the number of seats.
 調査会は、定数削減の負の面も真剣に考慮すべきではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 26, 2015)

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2015年11月26日 (木)

韓国朴教授起訴 自由な歴史研究を封じるのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Isn’t South Korea repressing free research on history with indictment?
韓国朴教授起訴 自由な歴史研究を封じるのか

The latest action taken against a South Korean scholar constitutes an attempt to negate free and calm research activities and discussions on history.
 これでは、歴史を巡る自由で冷静な研究活動や議論が成り立たない。

The move to build a criminal case against an academic study could amount to an abuse of public authority. The recent action, taken by a South Korean district prosecutors office, has also cast a shadow on Japan-South Korea relations.
 学術研究を立件するのは、公権力の乱用になりかねず、日韓関係に微妙な影も落としている。

Park Yu Ha, a professor at Sejong University in Seoul, has been indicted, without being detained, on charges of defamation. According to her indictment, Park damaged the honor of former so-called comfort women in her book called “Teikoku no Ianfu” (Comfort women of the empire), in which she denied their forcible recruitment.
 韓国の地検が、朴裕河・世宗大教授を名誉毀損きそんの罪で在宅起訴した。著書「帝国の慰安婦」で、慰安婦の強制連行を否定し、元慰安婦の名誉を傷つけたという。

The prosecutors office dismissed as untrue her assertion that “forcible recruitment, which consists of a violence committed by a state, has never been used against Korean comfort women.” The indictment also regarded as problematic her statement in the book: “Basically, Korean comfort women had a comradely relationship with soldiers.”
 「『強制連行』という国家暴力が朝鮮人慰安婦に関して行われたことはない」とする朴教授の主張を「虚偽」だと決めつけた。朝鮮人慰安婦が「基本的に軍人と『同志』的な関係を結んでいた」とする記述なども問題視した。

In stating the reason for Park’s indictment, the prosecutors office said that these descriptions had infringed on the personal rights of the former comfort women, adding that her book deviates from the constitutional guarantee of academic freedom.
 これらの表現が、元慰安婦の人格権を侵害し、憲法が保障する「学問の自由」を逸脱している、と起訴理由に示している。

The latest action came after 11 people, including former comfort women, filed a complaint against Park in June last year, followed by investigations into the case by the Seoul Eastern Prosecutors Office. Questions can be raised about the prosecutors’ action taken to pass judgment on historical facts about which even experts have divergent views.
 昨年6月に元慰安婦ら11人が告訴し、ソウル東部地検が捜査していた。検察が、専門家でも見解が分かれる史実の中身にまで立ち入って判断を下すのは疑問だ。

Park has refuted the prosecutors’ assertion, calling it “a distorted interpretation.” Her argument goes that the circumstances surrounding comfort women were varied, and that it is impossible to generalize them as “sex slaves,” “prostitutes” or otherwise.
 朴教授は、「曲解だ」と反論している。慰安婦の境遇は多様で、「性奴隷」「売春婦」などと一括くくりにはできないと主張する。

Her book points to some other problems involved in the matter, saying that the corps of women mobilized for wartime labor services are confused with comfort women even today.
 著書では、戦時勤労動員だった挺身ていしん隊と慰安婦が今も混同されているという問題点も指摘した。

Unreasonable basis

What cannot be overlooked is that the documents cited by the prosecutors office as the basis for branding Park’s assertion as false included a statement issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono and the U.N. Human Rights Commission’s Coomaraswamy Report.
 看過できないのは、地検が朴教授の主張を虚偽と断じた根拠として、河野官房長官談話や国連人権委員会のクマラスワミ報告なども挙げていることだ。

During the process of preparing the Kono statement, no document that proved the “forcible recruitment” of comfort women by the wartime Imperial Japanese Army was discovered. The statement was a result of political compromise between Japan and South Korea, according to a report issued in June last year by the Japanese government after months of examining the process in question.
 河野談話の作成過程では、旧日本軍による慰安婦の「強制連行」を裏付ける文書は見つかっていない。談話は日韓の政治的妥協の産物であったことが、昨年6月の日本政府の検証で判明している。

The Coomaraswamy Report included a number of unfounded descriptions. For instance, it stated that 200,000 Korean women had been forced to work as “sex slaves,” and that most of them had been killed later. The document also quotes false statements by Seiji Yoshida, who claimed women on South Korea’s Jeju Island had been forcibly recruited as comfort women.
 クマラスワミ報告には、20万人の朝鮮人女性が「性奴隷」となり、その後、大半が殺されたといった、根拠に乏しい記述が多数、含まれる。韓国の済州島で慰安婦を強制連行したという吉田清治氏の虚偽の証言も引用されている。

It is unreasonable to use these statements as a basis for the assertion that women were forcibly recruited as comfort women.
 いずれも、慰安婦強制連行説の根拠とするには無理がある。

A Japanese-language version of Park’s “Teikoku no Ianfu” has been published, with some modifications made to its contents. The book has been chosen as the winner of Waseda University’s Journalism Award.
 「帝国の慰安婦」は、一部修正された日本語版も刊行され、早稲田大主催のジャーナリズム大賞の受賞が決まっている。

In her book, Park states that the Korean comfort women were collaborators for the wartime Imperial Japanese Army, while at the same time criticizing the prewar “Empire of Japan” for being responsible for creating severe circumstances for these women.
 朴教授は、朝鮮人慰安婦は旧日本軍の協力者でもあったと指摘する一方で、その過酷な境遇を作り出した責任は「大日本帝国」にあったと厳しく批判している。

We must say that imposing restrictions on expressing such an objective view will make it difficult to facilitate constructive dialogue between Japan and South Korea regarding the issue of comfort women.
 こうした客観的な見解の表明さえも制約するようなら、慰安婦問題を巡る日韓の建設的な対話は困難と言わざるを得ない。

(The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 25, 2015)

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2015年11月24日 (火)

東アジア会議 南シナ海で対中圧力を強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Nations must pressure China to conform to intl law in S. China Sea
東アジア会議 南シナ海で対中圧力を強めよ

China’s words and deeds to justify its own behavior while threatening freedom of navigation, which is based on international law, can never be tolerated. It is important to repeatedly voice to the international community over the menace and self-righteousness of the country.
 国際法に基づく「航行の自由」を揺るがしながら、自らの行為を正当化する中国の言動は容認できない。その脅威と独善性を国際社会に繰り返し訴えることが重要である。

The leaders of 18 countries, including Japan, the United States, China and Russia plus members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, gathered in Malaysia on Sunday at a meeting of the East Asia Summit. China on the one hand and such countries as Japan and U.S. on the other exchanged at the meeting over China’s building artificial islands and promoting the establishment of military strongholds in the South China Sea.
 日米中露などと東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の計18か国による東アジア首脳会議が、マレーシアで開かれた。中国が南シナ海で人工島造成と軍事拠点化を進めている問題を巡って、日米などとの間で応酬が繰り広げられた。

At the meeting, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stressed the need to thoroughly preserve the rule of law on the seas. With China in mind, Abe said, “A large-scale and rapid reclamation project aimed at creating a base for military purposes is under way” in the South China Sea, and The prime minister expressed “serious concern.”
 安倍首相は、海洋での「法の支配」を徹底するよう訴えた。中国を念頭に、「大規模かつ急速な埋め立てや拠点構築、軍事目的での利用が継続している」と指摘し、「深刻な懸念」を表明した。

U.S. President Barack Obama, speaking in light of U.S. plans to continue patrol operations by its warships within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands, emphasized the importance of the “freedom of navigation and overflight.” Philippine President Benigno Aquino and others agreed with Obama.
 オバマ米大統領は、人工島の12カイリ内を米艦艇が巡視する作戦の継続を前提に、「航行と飛行の自由」の重要性を力説した。フィリピンのアキノ大統領らも同調した。

Japanese-U.S. joint endeavors in cooperation with other countries concerned to beef up pressure on China are indispensable for maintaining regional stability.
 日米が共同で関係国と連携して中国への圧力を強めることは、地域の安定維持に欠かせない。

it must not be overlooked that China has been criticizing Japan and the United States for their involvement in the South China Sea issue, labeling the two as “countries from outside the region.”
 看過できないのは、中国が日米を南シナ海の「域外国」とし、その関与を批判していることだ。

China’s deception politics

Chinese Premier Li Keqiang called for “countries outside the region” to “refrain from taking actions that may cause tensions in the region.” His statement is apparently aimed at stopping the U.S. military’s patrol activities.
 李克強首相は「域外国」に対し、「地域情勢を緊張させる行動をとらない」ことを求めた。米軍の巡視活動を牽制けんせいする狙いだろう。

The task of ensuring safety in the key maritime route(sea-lane) in the South China Sea is doubtless in the interest not only of the countries bordering the South China Sea but also the international community, including Japan and the United States. China’s assertion is wide of the mark.
 南シナ海の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は、南シナ海の沿岸国だけでなく、日米を含む国際社会共通の利益にほかならない。中国の主張は筋違いだ。

Although China has agreed to consult with ASEAN to formulate a legally binding code of conduct for the contested area, there are no prospects for a timeframe for the code’s completion. It cannot be denied that China is using the dialogue to buy time, with the intention of making its control over the South China Sea a fait accompli.
 中国は、法的拘束力のある行動規範の策定に向けたASEANとの協議に応じているが、策定時期の見通しは立っていない。対話で時間を稼ぎ、南シナ海支配を既成事実化する意図は明白だ。

In last week’s summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the issue of the South China Sea was not discussed. We can see China presumably maneuvered in advance to tamp down the issue.
 先に開かれたアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議では、南シナ海問題が議論されなかった。中国が事前に根回ししたことがうかがえる。

Early this month, Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Vietnam, with which China has had confrontations over the territorial problem, while sending Foreign Minister Wang Yi to the Philippines, the APEC chair.
 習近平国家主席は今月上旬、領有権問題で対立するベトナムを訪問し、APEC議長国のフィリピンには、王毅外相を派遣した。

China is using an old trick to try to split ASEAN members by using its economic clout. As long as Beijing continues to use deception as an expediency and fails to stop unilateral actions based on force, it will only increase regional distrust of China.
 経済カードで懐柔し、ASEANを分断するのは、中国の常套じょうとう手段だ。だが、その場限りのごまかしを続け、力による一方的な行動を改めなければ、地域の不信感を高めるだけではないか。

China’s tactic of distabilizing could hurt the unity of the member countries of ASEAN, which have declared they will launch an ASEAN Economic Community toward year-end. They are seeking to create a single market with a combined regional population of more than 600 million. Japan, in cooperation with the United States, must support the development of ASEAN as a whole.
 中国の揺さぶりは、ASEANの結束に悪影響を及ぼす。ASEAN各国は経済共同体を年末に発足させると宣言した。域内人口6億人超の単一市場構築を目指す。日本は米国と協調し、ASEANの一体的発展を支えるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 23, 2015)
The Yomiuri Shimbun
Nations must pressure China to conform to intl law in S. China Sea
東アジア会議 南シナ海で対中圧力を強めよ

China’s words and deeds to justify its own behavior while threatening freedom of navigation, which is based on international law, can never be tolerated. It is important to repeatedly voice to the international community over the menace and self-righteousness of the country.
 国際法に基づく「航行の自由」を揺るがしながら、自らの行為を正当化する中国の言動は容認できない。その脅威と独善性を国際社会に繰り返し訴えることが重要である。

The leaders of 18 countries, including Japan, the United States, China and Russia plus members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, gathered in Malaysia on Sunday at a meeting of the East Asia Summit. China on the one hand and such countries as Japan and U.S. on the other exchanged at the meeting over China’s building artificial islands and promoting the establishment of military strongholds in the South China Sea.
 日米中露などと東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の計18か国による東アジア首脳会議が、マレーシアで開かれた。中国が南シナ海で人工島造成と軍事拠点化を進めている問題を巡って、日米などとの間で応酬が繰り広げられた。

At the meeting, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe stressed the need to thoroughly preserve the rule of law on the seas. With China in mind, Abe said, “A large-scale and rapid reclamation project aimed at creating a base for military purposes is under way” in the South China Sea, and The prime minister expressed “serious concern.”
 安倍首相は、海洋での「法の支配」を徹底するよう訴えた。中国を念頭に、「大規模かつ急速な埋め立てや拠点構築、軍事目的での利用が継続している」と指摘し、「深刻な懸念」を表明した。

U.S. President Barack Obama, speaking in light of U.S. plans to continue patrol operations by its warships within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands, emphasized the importance of the “freedom of navigation and overflight.” Philippine President Benigno Aquino and others agreed with Obama.
 オバマ米大統領は、人工島の12カイリ内を米艦艇が巡視する作戦の継続を前提に、「航行と飛行の自由」の重要性を力説した。フィリピンのアキノ大統領らも同調した。

Japanese-U.S. joint endeavors in cooperation with other countries concerned to beef up pressure on China are indispensable for maintaining regional stability.
 日米が共同で関係国と連携して中国への圧力を強めることは、地域の安定維持に欠かせない。

it must not be overlooked that China has been criticizing Japan and the United States for their involvement in the South China Sea issue, labeling the two as “countries from outside the region.”
 看過できないのは、中国が日米を南シナ海の「域外国」とし、その関与を批判していることだ。

China’s deception politics

Chinese Premier Li Keqiang called for “countries outside the region” to “refrain from taking actions that may cause tensions in the region.” His statement is apparently aimed at stopping the U.S. military’s patrol activities.
 李克強首相は「域外国」に対し、「地域情勢を緊張させる行動をとらない」ことを求めた。米軍の巡視活動を牽制けんせいする狙いだろう。

The task of ensuring safety in the key maritime route(sea-lane) in the South China Sea is doubtless in the interest not only of the countries bordering the South China Sea but also the international community, including Japan and the United States. China’s assertion is wide of the mark.
 南シナ海の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は、南シナ海の沿岸国だけでなく、日米を含む国際社会共通の利益にほかならない。中国の主張は筋違いだ。

Although China has agreed to consult with ASEAN to formulate a legally binding code of conduct for the contested area, there are no prospects for a timeframe for the code’s completion. It cannot be denied that China is using the dialogue to buy time, with the intention of making its control over the South China Sea a fait accompli.
 中国は、法的拘束力のある行動規範の策定に向けたASEANとの協議に応じているが、策定時期の見通しは立っていない。対話で時間を稼ぎ、南シナ海支配を既成事実化する意図は明白だ。

In last week’s summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the issue of the South China Sea was not discussed. We can see China presumably maneuvered in advance to tamp down the issue.
 先に開かれたアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議では、南シナ海問題が議論されなかった。中国が事前に根回ししたことがうかがえる。

Early this month, Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Vietnam, with which China has had confrontations over the territorial problem, while sending Foreign Minister Wang Yi to the Philippines, the APEC chair.
 習近平国家主席は今月上旬、領有権問題で対立するベトナムを訪問し、APEC議長国のフィリピンには、王毅外相を派遣した。

China is using an old trick to try to split ASEAN members by using its economic clout. As long as Beijing continues to use deception as an expediency and fails to stop unilateral actions based on force, it will only increase regional distrust of China.
 経済カードで懐柔し、ASEANを分断するのは、中国の常套じょうとう手段だ。だが、その場限りのごまかしを続け、力による一方的な行動を改めなければ、地域の不信感を高めるだけではないか。

China’s tactic of distabilizing could hurt the unity of the member countries of ASEAN, which have declared they will launch an ASEAN Economic Community toward year-end. They are seeking to create a single market with a combined regional population of more than 600 million. Japan, in cooperation with the United States, must support the development of ASEAN as a whole.
 中国の揺さぶりは、ASEANの結束に悪影響を及ぼす。ASEAN各国は経済共同体を年末に発足させると宣言した。域内人口6億人超の単一市場構築を目指す。日本は米国と協調し、ASEANの一体的発展を支えるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 23, 2015)

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2015年11月23日 (月)

歴史観の訴追 韓国の自由の危機だ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 21
EDITORIAL: Indictment of historian a crisis of freedom in S. Korea
(社説)歴史観の訴追 韓国の自由の危機だ

Prosecutors in South Korea have indicted a university professor on defamation charges, claiming she falsely described former “comfort women” who were forced to provide sex to wartime Japanese soldiers.
Park Yu-ha, who is attached to Sejong University, was charged without arrest on Nov. 18 in connection to her book, “Comfort Women of the Empire,” which prosecutors assert defamed these women.
 韓国の検察が、同国で出版された「帝国の慰安婦」の著者、朴裕河(パクユハ)・世宗大教授を在宅起訴した。旧日本軍将兵らの性の相手をさせられた女性たちに対する名誉毀損(きそん)の罪に問うている。

Prosecutors acted on complaints made by former comfort women.
 起訴内容は、元慰安婦らの告訴をそのまま認めた。

“Korean comfort women and the Japanese military were basically in a comradely relationship,” Park wrote in her book.
著書には「朝鮮人慰安婦と日本軍は基本的に同志的関係にあった」といった表現などがあるが、

Prosecutors claim this, and some other descriptions in her book, are factually wrong.
検察はこれらを「虚偽の事実」にあたると断じている。

While acknowledging that speech, press and academic freedoms are basic rights guaranteed by the Constitution, prosecutors contend that Park violated the personal rights of former comfort women and overstepped the boundaries of academic freedom.
 また、言論や出版、学問の自由は憲法が保障する基本的権利だとしながらも、元慰安婦らの「人格権などを侵害し、学問の自由を逸脱した」と起訴理由をあげている。

There are a wide variety of views and opinions concerning the comfort women issue among former comfort women and their supporters, but it is not the mandate of public prosecutors to judge whether descriptions of historical facts are correct or not.
 慰安婦問題をめぐり、当事者や支援者にさまざまな意見があるのはわかる。だが、史実の正否は検察当局が判断を下すべきものではない。

It is even more dangerous for authority to punish free academic activities concerning interpretations and descriptions of history.
ましてや歴史の解釈や表現をめぐる学問の自由な営みを公権力が罰するのは、きわめて危険なことである。

In her book, Park mainly discussed the structural problems of imperialism that were behind the suppression of women.
 朴さんが著書で論じている趣旨は、帝国主義が抱える女性抑圧の構造的な問題である。

She harshly blames the imperial Japan for driving these women into a situation in which they had no choice but to have a comradely relationship with soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.
さらに、同志的関係にならざるをえないような状況に追い込んだ当時の日本の責任を厳しく追及してもいる。

In South Korea, there have been criminal investigations and court rulings that seem to be influenced more by national sentiment than by legal theories in cases concerning issues related to Japan’s past.
 韓国ではこれまでも日本の過去の問題が関係する事案では、法律論よりも国民感情に流されるかのような捜査や判決があった。

The latest move by the country’s prosecutors appears to be one example of this.
今回の判断の背景に、そんな要素は働かなかったか。

After former comfort women sought a temporary injunction against the publication of Park’s book, the Seoul Eastern District Court handed down a ruling in February that banned the publication of the book unless some passages were deleted.
 この本をめぐっては元慰安婦らの仮処分申請を受け、裁判所も、一部を削除しなければ出版を認めない決定をしている。

Many facts about the comfort women issue remain unclear, such as the actual number of them.
 確かに慰安婦問題については実際の総数など、まだ不明な部分も多い。

However, since former comfort women in South Korea began to come forward to tell their stories in the early 1990s, a lot of historical research on the subject has been conducted, mainly in Japan and South Korea. As a result, the real picture of comfort women has been gradually emerging.
一方で、被害者の韓国人女性たちが90年代初めに名乗り出始めて以降、日韓を中心に研究が進み、徐々に慰安婦問題の実態がわかってきた。

These studies on comfort women have disclosed that there was actually a great diversity of cases.
 同時に明らかになったのは、慰安婦といっても、実に多様なケースがあったということだ。

Park’s book focused on this diversity and her descriptions about some cases do not necessarily fit the common image of comfort women among South Koreans as “innocent girls.”
朴さんの著書はまさにその多様な側面に焦点をあてたが、韓国で広く語られる「純真で無垢(むく)な少女」という被害者像と必ずしも一致するわけではない。

If researchers face the constant threat of criminal prosecution over the publication of their research findings, however, the pursuit of learning is impossible.
 だからといって、研究者が成果を発表するたびに刑事事件で起訴されていたのでは学問は成り立たない。

Progress in academic research and the natural selection of academic theories take place through mutual reviews and criticism of various theories, discoveries and interpretations.
学説や発見、解釈は互いに検証し、批判や反論をし合うことで、研究が進展したり、淘汰(とうた)されたりするものだ。

Suppressing dissenting views and opinions is a serious challenge to freedom.
 異論の封殺は、自由に対する挑戦である。

The indictment of Park represents a problem that far transcends her personal concerns.
今回の問題は朴さん個人にとどまらない。

South Korean media have not given extensive coverage of the action taken by the prosecutors. We strongly hope to see a wide spectrum of the South Korean public stand up for the protection of freedom.
韓国メディアは起訴を大きく報じていないが、自由を守る声が広がることを願ってやまない。

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2015年11月22日 (日)

日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Deepen Japan-U.S. cooperation to handle China’s maritime advances
日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

Japan and the United States must work closely together and play a leading role in both the political and economic fields to maintain order in Asia.
 アジアの秩序を守るため、日米両国が政治、経済両分野で緊密に連携して、主導的な役割を果たすことが肝要だ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Manila and agreed to enhance mutual cooperation in dealing with issues related to artificial islands built by China in the South China Sea.
 安倍首相とオバマ米大統領がマニラで会談し、南シナ海での中国の人工島造成問題で、協力を強化することで一致した。

During the summit talks, Obama expressed his intention to continue the U.S. Navy’s patrol operations within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands. They will be carried out as routine activities, he said.
 オバマ氏は、米軍艦船が人工島の12カイリ内を巡視する作戦について「日常の行動として実行したい」と述べ、継続を表明した。

Abe expressed support for the U.S. patrol operations and told Obama he would “consider the possibility of the Self-Defense Forces conducting operations in the area while examining the impact of the situation on Japan’s national security.”
 首相は、作戦を支持し、南シナ海での自衛隊の活動に関して「日本の安全保障に与える影響を注視しつつ検討する」と述べた。

China must be stopped from carrying out large-scale reclamation in the area and turning the artificial islands into military bases based on self-serving logic in violation of international law. Japan and the United States have to cooperate with Southeast Asian nations and patiently call on China to exercise self-restraint and improve the situation.
 中国が国際法に反する独善的な論理を用い、大規模な埋め立てや軍事拠点化を進めることは阻止せねばならない。日米が東南アジア各国とも連携し、中国に粘り強く自制と改善を促す必要がある。

The U.S. Navy’s operations are significant to prevent China’s unilateral attempt to change the status quo from becoming established fact. Even if it is not participating in them, Japan should provide indirect support for the U.S. operations. The Maritime Self-Defense Force and the U.S. Navy have built strong mutual trust through joint exercises, and joint reconnaissance and surveillance operations, over a long period.
 中国の一方的な現状変更を既成事実化させないため、米軍の作戦は重要だ。日本も、作戦に参加しないまでも、側面支援はしたい。海上自衛隊と米海軍は長年、共同訓練や共同の警戒監視活動を通じて、強い信頼を築いてきた。

Japan must also try to help the navies and coast guards of the Philippines and other countries in the area develop their capabilities through official development assistance.
 政府開発援助(ODA)も活用し、フィリピンなど周辺国の海軍や海上保安機関の能力構築支援にも力を入れねばなるまい。

Abe pledges Futenma progress

Abe also told Obama that his administration would proceed resolutely with the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture to the Henoko district. Obama thanked Abe and expressed his intention to work with Tokyo in returning U.S. military facilities in the prefecture to Japan, among other issues.
 米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設について、首相は「確固たる決意で進める」と表明した。オバマ氏は謝意を表し、米軍施設の返還などに協力する考えを示した。

It is important for Abe to maintain his stance of proceeding steadily with the relocation. Any attempt to seek an entirely new solution will further complicate the issue and only delay the removal of the dangers posed by the Futenma Air Station.
 大切なのは、安倍政権が移設を着実に進める姿勢を堅持することだ。新たな解決策を探ることは、問題を複雑にし、普天間飛行場の危険性除去を遅らせるだけだ。

Obama praised the passage of security-related laws in Japan, saying they are historic achievements. He also said the United States strongly supported the Japan-South Korea bilateral meeting that was achieved recently.
 オバマ氏は、安全保障関連法の成立について「歴史的業績だ」と高く評価した。日韓首脳会談の実現についても「強く支持する」と語った。

In reply, Abe expressed his intention to strengthen cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea to deal with North Korea’s nuclear and missile development.
首相は、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題を踏まえ、日米韓の協力を強化する考えを示した。

The cooperation of the three countries is essential for security in the northeast Asian region. Japan and the United States must keep urging South Korea to take positive steps toward that goal.
 北東アジアの安全保障にとって日米韓の連携は不可欠だ。日米が韓国に前向きな対応を継続的に働きかけることが求められる。

Referring to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact, the prime minister said Japan and the United States’ leadership of the negotiations made it possible for the countries involved to reach a broad agreement. Obama said the TPP pact would drastically change the global environment and the next challenge was how the pact could be brought into effect and implemented.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)について首相は「日米が主導したからこそ、大筋合意ができた」と指摘した。オバマ氏は「TPPはグローバル環境を一変させる。課題は、協定の発効と実施の段階に持っていくことだ」と語った。

It is significant that Japan and the United States have led the formulation of free, fair and transparent rules on trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. Taking the future expansion of participating countries into consideration, the countries concerned must try to ratify and implement the TPP pact as soon as possible.
 日米が、アジア太平洋地域の自由、公正で透明性のある貿易・投資ルールの確立を牽引けんいんした意義は大きい。参加国の拡大も視野に入れて、できるだけ早期の批准・発効を目指すことが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 21, 2015)

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2015年11月21日 (土)

APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expansion of free trade framework must center around TPP pact
APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

Broadening high-level trade liberalization based on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement is indispensable to the further development of the world economy.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)をベースにした、高水準の貿易自由化を広げることが世界経済の発展に欠かせない。

A declaration was adopted Thursday at a summit meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, of which a major pillar is to speed up discussions about creating a “Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific” (FTAAP).
 アジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議は、「アジア太平洋自由貿易圏(FTAAP)構想」の検討加速を柱とする首脳宣言を採択した。

The declaration stressed that the realization of the envisioned FTAAP “should be pursued as a comprehensive free trade agreement.”
 宣言は、FTAAPに関して、「包括的な自由貿易協定として追求されるべきだ」と強調した。

The FTAAP would endeavor to economically integrate 21 countries and regions, including Japan, the United States, China and Russia. We welcome the fact that the APEC members — despite their widely different levels of economic development, ranging from industrially advanced to developing — have reconfirmed the importance of unifying trade rules.
 FTAAPは、日米中露など域内21か国・地域の経済統合を図る試みだ。先進国から途上国まで経済の発展段階が違うAPECメンバーがルールを統一する重要性を確認できたのは、歓迎できる。

If the broad agreements reached in the TPP negotiations, such as the abolition of tariffs and the application of fair and transparent trade rules, spread to nations outside the TPP, it will certainly invigorate the economic activities in the region.
 TPPで大筋合意した高いレベルの関税撤廃や、公正で透明な貿易ルールの適用がFTAAPでより多くの国々に広がれば、地域の経済活性化に弾みがつこう。

It is a cause for concern that China and Russia, which are not involved in the TPP, have reacted adversely to the envisaged economic integration centering on the TPP.
 懸念材料は、TPPに参加していない中露がTPPを軸にした経済統合に反発していることだ。

Chinese President Xi Jinping expressed caution in a lecture during the summit, saying: “With various new regional free trade arrangements cropping up, there have been worries about the potential of fragmentation.”
 中国の習近平国家主席は講演で「自由貿易の計画が次々と現れ、地域がバラバラになることを懸念している」と警戒感を示した。

Russian President Vladimir Putin wrote in an article ahead of the APEC summit that “the confidential fashion in which the TPP negotiations were conducted is probably not the best way to facilitate sustainable growth in the Asia-Pacific region.”
 ロシアのプーチン大統領も「TPPの秘密交渉スタイルは、地域の成長を促す最良の道ではない」とする論文を発表した。

U.S. Congress is key

One country after another has shown interest in taking part in the TPP, including South Korea and the Philippines. China and Russia, whose intentions to vie with the economic order led by the United States are now in jeopardy, have apparently taken steps to check the moves of other nations to become additional TPP members.
 韓国やフィリピンなどの参加検討表明が相次いでいる。中露は、米国主導の経済秩序に対抗する目論もくろ見みが危うくなったため、新規参入の動きを牽制けんせいしたのだろう。

China is poised to seek the region’s economic integration based on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which it has been negotiating with countries including Japan, South Korea and India. The United States is not a party to RCEP negotiations.
 中国は、日韓やインドなどと交渉中の東アジア地域包括的経済連携(RCEP)を基礎に経済統合を目指す考えだ。米国は交渉に参加していない。

However, the tariff abolition targets being sought in the RCEP initiative are lower than those under the TPP. It has been pointed out that the RCEP talks have yet to make progress regarding such matters as environmental protection and human and intellectual property rights, while TPP member countries and businesses are required to comply with standards regarding those matters.
 だが、RCEPは、TPPに比べ、目標とする関税撤廃率が低い。TPPが締結国の政府や企業に求めた環境や人権、知的財産権などへの配慮についても、議論がまだ進んでいないとされる。

To ensure fair and free economic activity, it is more desirable to have the TPP rules accepted as international standards.
 公正で自由な経済活動を確保するには、TPPルールを国際標準とする方が望ましい。

It was right that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said at the APEC summit: “Japan hereafter will energetically pour our efforts into expanding the TPP.” By cooperating with such countries as Australia, Japan must play a leading role in the RCEP negotiation process — in which the United States is absent — with the aim of bringing its levels of trade liberalization closer to those of the TPP.
 安倍首相が「日本は今後、TPPを広める取り組みに注力する」と語ったのは適切だ。豪州などと連携して、米国不在のRCEP交渉をリードし、自由化の水準をTPPに近づけねばならない。

It is worrying that rough sailing is expected regarding the ratification of the TPP by the U.S. Congress. In addition to objections from the Republican Party, trade unions, which are the support base for the Democratic Party, have also been intensifying their resistance toward the TPP.
 気がかりなのは、TPPの批准が、米国で難航しそうなことである。野党の共和党に加え、与党・民主党でも、支持層の労働組合が反対を強めている。

The TPP cannot be put into force without ratification by the United States. We hope the U.S. administration will strenuously tackle the challenge in Congress.
 米国が批准しないと、TPPは発効しない。米政府は議会対策に精力的に取り組んでほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 20, 2015)

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2015年11月20日 (金)

国内テロ対策 水際を固めて発生を阻止せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Prevent international terrorist attacks by strengthening border controls
国内テロ対策 水際を固めて発生を阻止せよ

It is urgently required to establish a system to gather intelligence on foreign terrorists, and to prevent terrorist attacks in Japan.
 海外のテロ情報を収集し、国内での犯行阻止につなげる。その体制整備が喫緊の課題である。

Immediately after returning from a summit meeting of the Group of 20 major economies, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe attended a meeting of the National Security Council. “I want all of you to implement every possible measure to prevent a terrorist attack from occurring,” Abe told the council.
 安倍首相は、主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議からの帰国直後に開いた国家安全保障会議(NSC)で、「テロの未然防止に全力を尽くしてほしい」と指示した。

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group, which carried out the simultaneous terrorist attacks in Paris last week, has named Japan as one of its targets. Given that Japan will host the Ise-Shima summit meeting of Group of Seven nations next year and the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games, the implementation of effective countermeasures cannot be put off any longer.
 パリ同時テロを引き起こした過激派組織「イスラム国」は、日本も標的に挙げている。来年の主要国首脳会議(伊勢志摩サミット)や2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックを控えるだけに、対策に時間的な猶予はない。

The targets of the Paris terrorist attacks included a theater and sports stadium where many and unspecified civilians assemble. Such places are often called “soft targets,” and the security measures in place tend to be less rigorous than at government institutions and other facilities.
 パリのテロでは、不特定多数の民間人が集まる劇場や競技場が狙われた。ソフトターゲットと呼ばれ、政府機関などに比べて警備が手薄になりがちだ。

Japan also has many places that could be considered soft targets. Security measures are needed, such as screening the personal belongings of people entering such places, but it is impossible for every facility to conduct increased security checks.
 ソフトターゲットになり得る場所は日本にも多い。入場者の手荷物検査といった対策が必要だ。ただし、全ての施設で手厚い警備を実施するのは不可能だろう。

The important thing is not to allow terrorists to enter Japan. To ensure this, intelligence on individual terrorists and international terrorist organizations will be essential. The success or failure of countermeasures implemented at the nation’s borders will hinge on the extent to which such intelligence can be acquired beforehand.
 重要なのは、テロリストを入国させないことだ。そのためには、国際テロ組織や個々のテロリストに関する情報が欠かせない。事前に機密情報をどこまで入手できるかに、水際対策の成否がかかっていると言えよう。

Time is of the essence

ISIL has murdered two Japanese hostages. In response to these killings, the government decided in May to set up an “international terrorism intelligence-gathering unit” within the Foreign Ministry.
 「イスラム国」は日本人の人質2人を殺害した。この事件を受け、政府は今年5月、「国際テロ情報収集ユニット」を外務省に設置することを決めた。

This organization will be led by the Prime Minister’s Office and collect terrorist information to be shared among all relevant branches of the government. The initial plan was to launch the unit in spring 2016, but the government reportedly will consider bringing this date forward.
 政府の全関係機関が共同でテロ情報を収集する官邸主導の組織となる。来春の設置を目指してきたが、前倒しも検討するという。

It has been pointed out that Japan, which does not have an independent foreign intelligence agency, possesses scant intelligence on terrorists and terrorism. Enforcement of the law to protect specially designated state secrets should help rectify this weakness. We hope the intelligence-gathering unit will quickly get into action and strengthen ties with foreign intelligence services.
 独立した対外情報機関を持たない日本は、テロ情報の保有量が少ないとされてきた。特定秘密保護法の施行で、その弱点は改善されるだろう。早急にユニットを始動させ、外国の情報機関との連携を強めてもらいたい。

The number of foreigners visiting Japan for tourism and other reasons is expected to increase in the years ahead. Immigration checks at airports and other points of entry must swiftly detect any suspicious people.
 今後も観光などで来日する外国人の増加が見込まれる。空港などの入国審査で、不審人物を迅速にチェックする必要がある。

The Justice Ministry plans to create a database of facial images of known terrorists and in the next fiscal year introduce at every international airport in Japan a system that can instantly check each visitor’s face against these photos. Combined with checks of fingerprints taken during entry to Japan, this system must be made to function effectively.
 法務省は、テロリストらの顔画像をデータベース化し、瞬時に照合できるシステムを来年度から全国の国際空港に導入する方針だ。指紋によるチェックと併せ、有効に機能させねばならない。

With regard to combating organized crime, there has been debate over the pros and cons of establishing conspiracy as a crime, allowing people to be punished for planning to commit a serious crime. Some observers have also advocated the broader monitoring of communications, which current laws only allow to be conducted within a severely restricted scope.
 組織的犯罪の対策を巡っては、重大犯罪を計画した段階で処罰対象とする共謀罪の創設の是非が議論されてきた。現行法で適用範囲が厳しく制限された通信傍受の柔軟な運用を望む声もある。

We hope the government will craft effective policies while giving due consideration to human rights.
 人権に配慮しつつ、実効性のある方策を見極めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 19, 2015)

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2015年11月19日 (木)

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それには理由があります。
ネットのクラウド上でコーポレートカード、交通系ICカード、地図情報などの出張・経費に関わる様々なサービスと緊密に連携しています。
企業の社員たちの経費精算 業務を大幅に省力化してくれる、夢のIT技術です。

企業側にも大きなメリットがあります。
ともすれば、不透明となりがちな、出張旅費や宿泊費用計算を、可視化いたします。
出張や経費の支出計算が、不透明な状態から、明確で、誰がみても納得できるかたちにされます。
20,000社を超える企業がConcur(コンカー)の出張管理を使うのには、やはり、わけがありました。



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「第1回エンマンコロシアム」1位はなんと賞金30万円

私は子供の時分から漫画が大好きで、それこそ夢中で読んでいました。
半世紀も前の話しですが、漫画家の登竜門は、自分の作品が「ガロ」とか「コム」といった漫画専門の機関誌に掲載されることでした。
この二つの機関誌からは、日本を代表する、超一流の漫画家たちが続々と生まれました。

あれから半世紀、時は流れてしまいました。
現在の漫画は、IT技術を駆使して制作されます。
作品自体も、手書きよりもPCを使って製作されることが増えてきています。
この分野で、日本の先駆けは、株式会社シフトワンですが、多彩な映像グラフィックの技術を得意としています。

シフトワンがマンガコンテスト 「第1回エンマンコロシアム」を開催します。
現代の漫画家たちは実に多様化されています。
あっと驚くような実力を秘めているカクレ漫画は、意外と多いものです。
「第1回エンマンコロシアム」は、漫画家が自分の作品を世に問う、絶好の機会ではないでしょうか。

入賞するのは至難の業ですが、そのメリットは計り知れません。
入賞者の作品は、英語や中国語に翻訳され、世界中にネットを通じて配信されます。
ネット上で大きな反響を呼び起こせるポテンシャルを持った作品に対して、厳正な審査がなされ、入賞者が決まります。1位はなんと賞金30万円です。



賞金総額50万円!ENSOKU-MANGAサービス開始記念「第1回エンマンコロシアム」開催



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G20対テロ声明 国境管理の徹底で封じ込めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
G-20 must contain intl terrorists through rigid border controls
G20対テロ声明 国境管理の徹底で封じ込めよ

The solidarity of the international community in the wake of the simultaneous terrorist attacks in Paris must lead to effective measures to combat terrorism.
 パリ同時テロを機に生まれた国際社会の結束を実効性ある対策につなげねばならない。

The Group of 20 (G-20) leaders summit ended with the adoption of a joint statement demonstrating their resolve to fight against terrorism.
 主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議は、テロと戦う決意を示す緊急声明を採択し、閉幕した。

The statement declared, “We condemn, in the strongest possible terms, the heinous terrorist attacks” in Paris on Nov. 13 and in Ankara in October.
 声明は、パリ同時テロと10月のトルコでの爆弾テロを「最も強い表現で非難する」と明記した。

It also said that the fight against terrorism “is a major priority for all of our countries” and called on the countries to take measures to cut off the financing channels for terrorism and to counter terrorist propaganda.
 テロとの戦いを「すべての国の優先課題」と位置付け、テロ資金の遮断やテロ組織の宣伝戦への対抗措置を各国に求めた。

The statement also urged the countries to enhance cooperation in information sharing concerning an acutely growing flow of foreign terrorist fighters and thorough border controls.
急増する外国人戦闘員に関する情報の共有や国境管理の徹底も促した。

There is nothing new, in particular, in any one of these specific measures. The countries concerned have already taken relevant measures but have so far been unable to prevent large-scale terror. What is needed is for the international community to strengthen its solidarity and enhance these measures’ effectiveness.
 どの具体策も目新しさはない。関係国は既に取り組みを進めているが、大規模テロを防げずにいる。国際社会の連帯を強め、その効果を高めることが求められよう。

U.S. President Barack Obama expressed his intention of intensifying a bombing operations in Syria. Russian President Vladimir Putin said, “It’s only possible to deal with the terror threat by combining the efforts of the entire global community.”
 オバマ米大統領は、シリアでの空爆作戦などを強化する意向を表明した。プーチン露大統領も、「力を合わせることでのみ、戦いの効果がある」と述べた。

French President Francois Hollande, who was absent from the G-20 summit, emphasized that “France is at war” with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant group. The United States and Russia should respond proactively to France’s call for cooperation to eradicate ISIL.
 G20を欠席したオランド仏大統領は、過激派組織「イスラム国」と「戦争している」と力説した。掃討に向けた協力要請に、米露は積極的に応じるべきだ。

France will shortly submit to the U.N. Security Council a draft resolution aiming at defeating ISIL. It is important for the security council to adopt such a resolution promptly and support the campaign to wipe out ISIL as the collective will of the global community.
 フランスは近く、「イスラム国」打倒に関する決議案を国連安全保障理事会に提出する。安保理は決議を迅速に採択し、国際社会の総意として、掃討作戦を後押しすることが重要である。

Economic hazards

Terrorism impedes the flow of people and goods and adds uncertainty to the world economy.
 テロは、人やモノの流れを滞らせ、世界経済の不確実性を高める。

The G-20 countries should make efforts to raise their economic growth level with the aim of overcoming problems, such as poverty and youth unemployment, that lie behind terrorism.
G20は、貧困や若者の失業など、テロの背景にある課題の克服を目指し、各国の成長底上げに努めねばなるまい。

The key to meeting these challenges is an expansion in infrastructure investment deemed effective in creating jobs and raising the standard of living in newly emerging economies.
 新興国での雇用創出や生活向上に効果的なインフラ(社会資本)投資の拡大がカギを握る。

It is quite reasonable that the G-20 statement has pointed out that the “top priority is timely and effective implementation of growth strategies” that would create jobs and reduce inequality.
G20首脳宣言が「最優先事項は雇用を生み、不平等を減らす成長戦略だ」と指摘したのはもっともだ。

Also on the agenda was the economic slowdown in China and the prospect of a U.S. interest rate hike. Both are issues that could deal a blow to newly emerging economies. It is important, also from the viewpoint of nipping terrorism in the bud, to keep possible adverse effects to a minimum.
 会議では、中国の景気減速や米国の利上げも議題となった。いずれも新興国経済に打撃を与えかねない問題だ。テロの芽を摘むという観点からも、悪影響を最小限にとどめることが大切である。

Should China’s economy stall, countries exporting oil and other natural resources will be in a predicament. There was a succession of calls from other G-20 countries urging Beijing to make efforts to structural reform that the country would not become a source of trouble for the world economy.
 中国の景気が腰折れすれば、石油などの資源輸出国は苦境に陥る。各国から、中国が世界経済の波乱要因とならないよう、構造改革の努力を迫る声が相次いだ。

We agree with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who said China needs to make efforts to tackle structural problems, including the scrapping of excessive production equipment.
 安倍首相が「過剰生産設備の解消など構造的課題への努力が求められる」と語ったのは頷うなずける。

If the United States raises interest rates, the flow of capital out of emerging economies may accelerate. It is considered appropriate that the G-20 leaders’ declaration called for the U.S. to make discreet decisions on its monetary policy.
 米国が利上げすれば、新興国からの資金流出が加速しかねない。首脳宣言が金融政策の慎重な判断を促したのは妥当だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 18, 2015)

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2015年11月18日 (水)

対「イスラム国」 米露の主導権争いは不毛だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Leadership struggle between U.S., Russia over Syrian situation futile
対「イスラム国」 米露の主導権争いは不毛だ

A futile U.S.-Russian conflict over the Syrian situation can only benefit the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant group, which carried out simultaneous terrorist attacks in Paris.
 シリアを巡る米国とロシアの不毛な対立は、パリ同時テロを実行した過激派組織「イスラム国」を利するだけである。

It is vital for the international community to help bring to an end both the civil war that has bogged down in Syria and the exodus of refugees from the country, and for it to take concerted action to fight ISIL.
 泥沼化するシリア内戦と難民流出を収拾し、「イスラム国」対策で国際社会の足並みを揃そろえることが急務だ。

At a meeting of countries concerned with the Syrian situation, the United States, European nations, Russia and Arab countries agreed on a political road map aimed at starting talks between the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad and opposition groups and holding democratic elections within 18 months.
 米欧露やアラブ諸国などによる関係国会合は、シリアのアサド政権と反体制派の交渉を年内に開始し、18か月以内に民主選挙を実施するなどの行程表で合意した。

They probably reached the accord because it was widely recognized that the delay in the international community responding to the Syrian civil war allowed ISIL to increase its sphere of influence and led to the latest terrorist attacks in Paris.
 シリア内戦への対応が遅れたことで、「イスラム国」の伸長を許し、パリ同時テロを招いたとの認識が広がったためだろう。

U.S. President Barack Obama and his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, held unofficial talks on the sidelines of the Group of 20 summit in Turkey and agreed on the need for a ceasefire and a transition to a new administration. The two leaders hailed the road map as “diplomatic progress” on a political transition in Syria.
 オバマ米大統領とプーチン露大統領も、主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議に合わせトルコで非公式に会談し、停戦や新政権への移行の必要性で一致した。行程表を「外交的進展」と評価した。

Washington’s acceptance of the road map worked out under the leadership of Russia, the Assad regime’s ally, can be considered a bitter concession because the United States had to give in prioritizing international solidarity over changing the Assad regime.
 米国が、アサド政権寄りのロシアが主導した行程表を受け入れたのは、関係国の結束を優先した、苦渋の譲歩と言えよう。

Yet the United States and Russia remain at odds over whether to allow the Assad regime to remain in power. Both countries must continue talks to steadily carry out the transition plan and move closer together.
 ただ、アサド政権の継続を容認するかどうかについて、米露はなお対立している。行程表の着実な履行に向けて対話を続け、歩み寄らねばならない。

Obama changes policy

In late October, the Obama administration changed its policy of not deploying ground troops to fight ISIL in Syria and decided to dispatch special forces. The shift in U.S. policy is believed to be taken in response to Russia launching a full-scale intervention with airstrikes in Syria.
 オバマ政権は10月末、「イスラム国」との戦いでシリアに米地上軍を駐留させない方針を転換し、特殊部隊派遣を決めた。ロシアがシリア空爆で本格的な介入を始めたことへの対抗策とみられる。

The U.S. special forces would be fewer than 50 and train and assist rebels and Kurdish forces. They would neither be deployed on the front lines nor used in combat missions against ISIL.
 特殊部隊の規模は50人未満で、反体制派やクルド人部隊の訓練、支援を行う。前線には配置せず、戦闘任務は担わないという。

Obama had earlier planned to have rebel fighters trained outside Syria and have them deployed in ground operations. As few Syrians volunteered for this training program and the U.S. plan virtually collapsed, the United States had no other option but to have its own forces prop up rebel groups.
 オバマ氏は、シリア国外で反体制派の戦闘員を訓練し、地上戦に送り込む意向だった。しかし、志願者が少なく、計画が事実上破綻したことから、米軍によるてこ入れを余儀なくされた。

However, there will be no tangible result if only piecemeal measures are taken every time the situation deteriorates.
 情勢悪化のたびに小出しの対応をするのでは効果は望めまい。

The United States has criticized that 80 to 90 percent of Russia’s airstrikes have targeted the moderate Syrian opposition. Washington may be wary of Russia building a solid foothold in the Middle East.
 米国はロシアの空爆について、「8~9割が反体制派を狙ったものだ」と批判する。ロシアが中東に強固な足場を築くのを警戒しているのだろう。

The elimination of ISIL should be the common goal of both the United States and Russia.
 「イスラム国」の掃討は、米露共通の目標のはずである。

The crash of a Russian passenger airliner in late October in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula has increasingly been seen as caused by a terrorist bomb. ISIL had much earlier declared that it would retaliate for Russian airstrikes in Syria, and an organization under the wing of ISIL later claimed responsibility for downing the Russian plane.
 10月末にエジプト・シナイ半島で起きたロシアの旅客機墜落は、爆破テロとの見方が濃厚になっている。「イスラム国」は以前からロシアのシリア空爆に対する報復を宣言し、傘下組織が墜落後に犯行声明を出した。

If the crash is confirmed as a terrorist act taken in retaliation for Russia’s airstrikes, the necessity for the United States and Russia to cooperate in the exchange of information and other areas will grow further.
 報復テロと確認されれば、米露が情報交換などで協力する必要性が一段と高まろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 17, 2015)

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2015年11月17日 (火)

パリの同時多発テロ 許せぬ自由社会への暴力

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 15
EDITORIAL: World shares France’s grief after heartless attacks in Paris
(社説)パリの同時多発テロ 許せぬ自由社会への暴力

The cruelty of the terrorist attacks in Paris made us shudder. This barbarous act, which took so many lives indiscriminately, was a tragedy not just for France, but for the entire globe.
 非道なテロに慄然(りつぜん)とする。無差別に多くの人命を奪った蛮行はフランスだけでなく、世界にとっての悲劇である。

A Friday night in Paris turned murderous. Random shootings and explosions occurred almost simultaneously at multiple locations in central parts of the city, leaving a tremendous number of people dead or wounded.
 金曜夜のパリが血に染まった。中心部の複数の場所でほぼ同時に銃の乱射や爆発があり、おびただしい死傷者が出た。

All the attacks took place at venues that were bustling with crowds. Guns were fired at random in a hall that was hosting a rock concert packed with young people, as well as at restaurants and a cafe. Bomb blasts, apparently from suicide bombers, rocked a soccer stadium in the suburbs.
 襲われたのは、いずれも多数の人々でにぎわう場だ。若者が集うロックコンサートの会場ホールをはじめ、レストラン、カフェで銃の乱射があり、郊外のサッカースタジアムでは自爆テロとみられる爆発が起きた。

Most of the victims were ordinary citizens who had nothing to do with conflicts or extremist thought. The grief of the victims and their families can never be fully fathomed.
 被害者のほとんどは、紛争や過激思想とは無縁の、ふつうの市民である。犠牲者や遺族の無念さは察するにあまりある。

This barbarous act of violence on citizens can never be forgiven.
 市民を狙った卑劣な暴力を断じて許すことはできない。

The most important task for the government of France, for the time being, will be to eliminate public anxiety by restoring peace and order. The French government should also move steadily to uncover the facts and background behind the attacks.
 フランス政府は、当面は治安の回復により、国民の不安を取り除くことが大切だろう。同時に、テロの実態と背景の解明をしっかり進めてほしい。

The international community should work together to support that effort. France is not the only nation that is bearing the brunt of terrorism. Every citizen should be reminded that his or her country could be facing the same danger tomorrow.
 日本を含む国際社会は、力を合わせてその取り組みを支えたい。テロの矛先が向いているのは、フランスだけではない。明日は自国に突きつけられる問題だとの意識を肝に銘じたい。

DON’T LET CITIZENRY BECOME DIVIDED
 ■市民の分断を防げ

In January, Paris was the site of successive attacks on the editorial offices of Charlie Hebdo, a satirical weekly newspaper, and a kosher grocery. Seventeen people, including citizens and police officers, were killed in the serial attacks.
 パリではことしの1月、風刺週刊紙「シャルリー・エブド」編集部と、ユダヤ人の食品雑貨店が相次いで襲われた。市民や警官ら17人が死亡した。

The latest attacks took place at a time when the Charlie Hebdo tragedy was still fresh in many minds, leaving the public seriously shocked.
 その記憶がまだ薄れていない時の出来事である。人びとが受けた衝撃は甚大だ。

Anxiety is also spreading across the globe, because later this month Paris will host the Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21). The terrorists possibly also had that in mind.
 パリではまた、今月末から国連気候変動枠組み条約締約国会議(COP21)が開かれる予定で、不安は世界に広がっている。テロリストたちはそれも狙いだったのかもしれない。

Since January, the government of France was supposed to have strengthened security in an all-out effort to prevent a recurrence. But that measure still failed to block the multiple coordinated attacks that once again stained the French capital in blood.
 1月以降、仏政府は警備を強化し、再発防止に全力で努めていたはずだった。しかし、それでも今回のような同時多発テロを防げなかった。

Civil facilities are called “soft targets,” which are not quite like military or other establishments. Even though their vulnerability to attacks is no secret, we are faced with a dilemma, whereby stepping up control over human mobility could erode the principles of a liberalist society.
 軍などの施設と異なり、民間施設は「ソフトターゲット」と呼ばれる。攻撃に弱いとわかっていても、人の動きへの規制を強めれば、自由主義社会の原則が侵食される。

Terrorist attacks are called challenges to freedom exactly for that reason.
 テロが自由に対する挑戦と言われるゆえんである。

Whatever their direct political motives, terrorist attacks are always intended to incite fear in a peaceful and civilized society and create a divide between people.
 直接の政治的な動機が何であれ、平和な文明社会に恐怖をもたらし、人々の間に亀裂をつくる意図があるのがテロの常だ。

As in the case of the attacks on Charlie Hebdo in January, it has been pointed out that radical Islamists were involved in the latest attacks. But, even if that is true, we should not readily associate the attacks with Muslims at large or with immigrant communities.
 今回も1月と同様に、イスラム系過激派の関連が指摘されている。だとしても、テロとイスラム教徒や移民社会とを安易に結びつけるべきではない。

It comes across as all too natural that a group of French Muslims has released a statement denouncing the attacks. Similar incidents are often followed by speech and actions that encourage attacks on Muslims or rejection of immigrants.
 フランスのイスラム教徒団体がテロを非難する声明を出したのは当然だろう。こうした事件の後では、イスラム教徒らへの攻撃や移民排斥をあおる言動がしばしばみられる。

We should not play into the terrorists’ hands and allow society to become divided, which is what the terrorists want. We should remain level-headed and steady in taking countermeasures without compromising the principles of freedom.
 テロがもくろむ社会の分断をみすみす許してはならない。冷静に着実に、自由の原則を曲げずに対策を進めるべきだ。

REPERCUSSIONS OF CONFLICTS, TURBULENCE
 ■紛争と混乱の連鎖

The French government believes the latest attacks were perpetrated by the Islamic State (IS), a group of extremists that has expanded its influence in the Middle East.
 仏政府はこの事件について、中東で勢力を伸ばしてきた過激派組織「イスラム国」(IS)の犯行とみている。

Individuals under the influence of IS have carried out terrorist attacks in many parts of the world. French government officials said the latest attacks were planned and organized outside France.
 ISに影響を受けた人物によるテロは世界各地で起きている。仏政府によると、今回の犯行は、フランスの国外で計画、組織されたものだという。

Paris decided to institute military actions in the Middle East from last year. It joined a U.S.-led coalition and began air raids on targets in Iraq, and starting this autumn has also been conducting air strikes in Syria against the IS.
 仏政府は昨年から、中東での軍事行動に踏み切った。米国主導の有志連合に加わり、イラクに加え、この秋からはシリアでもISを狙う空爆を始めた。

If the latest attacks were intended as retaliation against these actions, that means the world is once again facing a global chain of violence that transcends national and regional borders.
 今回がその報復であるとしたら、世界はあらためて、国境や地域を越えた地球規模の暴力の連鎖を目の当たりにしていることになる。

The 9/11 attacks on the United States in 2001 were carried out by al-Qaida, a militant Islamist organization that was based in Afghanistan.
 01年の米同時多発テロは、当時アフガニスタンに拠点を置いた過激派のアルカイダと呼ばれる組織による攻撃だった。

The Madrid train bombings of 2004 and the London bombings of 2005 were associated with the Iraq War and other turbulence in the Middle East. The latest attacks also appear highly likely to be repercussions in Europe of the wars being fought in the Middle East over the IS issue.
 04年のスペイン・マドリードでの列車爆破や、05年に英国を襲った同時爆破テロは、イラク戦争と中東の混乱に関連して起きた。今回も、IS問題をめぐる中東の戦火が欧州に及んだものである可能性が高い。

The civil war in Syria, which has yet to show signs of dissipating, has resulted in the deaths of more than 200,000 people and has displaced millions of refugees and evacuees. The chaotic state there is generating serious global problems, including the proliferation of terrorism and an outflow of refugees.
 収束の兆しが見えないシリアの内戦は二十数万もの死者と、数百万の難民や避難民をだしている。その混沌(こんとん)が、テロの拡散や、難民の流出という深刻なグローバル問題を生んでいる。

Dilapidation, warfare and poverty in a certain region, no matter what remote corner of the world, are bound to erode the stability of the entire global community in due course of time.
 遠い海外のどこであれ、地域の荒廃、戦乱、貧困はやがて、国際社会全体の安定をむしばむ。

The ravaging consequences of the terrorist attacks should give us opportunities to once again reflect on the pathological state threatening today’s world and reconfirm the will of the international community to take that as a challenge and face it.
いまの世界を覆う病理と、それに立ち向かう国際社会としての意思をいま一度、こうしたテロの惨禍を機に確認したい。

GLOBAL SOLIDARITY FOR OVERCOMING CRISIS
 ■克服へ国際連帯を

After the latest attacks, French President Francois Hollande declared a state of emergency and had the country’s borders closed. The authorities called on the public to stay home and are restricting movement within the capital.
 今回のテロを受けて、オランド仏大統領は非常事態を宣言し、国境を閉鎖した。人々に外出しないよう呼びかけ、パリ市内の移動も制限している。

Although those response measures are well-intentioned to ensure safety and carry out investigations, they will inevitably cause a slowdown in civic life. We hope France will manage to get past the current crisis without forgetting its standing as a world-leading advocate of human rights.
 安全確保と捜査の必要性を考えると当然の対応だが、市民生活が停滞するのは免れない。世界をリードする人権国家としての誇りも忘れずに、この難局を乗り越えてもらいたい。

Other nations, including Japan, should share the pain and grief of the French people and reaffirm their determination to create a world free of terrorism.
 日本を含む各国も、フランスの人びとの苦しみ、悲しみに心を寄せるとともに、テロなき世界への決意を新たにしたい。

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2015年11月16日 (月)

パリ同時テロ 非道な「戦争行為」は許されぬ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Multiple attacks on Paris a brutal ‘act of war,’ must never be condoned
パリ同時テロ 非道な「戦争行為」は許されぬ

The latest gun and bomb attacks at locations across Paris were brutal acts of terrorism indiscriminately targeting ordinary citizens. Whatever the motive, these acts must never be condoned.
 一般市民を無差別に襲った残虐なテロである。いかなる動機であれ、断じて許されない。

The international community must be more firmly united in its renewed efforts to prevent barbarous acts by terrorist organizations.
 国際社会はテロ組織の蛮行を阻止するため、改めて結束を強めねばならない。

On Friday night, shootings and explosions occurred nearly simultaneously at a theater, restaurants and elsewhere in Paris, killing more than 120 people. French President Francois Hollande has declared a national state of emergency, describing the events in a TV address to be “terrorist attacks of unprecedented proportions.”
 パリの劇場やレストランなどで13日夜、銃撃や爆発がほぼ同時に発生し、120人以上が犠牲となった。フランスのオランド大統領はテレビ演説で、「前例のないテロが起きている」と述べ、非常事態を宣言した。

On Saturday, a militant group affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) released an online statement claiming responsibility for the Paris attacks. At a press conference, Hollande affirmed the attacks were “an act of war” committed by the ISIL militant group.
 過激派組織「イスラム国」の傘下組織が14日、インターネットに犯行声明を出した。オランド氏も記者会見で、「イスラム国」による「戦争行為」と断定した。

Since September, France has been taking part in U.S.-led coalition airstrikes on ISIL in Syria. One likely explanation is that Friday’s attacks were made in retaliation to France’s actions.
 フランスは今年9月から、シリアで、米国が主導する有志連合による「イスラム国」への空爆に加わっている。これに対する報復との見方が有力だ。

A group of attackers used automatic rifles to fire wildly inside the theater, where a rock concert was taking place, killing dozens of people in the audience. There were also what seemed to be suicide bomb attacks near a sports stadium in the suburbs where Hollande was watching a friendly soccer game between France and Germany.
 犯人グループはロックコンサートが行われていた劇場で、自動小銃を乱射し、観客を殺害した。郊外の競技場付近では、自爆テロとみられる爆発が起きた。サッカー仏独代表の親善試合をオランド氏が観戦していた最中だった。

Several people responsible for Friday’s attacks are believed to have been killed. Other attackers may be on the run.
 複数の実行犯が死亡したとされている。犯人の一味は逃走している恐れもある。

French authorities must strive to normalize the situation and restore public security at an early date while also establishing an overall picture of the attacks.
 仏当局は、事件の早期収拾と治安の回復に努め、犯行の全体像を解明してもらいたい。

Bolster security measures

In January, gunmen linked to a militant group separate from ISIL carried out attacks on a weekly political newspaper office and elsewhere in Paris. After the incident, the French authorities strengthened their monitoring of people believed to harbor radical beliefs, with about 10,000 soldiers mobilized to guard the country.
 パリでは今年1月、「イスラム国」とは別の過激派につながる犯人が、政治週刊新聞社などを銃撃する事件があった。事件後、仏当局は過激思想に染まった人物らへの監視を強め、兵士1万人を動員するなど、厳戒を続けていた。

In Europe, young people with Islamic roots that have been radicalized by extremist groups have posed an increasingly serious problem.
 欧州では、イスラム系の若者が過激派組織の仲間に引き入れられる問題が深刻化している。

There will be a U.N. climate change conference in Paris at the end of this month — officially titled the 21st Session of the Conference of Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21). The conference will be attended by top-level leaders from nations around the world, meaning there is a pressing need to reconsider the security precautions taken for the meeting.
 パリは、国連気候変動枠組み条約の第21回締約国会議(COP21)の開催を今月末に控える。会議には各国の首脳級が集まる。警備態勢の見直しが急務だろう。

U.S. President Barack Obama condemned Friday’s incident as “an attack on all of humanity and the universal values we share.” British Prime Minister David Cameron told the French: “We will do whatever we can to help.”
 オバマ米大統領は、今回のテロを、「人類全体と我々が共有する普遍的な価値への攻撃だ」と非難した。キャメロン英首相も、フランスに対し、「支援できることは何でもする」と語った。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has emphasized that Japan will “closely cooperate with France and other members of the international community in striving to prevent acts of terrorism.” It is important for nations around the world to share terrorism-related information and further increase their cooperation on such antiterrorism measures as immigration and emigration controls.
 安倍首相は「テロ防止に向けてフランスをはじめ国際社会と緊密に連携し、取り組んでいく」と強調した。世界各国がテロ情報を共有し、出入国管理などで協調を一層深めることが肝要である。

Japan and other pertinent countries should use the Group of 20 summit talks in Turkey as an initial step in renewed antiterrorism cooperation.
 日本や関係国は、トルコで開かれる主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議を、対テロ協力の仕切り直しの第一歩とすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 15, 2015)

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2015年11月15日 (日)

行革公開検証 もんじゅが焦点だ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 10
EDITORIAL: Scrap Monju reactor project and use money to develop renewable energies
(社説)行革公開検証 もんじゅが焦点だ

The annual public review of policy programs by the government to identify wasteful spending ends on Nov. 13. For three days, the government’s administrative reform promotion council has been scouring the budgets of ministries and agencies for savings.
 各省庁の政策に無駄遣いがないか点検する公開検証が、今年も11日から3日間、実施される。政府の行政改革推進会議が行う。

The focus of the budget review this year is the Monju prototype fast-breeder reactor.
 今回の焦点は、高速増殖炉「もんじゅ」の扱いだ。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority recently recommended that the operator of the troubled-plagued experimental reactor, the government-affiliated Japan Atomic Energy Agency, should be replaced.
もんじゅを巡っては、運営主体の日本原子力研究開発機構が原子力規制委員会から運営を退くよう言い渡されたばかりだ。

Certain expenditures related to the Monju project, mainly state subsidies, were examined in the public review. But the council should take this opportunity to scrutinize all aspects of the controversial project instead of evaluating only the subsidies. We are keen to see the panel demonstrate that continuing the project doesn’t make sense and the reactor should be decommissioned from the viewpoint of administrative reforms.
公開検証では、もんじゅ関連予算の一部である交付金などが対象となっている。しかし、せっかくの機会である。交付金にとどまらずに全体像に切り込んで、行革の面から政策の不合理と廃炉の妥当性を示してほしい。

It is already clear that the Monju project is a financial folly.
 もんじゅは、財政面から見ても行き詰まりが明らかになっている。

The construction cost, which was originally estimated at 35 billion yen ($285 million) when the project was in an early planning stage in the 1970s, has ballooned to 1 trillion yen. Although the reactor has been offline for more than 20 years due to a series of accidents and scandals, 20 billion yen is still spent annually, or 50 million yen a day, for maintenance.
70年代の計画初期段階で350億円と見積もられていた建設費は、すでに1兆円規模に達した。事故や不祥事で20年以上運転できずにいる今も年間約200億円、1日あたり約5千万円が維持費に消えている。

The maintenance costs of the reactor under the initial budget for the current fiscal year are almost equivalent to the amount (23.8 billion yen) being shelled out to promote renewable energy projects for local power production and consumption.
 もんじゅの維持費は、今年度当初予算で見れば、地産地消型の再生可能エネルギー活用への取り組み支援(238億円)に匹敵し、

The outlays for the Monju project are far larger than the spending on a demonstration project to build a transmission network for wind power generation (10.5 billion yen) or the appropriation to support research for the development of geothermal power sources (8 billion yen).
風力発電用の送電網整備に向けた実証事業(105億円)や地熱発電の開発調査支援(80億円)を大きく上回る。

Following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Japan widened the scope of its energy policy to make greater efforts to develop and promote alternative power sources, including renewable energy.
 福島での原発事故を経て日本のエネルギー政策は、再エネなど新しい電源の普及・育成にも手を広げはじめた。

Instead of spending a huge amount of taxpayer money to keep Monju alive, the government should use the cash to build a new, cleaner energy future for this nation.
もんじゅの継続に巨費を投じるより、新しいエネルギー社会の構築に費やしてはどうか。

Japan is facing a serious fiscal crunch. The government is drowning in a sea of debt as its welfare spending is surging amid the rapid aging of the nation’s population.
 高齢化と巨額の財政赤字を抱えた日本の財政事情は厳しく、

The government has no choice but to raise taxes while cutting its expenditures on social security, education and other programs.
社会保障費や教育費などを切り詰めつつ増税することが避けられない。

It cannot afford the luxury of pouring a hefty sum of money into a questionable nuclear reactor with no prospects for practical operation.
運転の見通しが立たない事業に資金を投入し続ける余裕はないはずだ。

The Monju project has survived for so long despite its troubled history because nobody loses money when the reactor is out of operation.
 もんじゅがこれまで存続してきたのは、運転できなくて困る直接の当事者がいないからだ。

When a reactor operated by an electric utility is shut down because of an accident or a scandal, the company will immediately face a rise in costs that hurts its financial standing.
 電力会社が保有する原発は、事故や不祥事で発電できなければ、たちまちコストがかさみ経営を圧迫する。

In contrast, Monju is treated as a research reactor, and the national program gets funded almost automatically.
だが、研究炉扱いのもんじゅは、国家事業としてほぼ自動的に予算がつく。

Both the industry ministry and the science and technology ministry, which are in charge of the nuclear power policy, have a clear interest in supporting the continuation of the Monju project.
 原子力政策を担当する経済産業省や文部科学省にとっては、続ける姿勢をとり続けたほうがメリットがある。

If this project is terminated, these ministries will be forced to make a sweeping review of the entire nuclear fuel recycling program and tackle the formidable challenge of disposing of plutonium extracted from spent nuclear fuel.
やめるとなれば、核燃サイクル政策全体の見直しを迫られ、使用済み燃料から取り出したプルトニウムの処理にも直面する。

This year’s public budget review is led by Taro Kono, the newly appointed minister in charge of administrative reform who has been a champion of the cause.
 今回の公開検証は、行革に熱心な河野太郎氏が担当相だ。

We urge Kono to make the decision to scrap the Monju project as a step to press ahead with meaningful administrative reforms.
もんじゅ廃炉という行革の実を挙げてほしい。

There is definitely no reason for approving annual spending of 20 billion yen as the cost of postponing this decision.
200億円を先送りのコストとして認める理由はないはずである。

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2015年11月14日 (土)

MRJ初飛行 航空機産業の裾野を広げたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
MRJ’s maiden flight must lead to broader horizons for aircraft industry
MRJ初飛行 航空機産業の裾野を広げたい

Japan’s first domestic-made passenger jet has successfully completed its maiden flight.
 日本初となる「日の丸ジェット旅客機」が、初飛行に成功した。

The Mitsubishi Regional Jet has been developed by Mitsubishi Aircraft Corp. It is the first commercial aircraft to be made in Japan since production of the YS-11 turboprop airliner started about half a century ago.
 三菱航空機が開発した三菱リージョナルジェット(MRJ)だ。プロペラ機のYS―11以来、半世紀ぶりとなる国産旅客機である。

We hope this will be a golden opportunity to invigorate the domestic aircraft industry.
 国内の航空機産業を活性化させる契機としたい。

The MRJ is a small plane built for short-distance flights linking cities. Its main selling points are a lightweight body and a new-type engine that has superb fuel efficiency. These features have made the MRJ about 20 percent more fuel-efficient than similar models produced by its competitors. The first delivery of the MRJ is set for 2017.
 MRJは、都市間を結ぶ近距離路線用の小型機だ。燃料効率に優れた新型エンジンと軽量化した機体が売り物で、ライバル機より2割程度、燃費が良い。2017年に初号機の納入が予定される。

The global market for small passenger planes is expected to grow rapidly. In the next 20 years, demand is expected to top 5,000 jets, especially in emerging economies such as nations in Southeast Asia that are experiencing sizzling economic growth. The MRJ aims to capture orders for half of this market.
 小型機の分野は、世界的に有望な市場だ。経済成長が著しい東南アジアなどの新興国を中心に、今後20年間で5000機を超える需要が見込まれる。MRJは、その半数の受注を目指している。

A string of design changes and other factors resulted in the MRJ’s first flight taking to the skies about four years later than initially scheduled. During this time, the MRJ’s superiority over its rivals has undeniably been eroded.
 MRJの初飛行は、相次ぐ設計変更などで、当初の予定から4年も遅れた。その間にMRJの優位性が低下したことは否めない。

At present, Bombardier Inc. of Canada and Embraer SA of Brazil dominate the market for regional jets. The key to the MRJ’s success will be how it can break the stranglehold these companies have on the market.
 現在、カナダ・ボンバルディア、ブラジル・エンブラエル両社が高い占有率を保持している。これをどう切り崩すかがカギとなる。

Give companies support

Orders have already been received for more than 400 MRJ planes. Overseas sales promotions by top-ranking government officials will be essential to rake in more orders.
 MRJには既に、400機超の受注がある。上積みするには、政府による海外へのトップセールスが欠かせまい。

If more orders are locked in, the MRJ can be expected to nurture a core industry that will be a driving force for Japanese economic growth.
 受注が増えれば、航空機が、日本の経済成長を牽引けんいんする基幹産業に育つことも期待できよう。

Major companies in Japan’s aircraft industry, such as Toray Industries and IHI Corp., have participated in developing passenger jets for Boeing Co. of the United States. They have refined their technologies while supplying carbon fiber parts for main wings and other components. It is vital for the expertise fostered by these large companies to be spread to small and midsize businesses.
 日本の航空機産業では、東レやIHIなども米ボーイング社の旅客機開発に参画し、主翼用の炭素繊維部品などを供給しながら技術を磨いてきた。大企業が培ったノウハウを中小企業に波及させていくことが重要である。

In specific terms, we hope the proportion of domestically made parts in the MRJ — which is currently stuck at about 30 percent — will be increased as much as possible. Each MRJ is made from about 1 million parts, which is 30 times the number of parts contained in a car. There is wide scope for expansion in this industry.
 具体的には、現在は3割にとどまるMRJの国産部品の比率を、可能な限り引き上げることを目指したい。MRJの部品点数は、自動車の30倍の100万点に及ぶ。産業の裾野は広い。

It is necessary to encourage small and midsize companies possessing excellent technologies to enter this market, and to bring together the might of Japanese manufacturing.
 高い技術を有する中小企業の参入を促し、日本のもの作りの力を結集させる必要がある。

Aerospace Iida established in the Iida district of Nagano Prefecture is a cluster of small and midsize precision-machinery and processing companies working on the development of parts for cockpits and wings. Some parts produced by them have been used in the MRJ.
 長野県飯田地区に設立された「エアロスペース飯田」には、中小の精密機械加工業が集結し、コックピットや翼などの関連部品の生産に取り組んでいる。MRJに採用されている部品もある。

“Whether we can provide high-quality parts at low cost will be key,” according to a company in Aichi Prefecture that makes the frame of the MRJ tail.
 MRJの尾翼骨格を製造する愛知県内の企業は「低コストで品質の高い部品を供給できるかが勝負」と意気込んでいる。

The government and large companies that are prime contractors will need to work together and support small and midsize firms with proven records in producing car parts and other components, such as by offering technical guidance tailored to the production of aircraft.
 自動車部品の製造などで実績のある中小企業に、航空機向けの技術指導をするなど、政府や元請けの大企業が連携して支援することが求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 13, 2015)

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2015年11月13日 (金)

海外旅行にグローバルSIMカードが不可欠となるでしょう

私はアメリカや東南アジアなどを旅行するのが大好きです。
海外旅行をしていて一番不便に感じるのは、自分の手持ちのスマホや携帯から、格安で通話できないことでしょう。

2016年から、政府肝いりで、スマホや携帯のSIMロックが解除されます。
そうなると、世界中のどこにいても、スマホや携帯が格安で使用できるグローバルSIMカードは必要不可欠な必需品となります。

あるんです。
そんな夢のような商品が!
日本でもこの12月初旬より、海外渡航時の通話・通信費を格段に安くするグローバルSIM「TAKT」 が販売されます。
このような素晴らしいグローバルタイプのSIMカードが日本でも発売されるなんて、夢のようです。

グローバルSIM「TAKT」 の特長です
(1) 対象の約200 カ国において、95%のエリアで最安値の料金体系
(2) 各国で良質なネットワーク
(3) 月額料金なし プリペイド課金型
(4) 3 サイズ(標準、マイクロ、ナノ)に対応
(5) SIM カードの有効期限なし

これは見逃せませんね。



Planetway、世界約200カ国で利用可能なグローバルSIMカード
「TAKT」の提供を開始
~12月初旬よりヨドバシカメラを通じて販売~



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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ミャンマー選挙 経済発展路線の継承が課題だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
After election, keep Myanmar’s economic development on track
ミャンマー選挙 経済発展路線の継承が課題だ

It is important that the economic development course put in motion by the administration of Myanmar President Thein Sein be inherited, and that nation-building efforts there are steadily kept on track.
 テイン・セイン政権が道筋をつけた経済発展路線を継承し、ミャンマーの国造りを着実に軌道に乗せることが重要だ。

A general election has been held in Myanmar for the first time since the transition from military rule to democratic government in 2011.
 ミャンマーで、2011年の民政移管後、初めてとなる総選挙が行われた。

The National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Aung San Suu Kyi, who has spearheaded the prodemocracy movement in Myanmar, is likely to win more than two-thirds of the seats up for election and not reserved for military representatives. The NLD, which is the largest opposition party, is forecast to secure a majority in the parliament.
 民主化運動を主導してきたアウン・サン・スー・チー氏率いる最大野党の国民民主連盟(NLD)が、軍人枠を除く改選枠の3分の2超の議席を獲得し、国会の過半数を確保する見通しだ。

The ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), which was formed by the old military junta, has admitted defeat. The parliament will choose the president in February 2016, and the possibility of a change in administration has increased.
 軍政の流れをくむ与党・連邦団結発展党(USDP)も敗北を認めた。来年2月に国会で大統領が選出されるが、政権交代の可能性が大きくなったと言える。

Thein Sein’s administration snapped Myanmar’s excessive dependence on China and achieved high economic growth by improving the investment environment, which has pulled in more capital from overseas.
 テイン・セイン政権は中国への過度の依存から脱却し、投資環境の改善で外資を呼び込み、高い成長率を実現してきた。

Despite these achievements, the USDP’s heavy defeat appears to be the result of demands for greater reform from the people who still distrust the military.
それでも大敗したのは、軍に不信を抱く国民が変革を求めたためだろう。

In 1990, the military government did not accept the result of a general election in which the NLD recorded a comprehensive victory, and refused to hand over power. The NLD boycotted the 2010 general election in opposition to rules put in place by the military government.
 NLDが圧勝した1990年の総選挙では、軍政が結果を受け入れず、政権移譲を拒んだ。10年の総選挙は、軍政に反発するNLDが参加をボイコットしている。

The latest election was conducted without any major disturbances, although there were flaws in the process including some people being unable to register on voter lists. Overall, the election can be applauded as a sign of progress in Myanmar’s democratization.
 今回は、有権者名簿に登録漏れなどの不備があったが、大きな混乱もなく実施された。民主化の進展を示すものと評価できる。

Suu Kyi’s odd comment

Myanmar’s Constitution contains a clause that prohibits anyone whose spouse or children are foreign citizens from becoming president. Consequently, Suu Kyi, whose sons are British, is disqualified from this position.
 憲法は外国籍の親族がいる人物の大統領就任を禁じる条項を設けており、英国籍の子息をもつスー・チー氏には、その資格がない。

It is difficult to understand that, before the election, Suu Kyi said she would take a position “above the president” if the NLD triumphed. Does Suu Kyi intend to set up a puppet government even while she herself has been calling for greater democratization?
 理解し難いのは、選挙前、スー・チー氏が「我々が勝利すれば、私は大統領よりも上に立つ」と語ったことである。自ら民主化を掲げながら、傀儡かいらい政権を作るつもりなのだろうか。

During the election campaign, there was no mention of her design for the administration, and no concrete policies have been revealed. Her political skills are questioned.
 選挙遊説では、政権構想を語らず、具体的な政策も見えない。政治手腕は疑問視されている。

A pile of difficult issues need to be addressed. Achieving peace with armed groups among Myanmar’s ethnic minorities will not be easy. National reconciliation, including reducing religious conflict, is an urgent task.
 課題は山積している。少数民族の武装勢力との和平も容易でない。宗教対立の緩和など国民和解は急務となっている。

The NLD lacks human resources capable of running a government. Even if a change in power does occur, the NLD will sooner or later become unable to keep going without the cooperation of the military and the USDP.
 NLDは国政を担える人材を欠く。政権交代を実現しても、軍やUSDPの協力なしには、早晩、立ち行かなくなるだろう。

Myanmar has high strategic value due to its vital location linking the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Japan, the United States and other nations with interests in this region must strengthen ties with Myanmar to keep a check on China, whose unilateral maritime advances are heightening tensions in this area.
 インド洋と南シナ海を結ぶ要衝にあるミャンマーの戦略的価値は高い。一方的な海洋進出で緊張を高める中国を牽制けんせいするためにも、日米や周辺国は、ミャンマーとの関係を強化せねばならない。

Japan welcomed the course taken by the administration of Thein Sein and actively supported it through a two-pronged policy of official development assistance and private investment. Political stability in Myanmar is essential for Japanese companies that have entered markets there. The public and private sectors should work closely together and continue to push for reform in Myanmar.
 日本はテイン・セイン政権の路線を歓迎し、政府開発援助(ODA)と民間投資の両面で積極的に支援している。政治の安定は日本の進出企業にも欠かせない。官民が連携し、ミャンマーの改革を引き続き後押しすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 12, 2015)

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2015年11月12日 (木)

衆院閉会中審査 競争力を強めるTPP対策に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
TPP-related measures must build strength of farming, manufacturing
衆院閉会中審査 競争力を強めるTPP対策に

The government must thoroughly explain the significance of a broad agreement on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact and steadily carry out related measures at home.
 政府は、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)大筋合意の意義を丁寧に説明し、国内対策を着実に進めねばならない。

The House of Representatives’ Budget Committee held a session of the Diet’s adjournment inspection on Tuesday, with the TPP and other issues taken up for deliberation.
 衆院予算委員会が、TPPなどをテーマに閉会中審査を行った。

Yuichiro Tamaki of the Democratic Party of Japan criticized the TPP accord reached last month, as it runs counter to a Diet resolution adopted in 2013 seeking to maintain tariffs on the “five key categories” of farm products, including rice and wheat.
民主党の玉木雄一郎氏は、10月のTPP大筋合意が、コメや麦など「重要5項目」の関税維持を求めた2013年の国会決議に反すると批判した。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe pointed out that the tariff-free rate on farm goods to be imported to Japan remains at just 81 percent — markedly lower than in other member countries. “We have reached an accord which is consistent with the aims of the Diet resolution,” he emphasized.
 安倍首相は、日本の農林水産品の関税撤廃率が81%と、他の参加国より格段に低いことを指摘し、「決議の趣旨に沿う合意を達成できた」と強調した。

In multinational trade talks, negotiating countries, in principle, need to make concessions to each other. Besides, the tariff-free rate on these five key items stands even lower, at 30 percent, and the reductions mainly apply to items for which Japan has only a modest record of imports and those for which alternatives are not available at home. It cannot be said that the accord runs against the Diet resolution.
 多国間の通商交渉は、各国が譲り合うのが原則だ。さらに、5項目の関税撤廃率は30%と一段と低く、輸入実績が少ない品目や国内生産がない品目が中心である。国会決議違反とは言い切れまい。

Tamaki also labeled the automobile-sector negotiations as ones in which Japan “suffered complete defeat by the United States,” as he said it would take 25 years for U.S. tariffs to be eliminated on Japan-made automobiles.
 玉木氏は、米国に輸出する日本製自動車の関税撤廃に25年を要することから、自動車分野の交渉は「米国に完敗した」と決めつけた。

Abe refuted Tamaki’s remark by saying: “What is important for Japan is to eliminate tariffs on auto parts. And we surely won in this regard.”
首相は、「日本に大切なのは自動車部品の関税撤廃で、それはしっかりと得た」と反論した。

In light of the expanding local production of Japanese automakers in the United States, the government, during the TPP talks, put more weight on eliminating tariffs on auto parts than on automobiles themselves. As the tariffs on 80 percent of auto part items to be exported to the United States would be abolished immediately after the TPP takes effect, it can be said that a certain tangible result has been achieved.
 国内メーカーの米国現地生産の広がりを踏まえ、政府は交渉で、自動車本体より部品の関税廃止を重視した。部品の関税は8割が即時撤廃されるため、一定の成果が上がったと言える。

Takagi must explain more

While expressing his support for Japan’s joining the TPP pact, Yorihisa Matsuno, leader of the Japan Innovation Party, requested that the TPP-related measures the government will draw up within this month not be unduly weighted toward public-works projects.
 維新の党の松野代表は、TPP参加に賛成しつつ、政府が月内にも策定するTPP対策が公共事業に偏らないよう、注文した。

It is important that the TPP-related measures incorporate ways to expand the nation’s economic growth by focusing on the enhancement of international competitiveness of Japan’s farming and manufacturing sectors, rather than on the protection of farmers.
 TPP対策は、農家保護でなく、農業や製造業の競争力向上に重点を置き、経済成長の拡大につなげる内容にすることが大切だ。

Meanwhile, Michiyoshi Yunoki of the DPJ questioned reconstruction minister Tsuyoshi Takagi over an allegation that Takagi had given condolence money to voters in his electoral district.
 民主党の柚木道義氏は、高木復興相が自らの選挙区で支出した慶弔費の問題を追及した。

Takagi said, “The condolence money I offered at the funerals where I went myself was wrongly recorded [as having been given by my political organization in my political fund reports].” He then indicated his view that his deeds did not constitute a violation of the Public Offices Election Law.
高木氏は「私が弔問し、香典を出したものを(政治団体の支出と)誤って記載した」と述べ、公職選挙法には抵触しないとの認識を示した。

But Yunoki was not satisfied with Takagi’s explanation and asserted that through his on-the-spot inquiry he had obtained testimony of a party concerned who said, “Takagi didn’t carry condolence money [when visiting the funeral sites].”
 だが、柚木氏は納得せず、独自の現地調査で「高木氏は香典を持参していない」といった関係者の証言を得た、と主張した。

Takagi may need to still assume accountability over the allegations, including one over his having paid for “flowers placed at a deceased person’s bedside.”
 故人の枕元に飾る「枕花」の代金を支出した問題を含め、高木氏は、引き続き説明責任を果たす必要があるのではないか。

The government and the ruling coalition parties plan not to convene an extraordinary session of the Diet this autumn. Since 10 members have joined the Abe Cabinet as new ministers through the latest reshuffle, an extra Diet session should be convened in principle. But as the ordinary Diet session was extended by 95 days this year and diplomatic schedules have been tight since October, it is somewhat inevitable for the extra session to be shelved.
 政府・与党は、秋の臨時国会の召集を見送る方針だ。内閣改造で10人の新閣僚が誕生しており、本来は召集するのが筋だが、通常国会を95日間延長したうえ、10月以降は外交日程が立て込んでいるなど、やむを得ない面はある。

We hope they will create occasions for debates as needed in the days ahead.
 今後も必要に応じて、論戦の機会を設けてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 11, 2015)

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2015年11月11日 (水)

介護職人材難 意欲と経験が報われる職場に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Workers at homes for elderly must be rewarded for skill, experience
介護職人材難 意欲と経験が報われる職場に

A principal goal of the government’s policy of creating a society that enables the dynamic engagement of all citizens is to reduce the number of workers who quit jobs to provide nursing care to zero. Speaking at a meeting of the Yomiuri International Economic Society, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe reiterated his policy of building additional special nursing homes for the elderly.
 政府は「1億総活躍社会」の主要目標の一つとして「介護離職ゼロ」を掲げる。安倍首相は読売国際経済懇話会(YIES)で、特別養護老人ホームの増設を改めて表明した。

But the facilities will be of little use if they do not have enough workers. We want the government panel on creation of a dynamic society to work out practical measures to ensure procurement of such personnel.
 ただ、施設を作っても、そこで働く人が不足していては、十分に機能しない。政府の「1億総活躍国民会議」で、実効性ある人材確保策を練り上げてもらいたい。

The effective opening-to-application ratio for nursing care jobs remains far above 2 to 1. This indicates that the industry faces serious difficulty in securing necessary personnel. Indeed, some operators have been forced to curtail services because of a lack of personnel.
 介護職の有効求人倍率は2倍を大きく超える状況が続いている。人材難は深刻である。職員が集まらず、サービス縮小を余儀なくされる事業者も目立つ。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry estimates 2.53 million nursing care workers — 800,000 more than exist today — will be required in fiscal 2025, when the first postwar generation of baby boomers will all become 75 years or older. There is likely to be a shortage of 380,000 nursing care workers if the number of such workers continues to increase at the current pace.
 厚生労働省の推計では、団塊の世代が全て75歳以上になる2025年度には、今より80万人多い253万人の介護職員が必要になる。現在の増員ペースでは、38万人の不足が生じる見込みだ。

The main reason people shun nursing care jobs is the low pay, which now stands at about ¥220,000 a month. This is ¥110,000 less than the average for all industries. A manpower shortage causes a heavy work load, thereby making the job even less popular.
 介護職が敬遠される最大の要因は、賃金の低さだ。平均月給は約22万円で、全産業平均より11万円も少ない。人手不足が重労働を招き、不人気に拍車をかける。

In revising the fees for nursing care services in April, the government expanded an added-fee system so that the monthly payment for nursing care workers can be raised by ¥12,000 on average. Administrative checks must be conducted strictly to determine whether pay hikes have been carried out.
 政府は4月の介護報酬改定で、職員の賃金が平均で月1万2000円アップするように加算制度を拡充した。確実に賃上げが実施されているか、行政は厳格にチェックすべきだ。

Further improvement in conditions for nursing care workers will be indispensable. It is necessary to study measures to secure fiscal resources for that purpose at such forums as the government panel on creation of a dynamic society.
 さらなる処遇改善も不可欠だろう。国民会議などで、財源確保策と併せて検討する必要がある。

Steps to secure personnel

It is also essential to establish a system in which the wages of nursing care workers can be decided according to their experience and skills.
 経験と技能が賃金に結びつく仕組みの確立も重要だ。

Highly specialized skills are required for the treatment of elderly people suffering from dementia. To ensure nursing care workers remain highly motivated, operators should set up a personnel and wage system under which training programs can be carried out systematically and the abilities of workers can be evaluated adequately.
認知症ケアなどでは高い専門性が要求される。職員の意欲が報われるよう、事業者には、計画的な人材育成と能力を適正に評価する人事・賃金システムの整備が求められる。

Support by the central government and municipalities is also indispensable. The Shizuoka prefectural government, for example, presents nursing care operators with pay-scale models based on experience. Kyoto Prefecture has been encouraging efforts by nursing care home operators by setting up a certification system for operators who proactively foster human resources.
 政府や自治体の後押しも欠かせない。静岡県は、キャリアに応じたモデル給与額を事業所に提示している。京都府は、人材育成に積極的な事業所の認証制度を設け、取り組みを促している。

Nursing homes becoming workplaces where workers can see a bright future plan would help prevent the loss of existing workers and make it easier to secure new personnel.
 将来設計が描きやすい職場になれば、離職防止や新たな人材の確保につながろう。

The bill for revision of the Social Welfare Law that was submitted to the previous Diet session called for, among other things, institutionalizing a system that would require nursing care workers to notify administrative authorities if they quit. This is aimed at improving assistance measures by prefectural welfare personnel centers to help them return to work.
 先の国会に提出された社会福祉法改正案には、離職した介護福祉士の届け出制の創設が盛り込まれた。都道府県の福祉人材センターによる復職支援強化が狙いだ。

There are more than 500,000 nonworking certified care workers across the country. We strongly hope that the reform bill will be passed as soon as possible.
 介護職に就いていない介護福祉士は50万人超に上るだけに、早期成立が望まれる。

The utilization of a diversified human resources, including senior citizens, should be stressed. There are many supplementary jobs at nursing care homes, such as cleaning and catering. The foundation for securing personnel can be broadened if the division of roles of these jobs and jobs requiring high-level skills is clarified and training and other programs are developed in line with such a division.
 高齢者など多様な人材の活用にも目を向けたい。介護職場では、清掃や配膳などの補助的業務も多い。専門性の高い業務と役割分担を明確にし、それに合わせて研修制度などを工夫すれば、人材のすそ野が広がるのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 10, 2015)

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2015年11月10日 (火)

どんどん進化するお薬の世界です、輸送サービスが注目されています

ヨーロッパの検体輸送「ワミ・メディカル・エクスプレス」 では、冷凍保存されている薬剤などの輸送サービスも展開しています。
お薬の世界というものは、地球レベルでつながっているビジネスなんです。
ですから、一番大切なのが、お薬を素早く、世界の各地に配達するコリアサービスです。
オランダやイギリスで、すでに絶大な信頼を得ている、新しいビジネスです。

例えば、お薬を個人輸入する場合などに、絶大な効果を発揮します。
エクスプレスサービスを利用するのは実に簡単です。
サイトで簡単な情報登録をしたら、すぐにエクスプレスサービスの利用が開始できます。

日本では入手するのが難しい、AGA治療薬などの個人輸入には、もってこいではないでしょうか。また、日本では販売されていない、勃起不全を解消するお薬だって、簡単に個人輸入で一年分を入手することができます。



オランダの航空貨物会社 WAMI B.V.(ワミビーブイ)は、これまで日本では試験的に提供してきたメディカル輸送サービス「ワミ・メディカル・エクスプレス」を本格展開すると発表した。



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ゲームマニアやゲーム家族にお勧めするのは「SMART GAME」のご利用です

実質5%OFFでゲームに課金するなら!  「SMART GAME」を経由してゲームをすればよいのです。
それぞれのゲームサイトでの正規料金で遊ぶことには何ら変わらないのですが、「SMART GAME」を経由してゲームをすれば、ゲームの課金に応じてポイントが還元される仕組みです。

つまり、ゲームで遊んだ分の課金に対する5%相当がポイントとして支払われるのです。
ポイントはゴールドという単位で支払われます。
このポイントはとても便利なもので、1ゴールドを1円としてAmazonギフト券やPEXなどに交換することができます。
ネットでお買い物をするのが常識となっている現代社会ですから、このゴールドは、現金と同じような働きをすることができます。

おすすめは、ゲームマニアや家族総ぐるみでゲームに熱中するご家庭です。
一か月の間に、ポイントがどんどん加算されてきます。
「SMART GAME」の利用法は実に簡単です。
専用アプリなどをダウンロードする必要もありません。

5%の割引率なんですが、「SMART GAME」利用の頻度が増すにつれて、割引率が上昇していきます。
最大でなんと20%もの割引率となります。
これは見逃せませんね。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ  レビューブログからの情報です

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LED電球がおりなすファンタジー、第三回イルミネーションアワード

私は日本庭園が大好きです。
日本庭園巡りは、だいたい、昼間に予定を立てて、計画を実行します。
ネットで庭園のサイトを巡回していたら、庭園ではないのですが、イルミネーションで作られている庭園風のオブジェに遭遇しました。
レオマリゾートのレオマ光ワールド には、150万球ものLED電球を使った、中国四国地区で最大級のイルミネーションがあります。
暗い星空のもとで映し出される、紫、ブルー、緑色、赤色の庭園に感銘を受けました。

夜景観光コンベンション・ビューローが「第三回イルミネーションアワード」を発表しました。
この夜景審査は実に壮大な規模で、夜景鑑賞士が、なんと、4500人も参加して厳選な審査を行いました。
レオマリゾートは「第三回イルミネーションアワード」において特別賞を受賞しました。
一見の価値がある貴重な夜景です。



発表!第三回イルミネーションアワード特別賞。今冬注目の新イルミネーション。



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中台首脳初会談 急接近は地域安定に役立つか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can sudden Beijing-Taipei detente help promote regional stability?
中台首脳初会談 急接近は地域安定に役立つか

For the first time since the Chinese mainland and Taiwan split in 1949, the top leaders from both sides of the Taiwan Strait have met face-to-face. This is definitely a historic meeting.
 1949年の分断後初めて、中国と台湾のトップが直接顔を合わせた。歴史的な会談である。

What influence can the sudden move toward rapprochement between Beijing and Taipei, each of which has refused to recognize the other’s sovereignty, have on the prospects for East Asia’s peace and prosperity? This question must be carefully scrutinized.
 互いに相手の主権を認めていない中台の急接近が、東アジアの平和と繁栄にどんな影響を与えるのか。慎重に見極めねばならない。

China’s President Xi Jinping and Taiwan’s President Ma Ying-jeou had the meeting on Saturday in Singapore, reconfirming what is referred to as the “1992 Consensus” based on the principle of “one China,” with each side having its own interpretation of what that means.
 中国の習近平国家主席と台湾の馬英九総統がシンガポールで会談し、「一つの中国」の原則を中台がそれぞれ独自に解釈するという「92年合意」を再確認した。

Regarding Beijing-Taipei relations, Xi stressed in the meeting, “I hope the two sides will make joint efforts ... to uphold the 1992 Consensus ... keep the right direction in the development of cross-Strait relations.” Ma was said in response to have praised the current state of the relationship, noting the relations between the sides were “the most peaceful and stable period.”
 中台関係について習氏は、「双方が共に努力し、『92年合意』を堅持し、正しい方向に発展し続けるよう望む」と強調した。馬氏も、「最も平和で安定した段階にある」と現状を高く評価した。

China has positioned the Beijing-Taipei summit as a strategic step toward future unification of the two sides. The summit can also be deemed to have stemmed from a well-calculated step on Xi’s part that was designed to demonstrate at home and abroad his intent to play a leadership role in addressing the Taiwan problem.
 中国は、首脳会談を将来の中台統一の布石と位置付ける。台湾問題を主導する姿を国内外に誇示する習氏の計算もうかがえる。

It is considered likely that the upcoming presidential election in Taiwan, scheduled for January next year, will lead to a change of government for the first time in eight years. Opinion polls show the candidate backed by the largest opposition party, the Democratic Progressive Party — which leans toward independence for Taiwan — has a wide lead over the candidate supported by the ruling Nationalist Party (Kuomintang), which has been pushing a conciliatory stance toward China.
 来年1月の台湾の総統選では、8年ぶりの政権交代の可能性が強まっている。世論調査では、「独立」志向の最大野党・民進党の候補が、対中融和を進める与党・国民党候補を大きくリードする。

Summit could backfire

Xi intends to indirectly support Kuomintang. Ma, for his part, is keen to recover lost political ground at home by urging voters to support his party’s pursuit of a stable relationship between Taiwan and China. The Xi-Ma summit was realized because the political motives of both sides were well aligned.
 習氏は、国民党を側面支援したい。馬氏は、安定した対中関係を有権者に訴え、巻き返しを図りたい。首脳会談の実現は、両者の思惑が一致した結果である。

Ma, who is to leave his post in May next year, was probably also motivated to realize a meeting with China’s leader on an equal footing as his political legacy. However, it cannot be denied that the decline in popular support for the Kuomintang is due to the party’s policy of hastily getting closer to China economically, a policy that Ma has openly promoted since taking office in 2008, resulting in growing dependence on Beijing.
 来年5月に退任する馬氏には、中国首脳との対等な会談を政治的な「遺産」にする意図もあろう。だが、国民党の支持低迷は、2008年の馬氏就任以来、露骨になった経済面の性急な対中接近・依存が招いたことは否めない。

Anxieties have been spreading among residents of Taiwan that the region will be absorbed by China. There is also deep-rooted resentment that Taiwan’s closer ties with Beijing have benefited only the wealthy people.
 台湾住民には、中国に呑のみ込まれるとの不安が広がる。中台緊密化の恩恵が富裕層にしか及んでいない、との不満も根強い。

An overwhelming majority of Taiwan’s residents want to maintain the status quo, neither unifying with China nor becoming independent. The summit this time will not necessarily benefit the Kuomintang in the presidential electoral campaign. On the contrary, the Xi-Ma meeting may backfire.
 住民の圧倒的多数は、「中台統一」でも「独立」でもない、「現状維持」を望んでいる。首脳会談が国民党に有利に働くとは限らない。逆効果となる恐れもある。

The agreement by the two leaders not to adopt a joint declaration presumably resulted from the two taking such circumstances into account.
 共同声明の見送りは、そうした事情に配慮したためだろう。

Amid the intensified U.S.-China confrontation over the South China Sea, it could be inferred that Xi intended to use the summit to create distance between Taiwan on one side and Japan and the United States on the other.
 南シナ海を巡る米国との対立が激しくなる中、習氏には、首脳会談を通じて、台湾と日米を離間する狙いが透けて見える。

In the meeting, Xi welcomed the participation by Taiwan in the China-initiated Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Directly supporting Taiwan’s participation in the bank in the summit after excluding Taipei as a founding member can be seen as part of China’s strategy to “embrace Taiwan.”
 習氏は今回、中国主導のアジアインフラ投資銀行(AIIB)への台湾の加盟を歓迎すると表明した。創設メンバーから除外した台湾への配慮を直接示したのも「取り込み策」の一環と言える。

China, which has an overwhelming advantage over Taiwan in terms of both air and naval capabilities, has arrayed a large number of ballistic missiles on its coast. Stability of the Taiwan Strait is a matter of high importance that could affect Japan’s security.
 中国は、沿岸部に大量の台湾向け弾道ミサイルを配備し、航空・海上戦力でも台湾を圧倒する。台湾海峡の安定は、日本の安全保障にもかかわる重要課題だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 8, 2015)

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2015年11月 9日 (月)

国連核決議 核保有国との溝埋めよ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 6
(社説)国連核決議 核保有国との溝埋めよ
EDITORIAL: Japan needs more robust diplomatic strategy to unite nuclear and non-nuclear powers

The recent vote on a Japan-proposed United Nations resolution on nuclear weapons highlighted anew the deep rift between nuclear powers and non-nuclear nations.
 核兵器を持つ国と持たぬ国の対立がまたもあらわになった。

The resolution calling for action to eliminate nuclear arms, submitted to the U.N. General Assembly’s First Committee, which deals with disarmament and security issues, was adopted with the support of 156 countries. But China and Russia voted against the resolution, while the United States, Britain and France abstained.
 国連総会の第1委員会で、核兵器廃絶への行動を呼びかける日本提案の決議案が156カ国の賛成で採択された。中ロは反対し、米英仏が棄権した。

In the latest resolution, Japan encouraged leaders of the world to visit “the cities devastated by the use of nuclear weapons” as a way to emphasize the inhumane nature of nuclear weapons. This seems to be one of the reasons why the resolution failed to win the backing of the nuclear powers.
 今回の決議で日本は指導者らの被爆地訪問を促し、核の非人道性に、より焦点をあてた。これが核保有国の賛同を得られなかった一因のようだ。

The argument that nuclear arms should be banned by an international treaty because nuclear attacks have inhumane consequences has been rapidly gaining support among nations without these weapons.
 核兵器が非人道的な被害を及ぼす以上、条約で禁じるべきだという主張は、近年、非核保有国の間で急速に支持を広げている。

The Japan-drafted resolution doesn’t mention the need of a nuclear ban treaty. But the vote shows that nuclear powers are wary of the claim that nuclear weapons are inhumane by nature. This was clear from the unexpected moves by the United States and two other Western nuclear powers to abstain from the vote.
日本の決議案は禁止条約の必要性にまでは触れていない。だが非人道性に対する核保有国の警戒感が強く、米国まで棄権する予想外の展開となった。

Following the failure of the May meeting of the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons to agree on a final document, the refusal by the nuclear powers to support the resolution came as another sign of a disturbing stagnation in the nuclear disarmament movement.
 最終文書をまとめられなかった5月の核不拡散条約(NPT)再検討会議に続き、核軍縮はますます停滞の兆しだ。

The resolution was drafted by Japan in line with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s desire to establish “a guide for future nuclear disarmament efforts suitable for the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings (of Hiroshima and Nagasaki).”
 日本の決議案は、安倍首相が「被爆70年にふさわしく、今後の核軍縮の指針に」としてのぞんだものだ。

One question that should be asked is whether Japan made sufficient efforts to win the support of nuclear powers for the document prior to the vote. 事前に核保有国の理解を得る努力は十分だったか。

This setback has underscored the tough challenges facing Japan’s diplomatic strategy for promoting the reduction of nuclear arms, a cause that is especially important for the nation as it has suffered devastating nuclear attacks.
被爆国として重要な外交政策である核軍縮を進める上で、課題を突き付けられた形だ。

Nations possessing nuclear arsenals have been reiterating that a gradual reduction in nuclear arms is the only path toward a nuclear-free future.
 核保有国は「段階的な核軍縮だけが廃絶への唯一の道」と繰り返す。

Their argument is based on the view that rapid cuts in nuclear arms, which constitute the core of their security strategies, would only endanger stability in the world.
核は安全保障の根幹であり、急激な削減は世界の安定を乱す、との考え方だ。

A quarter-century since the end of the Cold War, however, there is no prospect of substantial progress toward the elimination of nuclear arms with more than 10,000 nuclear warheads still remaining in the world. The international community has been growing increasingly frustrated with this situation.
 だが冷戦終結から四半世紀を経ても1万数千発の核兵器が存在し、核ゼロへの展望が開けないことに、国際社会はいらだちを募らせている。

It is glaringly obvious that nuclear arms are inhumane by nature and should never be used again.
 核兵器が非人道的であり、二度と使ってはならないことは明らかだ。

There is no hope for the abolition of nuclear arms unless the nuclear powers abandon their dependence on the threat of the weapons for their security.
その脅しで安全を保つ考えを核保有国が改めていかない限り、核廃絶は望めない。

The Japanese government has pledged to play a role in bridging the gap between nuclear powers and non-nuclear countries.
 日本政府はこれまで「核保有国と非核保有国の橋渡し役を目指す」といってきた。

But the reality is that Japan has been reluctant to change its policy of depending heavily on the protection of the U.S. “nuclear umbrella.”
 だが、日本は米国の「核の傘」に閉じこもる姿勢をとってきたのが現実ではなかったか。

Japan had previously abstained from the vote on a resolution calling for a ban on nuclear arms proposed by Austria and other countries, bitterly disappointing victims of the atomic bombings.
オーストリアなどが提案した核兵器の禁止を求める決議案に、日本は棄権に回り、被爆者を失望させた。

Even if it is difficult for Japan to immediately wean itself from the protection afforded by the U.S. nuclear umbrella, there are ways it can contribute to the cause. Japan can, for example, get more actively involved in the international efforts to denuclearize the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East to reduce the role of nuclear arms in security. Japan should strive to lead the campaign for a reduction in nuclear arms through such efforts.
 核の傘から直ちに脱却するのが難しくとも、朝鮮半島や中東などの非核化にもっと積極的に関与して核の役割を下げ、核軍縮への機運を主導するため努力していく。それが日本のとるべき道ではないか。

To give momentum to the stagnant nuclear disarmament movement, it is vital to take more effective steps to close the rift between nuclear powers and non-nuclear nations.
 再び核廃絶への潮流を起こすには、核保有国と非核保有国の間の溝を埋めていくしかない。

Japan has a responsibility to keep recounting its suffering from the atomic bombings to make the world understand the consequences of nuclear attacks.
 日本には被爆の経験を世界に訴える責任がある。

Tokyo should take the outcome of the vote on the resolution as a signal for the need to review its diplomatic strategy for promoting the reduction of nuclear arms.
今回の決議の採決結果を、核軍縮外交を練り直すきっかけとしたい。

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2015年11月 8日 (日)

思いやり予算 日米同盟の信頼損ねぬ議論を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan-U.S. talks on ‘sympathy budget’ must be based on trust in alliance
思いやり予算 日米同盟の信頼損ねぬ議論を

Tokyo should conduct discussions calmly with Washington over its budgetary appropriations for host-nation support to U.S. forces in Japan — known as “omoiyari yosan” (sympathy budget) — because this support is crucial for this country’s security.
 日本の安全保障に不可欠な経費負担であり、冷静に議論したい。

Negotiations between Japanese and U.S. governments have gone into high gear over a special treaty to determine Japan’s share of the cost of U.S. forces stationed in this country in fiscal 2016 and thereafter.
 2016年度以降の在日米軍駐留経費の日本側負担(思いやり予算)を定める特別協定を巡り、日米両政府の交渉が本格化している。

The Japanese side is insisting on a drastic reduction of its burden, but the U.S. side is poised to maintain its demand that the cost be increased by several tens of percents.
 日本側が大幅な削減を主張するのに対し、米側は数十%の増額を求めて譲らない構えだ。

The Japanese government wants to conclude the negotiations by the end of this year and have a new draft treaty endorsed by the ordinary Diet session next year.
 年末までに交渉を妥結させたうえ、日本政府は来年の通常国会で新協定案の承認を求める。

The sympathy budget made its debut in fiscal 1978. It mainly pays for the development and maintenance of barracks and housing units stipulated under the Japan-U.S. Status of Forces Agreement, and labor costs and some of the expense of lighting, heating and water determined by a special treaty that is renewed every two to five years.
 思いやり予算は、1978年度から始まった。日米地位協定に基づく隊舎、住宅などの施設整備費と、2~5年ごとに更新される特別協定で定める労務費や、光熱水料の一部負担が柱である。

The sympathy budget in fiscal 2015 is ¥189.9 billion. The budget has been gradually reduced after reaching a peak at ¥275.6 billion in fiscal 1999. But it has tended to level off in recent years.
 15年度の総額は、1899億円だ。99年度の2756億円をピークに徐々に減少してきたが、近年は横ばい傾向にある。

In the current negotiations with the United States, Japan is requesting the abolition or reduction of the labor costs for employees at movie theaters and other entertainment facilities within U.S. bases, as well as expenses for lighting, heating and water because of the country’s difficult fiscal situation and the recent depreciation of the yen.
 日本側は今回の交渉で、基地内の映画館など娯楽施設従業員の労務費や、光熱水料の廃止・縮減を求めている。厳しい財政事情や円安傾向が続いているためだ。

Bases key for security

Japan’s share of the burden will certainly increase in the future due to realignment of U.S. forces stationed in the country such as the transfer of U.S. marines in Okinawa Prefecture to Guam.
 在沖縄海兵隊のグアム移転など在日米軍再編に伴う日本側の財政負担は今後、確実に増加する。

Formulation of new Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation and development of the new security-related laws will lead to the Self-Defense Forces expanding activities conducted jointly with U.S. forces. Japan uses this as one of the reasons for demanding a reduction of its cost burden.
 新たな日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)の策定や安全保障関連法の整備により、自衛隊の米軍協力の余地も広がる。これらも、減額要求の理由としている。

It is a matter of course for the government to try to eliminate wasteful spending in reducing the amount it pays for U.S. forces stationed in Japan and to rationalize use of the sympathy budget.
 駐留経費の無駄遣いを排除するとともに、予算の使途の合理化を図るのは当然のことだ。

However, U.S. forces stationed in Japan are a foundation of the Japan-U.S. alliance. Therefore, it is significant to maintain quality of life for U.S. military personnel.
 ただ、米軍の駐留は、日米同盟の根幹である。米兵の「生活の質」を維持することも重要だ。

Washington has reportedly cited reduction of its defense spending and the arms buildup due to its rebalancing effort to Asia as reasons for demanding an increase in Japan’s burden.
 米側は、増額要求の理由として、国防費の削減や、アジア重視のリバランス(再均衡)政策に伴う軍備増強を挙げているという。

North Korea’s nuclear development and China’s maritime advances have made the security environment surrounding Japan increasingly volatile. The significance of the deterrence provided by U.S. forces in Japan is certainly increasing.
 北朝鮮の核開発や、中国の海洋進出などで、日本を取り巻く安全保障環境は厳しさを増している。在日米軍の抑止力の重要性が高まっているのは確かだ。

Also, U.S. forces in Japan are in effect a public asset for the Asia-Pacific region. It was a U.S. Aegis-equipped destroyer based at Yokosuka Naval Base that sailed within 12 nautical miles of at least one of China’s artificial islands in the South China Sea.
 在日米軍はアジア太平洋地域の公共財という側面もある。南シナ海で中国の人工島の12カイリ内を航行したのは、米軍横須賀基地配備のイージス駆逐艦だった。

The government has shouldered part of the costs for U.S. forces in Japan not out of “sympathy.” They are necessary costs to secure peace and stability of Japan and in its neighboring region, and a fair share of responsibility as a U.S. ally.
 在日米軍経費の一部を日本が負担するのは、「思いやり」ではない。日本と地域の平和と安定を確保するための必要経費であり、同盟国としての責任の分担だ。

The negotiations for the current treaty from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2015 experienced rough going, too, because of the vast difference between assertions made by Japan and the United States. But they finally agreed to maintain the status quo.
 11~15年度の現協定の交渉も双方の主張の隔たりが大きく、難航したが、最終的に現状維持で折り合った。

Tokyo and Washington must search for common ground by negotiating with each other based on how important this alliance is.
日米両政府は、同盟関係の重要性を踏まえて交渉し、着地点を探ることが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 7, 2015)

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2015年11月 7日 (土)

もんじゅ勧告へ 核燃サイクル継続へ正念場だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Nuclear fuel cycle project faces crucial juncture for its continuation
もんじゅ勧告へ 核燃サイクル継続へ正念場だ

The nuclear fuel cycle project is an important pillar of Japan’s energy policy. For the fuel cycle project to continue, there is an urgent need to rebuild its system.
 核燃料サイクル事業は日本のエネルギー政策の重要な柱だ。その継続のためには、体制の立て直しが急務である。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) decided Wednesday that the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), which oversees Monju, the fast breeder reactor, is not capable of operating and managing the reactor.
 高速増殖炉「もんじゅ」の運営主体である日本原子力研究開発機構について、原子力規制委員会が「十分な能力がない」との判断を示した。

The NRA has also decided to issue a recommendation to the Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry, which supervises the agency, to find an entity to take over operations and management of Monju from the JAEA within six months.
 監督官庁の文部科学省に対しては、半年をメドに別の運営主体を探すよう勧告することを決めた。

If the ministry fails to find a new entity, the NRA will call on the ministry to drastically reexamine what to do with Monju in the future.
新たな運営主体が見つからない場合には、もんじゅの在り方を抜本的に見直すことを求める。

Unlike an ordinary nuclear reactor, Monju is a special reactor that uses sodium as coolant. It will not be easy to find a new entity to take over its operations.
 一般の原子炉とは異なり、もんじゅは、ナトリウムを冷却材に使う特殊な炉だ。新たな担い手を探すのは容易ではあるまい。

The NRA’s decision to issue the recommendation can be viewed as a way of keeping pressure on the science and technology ministry to take rigorous measures, including the possibility of decommissioning Monju.
 規制委の勧告決定は、廃炉の可能性を含めて、文科省に厳しい対応を迫る内容と言えよう。

Monju achieved criticality for the first time in 1994. Following a sodium leak accident in 1995, however, the reactor has hardly been put into operation.
 もんじゅは1994年に初臨界を達成した。だが、95年にナトリウム漏えい事故が起きた後は、ほとんど運転できていない。

In November 2012, when the reactor was in preparation for its restart, the NRA conducted an on-site inspection at the facility and found that the agency’s safety checks, including the setting of regular inspection periods, for about 10,000 out of nearly 50,000 pieces of equipment at the plant, were not appropriate. In May 2013, the NRA ordered the agency to suspend the preparatory work for restarting the reactor.
 運転再開の準備中だった2012年11月、立ち入り調査した原子力規制庁は、5万点近くある機器のうち、約1万点の点検期間の設定などが適切ではないと指摘した。規制委は13年5月、運転準備作業の停止を命じた。

Poor report card

Even after that, the agency was criticized repeatedly for inadequate safety inspections, while engineering staff at the plant dealt with the problems only belatedly.
 その後も、点検の不備が相次いで問題視され、現場の技術陣の対応も後手に回った。

Undeniably, there is a problem with the agency’s capability in dealing with the issues. It is understandable for the NRA to criticize the agency, saying, “The JAEA had been explaining that things would be improved, but it has been failing to achieve results.”
 原子力機構の対処能力に問題があることは否定できまい。規制委が「原子力機構は改善すると説明してきたが、結果が伴わない」と批判したのは、無理もない。

The responsibility of the science and technology ministry, which failed to improve this situation, is also extremely grave.
 事態を改善できなかった文科省の責任も極めて重い。

In its Strategic Energy Plan approved by the Cabinet in April last year, the government heralded once again the promotion of the nuclear fuel cycle. The government judged that changing the policy of promoting the nuclear fuel cycle would make it difficult for the nation to make effective use of a nuclear power generation in the future.
 政府は、昨年4月に閣議決定したエネルギー基本計画で、核燃料サイクルの推進を改めて掲げた。政策を変更すれば、将来にわたる原子力発電の有効活用が困難になると判断したためだ。

Meanwhile, the government considers Monju as a nuclear reactor essential to test such capabilities as efficiently reprocessing radioactive waste.
 もんじゅについては、放射性廃棄物を効率良く燃やす性能などを試験するために不可欠な原子炉と位置付けている。

The latest development may create a hole in the Strategic Energy Plan. Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said at a press conference Wednesday, “The science and technology ministry should solve the issue promptly.” But measures to rebuild the system for the nuclear fuel cycle project should be discussed from a broad perspective by the government as a whole.
 今回の事態は、基本計画に綻びを生じさせかねない。菅官房長官は記者会見で、「文科省が速やかに解決すべきだ」と述べたが、政府として、立て直しに向けた打開策を幅広く検討すべきだ。

Many of the engineers who were in active service when Monju was constructed have already retired. The present plight shows the importance of maintaining and passing on technical knowledge. The NRA has also presented a viewpoint that a “deterioration in technical expertise” has made the matter more serious.
 もんじゅ建設時の技術陣の多くは既に退職している。現在の苦境は、技術を維持・継承していくことの重要性を物語る。規制委も「技術の劣化」が、事態を深刻化させているとの見解を示した。

Measures to foster human resources engaged in nuclear power also need reinforcing.
 原子力に携わる人材の育成策も強化せねばなるまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 5, 2015)

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2015年11月 6日 (金)

南シナ海情勢 「航行の自由」確保へ結束せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Stand together to secure freedom of navigation in South China Sea
南シナ海情勢 「航行の自由」確保へ結束せよ

Concerned countries should jointly call on China, which has been using force to unilaterally change the status quo in the South China Sea, to exercise self-restraint.
 南シナ海で力による現状変更を一方的に進める中国に対し、関係国が連携して自制を求めることが大切である。

U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter held talks with his Chinese counterpart Chang Wanquan in Malaysia on the sidelines of a meeting of defense ministers from member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and other concerned countries.
 マレーシアで開かれた拡大東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)国防相会議に合わせて、カーター米国防長官が、中国の常万全国防相と会談した。

Carter referred to a U.S. military vessel that sailed within 12 nautical miles of at least one of the artificial islands made by China in the South China Sea, and told Chang that the U.S. military would continue similar operations in the future.
 南シナ海に中国が造成した人工島の12カイリ内を米軍艦艇が航行したことに関連し、今後も同様の活動を継続する方針を伝えた。

The United States is behaving legitimately in using concrete actions to demonstrate the “freedom of navigation” based on international law.
米国が国際法に基づく「航行の自由」を実際の行動で具体的に示すことには、正当性がある。

Carter also demanded that China discontinue its reclamation and militarization of the disputed reefs for good. Chang opposed him, saying issues of the South China Sea are related to his country’s core interests. But, any action by China that undermines “freedom of navigation” for its “core interests” cannot be tolerated.
 カーター氏は「埋め立てと軍事拠点化の永続的中止」も求めた。常氏は「南シナ海問題は中国の核心的利益に関わる」と反発した。
「核心的利益」を理由に、「航行の自由」を蔑ないがしろにするような行為は容認できない。

It is regrettable that the forum of defense ministers failed to adopt a joint statement.
 残念なのは、国防相会議で共同宣言の採択が見送られたことだ。

Malaysia, which chaired the forum, stopped at simply announcing a statement emphasizing the significance of adopting as soon as possible a code of conduct that would legally bind the conduct of concerned countries.
議長国のマレーシアは、各国の行動を法的に拘束する行動規範の早期策定の重要性を強調する声明を公表するにとどめた。

China’s Defense Ministry blamed the United States for failure to adopt a joint statement, saying certain countries outside the region forcibly tried to include content unrelated to the discussions, but this is unreasonable.
 共同宣言見送りに関して、中国国防省が「域外国が議論と関係ない内容を強引に入れようとたくらんだためだ」などと米国を非難したのは、筋違いだ。

Varying links with China

Degrees of closeness with China are different among ASEAN countries. Not a few of them support “freedom of navigation” but consider their economic ties with China important and do not want to cause any trouble with Beijing.
 ASEAN各国の間では、中国との親密さに濃淡がある。「航行の自由」には賛成でも、経済関係を重視し、中国との間に波風を立てたくない国が少なくない。

“Japan supports actions by the U.S. military in order to protect the order of free and open seas,” Defense Minister Gen Nakatani said during his talks with Carter. Stability in the South China Sea is also significant to secure the safety of sea-lanes for Japan.
 中谷防衛相はカーター氏との会談で、「自由で開かれた海の秩序を守る観点から米軍の行動を支持する」と語った。南シナ海の安定は、日本の海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保にも重要だ。

Japan and the United States must further encourage concerned countries to take actions for freedom of navigation in the South China Sea ahead of the summit meeting of leaders from ASEAN members and other concerned countries to be held later this month.
 今月後半のASEAN関連首脳会議に向け、日米は各国への働きかけを強めねばなるまい。

Meanwhile, the United States maintains dialogues and the exchange of military personnel with China. Adm. Harry Harris, commander of the U.S. Pacific Command, visited Beijing recently and held talks with Fan Changlong, vice-chairman of China’s Central Military Commission and the most senior uniformed officer of the Chinese military.
 一方で、米国は中国との対話や軍事交流を維持する。米太平洋軍のハリス司令官が訪中し、中国軍制服組トップの范長竜・中央軍事委員会副主席と会談した。

It is an urgent task for U.S. and Chinese forces to set up a hotline to avoid unforeseen accidents and clashes between their vessels and planes.
 艦艇や航空機の不測の事故や衝突を避けるため、軍同士の連絡体制を確保することが急務だ。

The Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration late last month decided to hear territorial claims the Philippines had filed against Beijing that China’s artificial islands, which are built on reefs that go underwater at high tide, are not entitled to recognition as base points for claiming territorial waters.
 中国の人工島については、ハーグの常設仲裁裁判所が先月下旬、「満潮時に海に沈む暗礁であり、領海の基点にはならない」とするフィリピンの訴えに関して、審理の開始を決定した。

This is an appropriate judgment because it means the tribunal rejected China’s claim that the court has no jurisdiction over disputes about territorial sovereignty.
 「領土主権は裁判所に管轄権はない」との中国の主張を退けたもので、適切な判断だ。

China should sincerely participate in the trial to act in concert with the international community.
中国は誠実に裁判に応じ、国際社会と協調すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 5, 2015)Speech

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2015年11月 5日 (木)

トルコ総選挙 対「イスラム国」で結束を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Stability in Turkey necessary for united front against ISIL
トルコ総選挙 対「イスラム国」で結束を急げ

Turkey plays an important role in key international issues such as the fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group as well as the refugee crisis. It is essential that the nation’s political situation should stabilize.
 トルコは、過激派組織「イスラム国」との戦いや難民問題の対応で重要な役割を担う。政情の安定化が欠かせない。

The ruling Justice and Development Party, a moderate Islamic party known as AKP, won Sunday’s snap election, securing a single-party majority in the parliament. In June, the AKP fell short of securing a majority in the general election, and the party also failed to form a coalition. Following the deadlock, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan declared another election.
 トルコ総選挙で、イスラム穏健派の与党、公正発展党が勝利し、単独過半数を獲得した。6月の総選挙では過半数に達せず、連立政権作りに失敗したことから、再選挙となっていた。

The political confusion has caused foreign capital to flee the country, which resulted in the depreciation of the nation’s currency. In early October, about 100 people were killed in Ankara by suicide bombings believed to be conducted by ISIL. We believe that the outcome of the recent election shows the majority of the people’s desire for a stable government, reflecting their concern about the nation’s future.
 内政の混乱を受けて外国資本が逃避し、通貨安を招いている。首都アンカラでは10月上旬、「イスラム国」の犯行とみられる爆弾テロが起き、約100人が死亡した。懸念を抱く多数の国民が安定政権の発足を求めたのだろう。

As battles between the government troops and Kurdish militants continue, the pro-Kurdish People’s Democratic Party has lost a significant number of its seats in the election. Kurds make up about 15 percent of the nation’s population, and voices demanding more autonomy are prevalent among them.
 政府軍とクルド人武装組織の戦闘が続く中、クルド系政党は議席を大きく減らした。クルド系住民は国内人口の約15%を占め、自治権拡大を要求する声が強い。

The conflict between citizens of Turkish and Kurdish ethnicity has spilled over to Japan, resulting in a scuffle in front of the Turkish Embassy in Tokyo in late October.
 トルコ系とクルド系の対立は日本に飛び火し、10月下旬には、トルコ大使館前で乱闘があった。

We hope friction between different ethnic groups will not hamper efforts to tackle issues such as the prolonged civil war in neighboring Syria, as well as terrorist threats. It is apparent that Erdogan must work for national reconciliation.
 民族間のあつれきが増すことで、隣国シリアの長引く内戦やテロへの対処がおろそかになるのは望ましくない。エルドアン大統領には、国民融和に向けた取り組みが必要となろう。

Dark side of Erdogan

Erdogan led the nation to rapid economic growth after taking office as prime minister in 2003. He assumed his current role last year by winning the nation’s first direct presidential election. The president is now seeking constitutional amendments that would give more power to the president.
 2003年から首相を務めたエルドアン氏は高成長を主導し、初の直接選挙となった昨年の大統領選で当選した。大統領権限を強める憲法改正を目指している。

There is persistent criticism against his high-handed political attitude, such as police raiding offices of an opposition media group during the election campaign period and an interruption of a TV broadcast. It is obvious that the election victory does not mean that the public has approved such interference with the media.
 選挙期間中の反政府系メディアへの警官隊突入やテレビ局の放送中断など、強権的姿勢に対する批判も根強い。選挙に勝利したからといって、報道への介入まで容認されたことにはなるまい。

The Erdogan administration has prioritized its efforts on toppling the regime of Syria’s Bashar Assad. In contrast, efforts against ISIL have been lagging behind, as airstrikes against ISIL and joint military operations with the United States have just begun this summer.
 エルドアン政権はこれまで、シリアのアサド政権打倒を優先してきた。「イスラム国」空爆や米国との作戦協力は今夏に始めたばかりで、後手に回っていた。

It is likely that Ankara will continue its military operations against Kurdish militants, a move that will only benefit ISIL. We believe it is worth considering the resumption of a ceasefire with the militants, which was suspended in July.
 今後も、トルコはクルド人武装組織に対する攻撃を続けるとみられる。だが、これでは、「イスラム国」を利するだけだろう。今年7月に中断した武装組織との停戦を改めて実施することも模索すべきではないか。

Many foreign fighters of ISIL have entered Syria via Turkey. In contrast, about 2 million Syrian refugees have crossed the border to Turkey, with some of them heading for Europe. It is urgent for Turkey to thoroughly manage its border with Syria, which stretches for about 900 kilometers.
 「イスラム国」の外国人戦闘員の多くはトルコ経由でシリアに越境している。逆に、約200万のシリア難民がトルコに入り、一部は欧州に向かう。約900キロに及ぶ国境の管理徹底は急務だ。

Historically, Japan has deep ties with Turkey. In October, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Erdogan confirmed they will reinforce cooperation between the two countries at a summit meeting. In mid-November, a Group of 20 summit meeting will be held in Turkey. We urge Japan, the United States and European nations to proactively support the country in measures to deal with terrorism and the refugee crisis.
 日本はトルコと歴史的に関係が深い。安倍首相は10月の首脳会談で連携強化を確認した。今月中旬にはトルコで主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議が開かれる。日本と米欧はテロ対策や難民問題で積極的に支援したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 4, 2015)

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西洋医学で治らないのならば東洋医学です 「はりQ」10周

65歳を超える高齢者となりましたが、やはり、年齢が進むのに比例して、身体の各所に不具合が生じてきます。
ちょっとした病気でも、すぐに病院にかかるのは、高齢者は病状が進むと、なかなか快復しないからです。
早期治療が一番ですが、まずは、西洋医学です。
かかりつけの病院が頼りになります。

ところが、手足のしびれや、夜中の脚のひきつりなどは、西洋医学では治らないものが多いです。
こんな時には経験医学とも称される、東洋医学が効果的な場合が多々あります。
私のお気に入り東洋医学は、漢方薬と針灸治療です。
最近ネットで東洋医学ポータルサイト「はりQ」を知りました。
今年は記念すべき10周年記念だそうです。
10周年を記念して10周年記念ギフトカード2,000円分プレゼントです。
これは見逃せないサービスですね。
鍼灸院探しならはりQ です。



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今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

20年後…あの恐怖が蘇る…。クラリスディスクが今年最後に贈る衝撃のクリスマスプレゼント『CLOCK TOWER 20th Anniversary Sound Collection』レコ発イベントも開催 株式会社シティコネクション

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2015年11月 4日 (水)

日韓首脳会談 「未来志向」への道のりは遠い

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, ROK face hard task forging future-oriented ties
日韓首脳会談 「未来志向」への道のりは遠い

 ◆慰安婦問題を将来世代に残すな◆

Will the meeting between the top leaders of Japan and South Korea break the stalemate in the confrontation over issues of historical perception and territory, thereby leading to the restructuring the bilateral relationship into a future-oriented one?
 歴史認識や領土問題を巡る対立状況を打開し、「未来志向」の日韓関係を再構築する契機となるのだろうか。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe met with South Korean President Park Geun-hye in Seoul for the first summit talks between the two countries in about 3½ years. They agreed to bolster bilateral cooperation in various fields, including security, economy and personnel exchange.
 安倍首相がソウルで韓国の朴槿恵大統領と初めて会談した。安全保障、経済、人的交流など様々な分野で日韓協力を強化することで一致した。

South Korea is primarily to blame for the stagnation of bilateral relations.
The deterioration was triggered by then South Korean President Lee Myung Bak’s visit to the Takeshima islands in August 2012 and his demand for an apology by the Emperor (over Japan’s past rule of the Korean Peninsula). This was accelerated by Park’s continued insistence that a solution to the so-called comfort women issue should be a prerequisite to the holding of summit talks.
 日韓首脳会談の開催は、約3年半ぶりだ。両国関係の停滞の主たる原因は韓国側にある。
 きっかけは、2012年8月の李明博大統領の竹島訪問と天皇陛下への謝罪要求だ。朴氏が、首脳会談を開催する前提条件に慰安婦問題の解決を掲げ続けたことが、それに拍車をかけた。

Dislike for S. Koreans
 ◆朴氏に煽られた「嫌韓」

Park’s bad-mouthing diplomacy, in which she criticized Japan when she met dignitaries of other countries, and her obstinate anti-Japan stance evoked a dislike for South Koreans among Japanese.
 他国要人の前で日本を批判する朴氏の「告げ口外交」や、頑かたくなな反日姿勢も、日本国民の「嫌韓」感情を煽あおる悪循環を招いた。

The real purpose of diplomacy is not to adversely affect an entire bilateral relationship from a comprehensive perspective, even if there are difficult-to-resolve issues pending between the two countries.
 解決が困難な懸案を抱えていても、大局的見地に立ち、2国間関係全体に悪影響を与えないようにするのが本来の外交の役割だ。

Despite the existence of deep rifts over perceptions of history and other matters, Tokyo and Seoul need to work together toward building a constructive relationship of cooperation.
 歴史認識などで深い溝があっても、建設的な協力関係を築くため、日韓双方が努力する必要がある。

During the summit meeting, Abe and Park agreed to expedite talks on the comfort women issue with a view to resolving it as soon as possible, considering that this year marks the 50th anniversary of the normalization of bilateral ties. But it remains to be seen how the issue will be settled in concrete terms and when.
 慰安婦問題について、首脳会談では、今年が国交正常化50周年の節目であることを念頭に、できるだけ早期の妥結を目指し、協議を加速することで一致した。だが、その妥結内容や時期は全く見通せない。

Park reportedly said, “The matter must be resolved promptly in a way that can be accepted by the victims and at a level satisfactory to the people.” If she demands compensation for former comfort women, what will be the legal basis? Furthermore, she leaves it up to the judgment of the former comfort women and others to solve the issue. Isn’t this an irresponsible stance?
 朴氏は「被害者が受け入れ、国民が納得できる水準で、速やかに解決されねばならない」と語った。元慰安婦への補償を求めているなら、何が法的根拠なのか。しかも、解決の判断を元慰安婦らに委ねる姿勢は無責任ではないか。

In response, Abe said, “We should not leave obstacles [to the solution] for future generations.” This is in tune with his statement marking the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II, in which he emphasized, “we must not let our children ... even future generations be predestined to apologize.”
 安倍首相は、「将来世代に障害を残すことがあってはならない」と指摘した。戦後70年談話で、次世代に「謝罪を続ける宿命を背負わせてはならない」と強調したのと軌を一にするものだ。

Discussions on concrete details will be held at the foreign ministry director general-level. It will be no easy task for them to compromise because of public opinion in the two countries.
 具体的な議論は、外務省の局長協議で行われるが、日韓双方の世論を背負って、妥協点を見いだすのは容易ではあるまい。

More compensation?
 ◆女性基金をどう見るか

As for the issue of compensation for comfort women, it is clearly mentioned in the 1965 Agreement on the Settlement of Problems Concerning Property and Claims and Economic Cooperation between Japan and the Republic of Korea that the issue was legally settled “completely and finally.” Moreover, Japan has established the Asian Women’s Fund through which atonement money was provided for 61 former South Korean comfort women, accompanied by a letter of apology from the prime minister.
 請求権問題は、1965年の日韓請求権・経済協力協定で「完全かつ最終的に解決された」と明記されている。さらに日本は、アジア女性基金を設立し、首相のお詫わびの手紙とともに「償い金」を韓国の元慰安婦61人に支給した。

In South Korea, however, an organization supporting former comfort women opposed the receipt of atonement money, leaving behind unpleasant feelings. How does Park assess such a development?
 だが、韓国では元慰安婦の支援団体が受け取りに反対し、後味の悪い結果となった。朴氏は、このことをどう評価するのか。

There is strong resistance among the people in Japan to the government implementing the additional measures sought by South Korea.
 韓国側が求める追加措置には、日本世論の抵抗が強い。

Even if some measures were taken, Japan would need a South Korean guarantee that it would be the final settlement.
何らかの措置を取るにしても、それが最終決着だとの韓国の保証が要る。

If Park really wants to resolve the issue, she should make clear what South Korea would do, rather than demanding that Japan make unilateral concessions. For instance, removing the statue of a comfort woman near the Japanese Embassy in Seoul would be a good starting point.
 朴氏が真剣に問題を解決したいなら、日本に一方的な譲歩を要求するのでなく、韓国が何をするかを明確にすべきだ。例えば、在ソウル日本大使館近くの慰安婦像の撤去は、その入り口となろう。

During the talks, Abe urged Seoul to lift its restrictions on imports of Japanese marine products at the earliest possible time.
 安倍首相は会談で、日本産水産物に対する韓国の輸入規制を早期に解除するよう求めた。

The marine products Japan ships do not contain radioactive materials in excess of safety standards. The credibility of Japanese safety inspections was later endorsed by inspections made by South Korea. Therefore, the assertion made by Seoul that “import restrictions have been imposed in consideration of the safety of the people” lacks scientific grounds.
 日本の出荷は、放射性物質が基準値以下の水産物に限られ、韓国側の調査でも裏付けられた。韓国の「国民の安全を考慮した措置」との主張は科学的根拠を欠く。

South Korea should withdraw its import restrictions on Japanese marine products without waiting for a conclusion to be reached by a dispute settlement panel set up within the World Trade Organization.
 韓国は、世界貿易機関の紛争処理小委員会の結論を待たず、輸入規制を撤廃すべきだ。

With regard to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade accord, Park said she would expect Japan to cooperate should her country decide to join. Abe responded by saying that Japan would carefully monitor Seoul’s discussions about participating in the TPP.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)については、朴氏が、韓国が参加を決めた場合は、日本の協力に期待すると表明した。首相は、韓国の参加の検討結果を見守りたいとの考えを示した。

During the trilateral summit meeting of Japan, China and South Korea held on Sunday, the three countries agreed to accelerate negotiations for a trilateral free trade agreement. There is no doubt that the broad agreement reached in the TPP negotiations among the members last month has prompted both China and South Korea, which have yet to join the TPP, to review their trade strategies.
 前日の日中韓首脳会談でも、自由貿易協定(FTA)交渉の加速で一致している。10月のTPP交渉の大筋合意が、未参加の中韓両国に通商戦略の見直しを迫っているのは間違いあるまい。

S. China Sea problems
 ◆南シナ海で連携したい

On the issue of North Korea’s nuclear development, Abe and Park confirmed a policy of cooperating closely among Japan, the United States and South Korea with the aim of inducing Pyongyang to move toward denuclearization.
 北朝鮮の核開発問題について、日韓両首脳は、非核化に向けた行動を引き出すため、日米韓が緊密に連携する方針を確認した。

They also agreed that the two countries would cooperate on the issue of Japanese nationals abducted by North Korea.
日本人拉致問題に関して日韓が協力することでも一致した。

Meanwhile, Abe brought up the issue of China’s reef reclamation and militarization of artificial islands in the South China Sea, saying it was “a matter of concern commonly held by the international community.” He also said Japan wants to cooperate with South Korea and the United States to protect an open, free and peaceful sea.
 首相は、南シナ海での中国による岩礁埋め立てと軍事拠点化について「国際社会共通の懸念事項だ」と問題提起した。「開かれた自由で平和な海を守るため、韓国や米国と連携したい」とも述べた。

Park has been moving ever closer to China not only in the sphere of the economy but also in national security, as seen by her attendance at a military parade held in China in September. The United States also does not hide its distrust of Park’s actions.
 朴氏は、9月の中国の軍事パレードに出席するなど、経済面だけでなく安全保障面でも中国への傾斜を強めている。この動きには、米国も不信感を隠さない。

To prevent China from changing the status quo with its use of force, it is essential to reinforce security cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea. It is important for Tokyo and Washington to strongly counsel Seoul to avoid getting too close to China.
 中国の力による現状変更を許さないためには、日米韓の安保協力の強化が欠かせない。日米両国は、韓国の対中傾斜の是正を粘り強く促すことが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 3, 2015)

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2015年11月 2日 (月)

cocomachi (ココマチ)で旅の楽しさと喜びを知りましょう

わたしは旅が大好きです。
日本各地は言うに及ばず、世界各国を旅行しました。
ブログに「旅の終りに」というタイトルの随筆(エッセイ)を書いたこともありますが、書き出しの部分は次の通りです。

どんなに楽しい旅であっても、終りのない旅はない。
また、どんなに苦しい旅であっても、終りのない旅はない。
どんな旅であっても、終りはかならずやってくるのだ。
旅は人生の縮図であるともいえるし、
旅とは実は人生そのものだということもできる。

旅が大好きなので、ネットで閲覧するのも、当然、旅関連のサイトが多いです。
今日はうれしいサイトに遭遇しました。
旅のコミュニティサイト、ココマチに出会えたのです。
サイトには、日本の名だたる観光スポット が網羅されています。

「旅を通じ、たくさんの街を知ってもらい、その街を好きになってもらう。」 という、ココマチの姿勢に打たれました。
わたしも機会があれば、旅行をする街に、何らかの貢献をしたいと感じました。
お金を使うだけが貢献ではありません。
一番大切なのは、人と人とのつながりなんです。



ココマチ合同会社|新会社設立のお知らせ 株式会社brainz.が開発・運営していた旅のコミュニティサイト|ココマチの業務を独立。新会社設立へ



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(社説)中国一人っ子 出産規制全廃すべきだ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 31
EDITORIAL: China should eliminate all restrictions on childbirths
(社説)中国一人っ子 出産規制全廃すべきだ

Decisions concerning childbirth should be left to individuals exercising their free will.
 出産は本来、人間の自由な営みに委ねられるべきものである。

China should discontinue its distorted policy of forcefully restricting the number of children a family can have.
政治が強制的に制限するという、いびつな施策をこれ以上続けるべきではない。

The Chinese government has decided to ease its strict “one-child” policy that limits the number of children in a family.
 中国政府が、一人っ子政策と呼ばれた産児制限を緩める。

The decision is part of the Communist Party’s 13th Five-Year Plan, which sets economic policy priorities for the five years beginning in 2016. The economic plan was worked out in the recent Fifth Plenary Session of the party’s Central Committee.
今週開かれた共産党中央委員会の第5回全体会議で、来年からの経済方針である第13次5カ年計画の概要に盛り込まれた。

In most countries, the government’s role in family planning is limited to educational and awareness campaigns at most.
 多くの国では、家族計画への政府の関与はせいぜい教育・啓発活動までだ。

China’s one-child policy, which has been in place since 1979, was originally a response to concerns about food shortages. But this drastic population control policy has been internationally criticized because it has involved serious human rights violations, including forced abortions.
1979年以来続いた一人っ子政策は食糧不足への心配によるものとはいえ、妊娠中絶の強制など深刻な人権侵害を伴い、国際的な批判を浴びてきた。

In a 2013 move to ease the restrictions, the government allowed couples, where at least one parent was an only child, to have a second child. Beijing has now decided to allow all couples to have two children.
 一昨年の緩和策では「両親いずれかが一人っ子なら2人目を認める」というものだった。今回は、例外なく2人目を認めるという。

This is a step forward, but the system of regulatory birth control will remain in place. China should scrap this system altogether.
一歩前進ではあるが、産児制限の制度は残る。全面的に撤廃するべきだ。

The government of President Xi Jinping, who has been pursuing a policy agenda focused on expansion of national power, probably decided on the policy change out of concerns about the consequences of tight population control. The Xi administration is facing the tough challenge of how to deal with serious problems caused by the country’s declining working population and the aging of society, such as slowing economic growth and a growing social security burden.
 国の富強をめざす習近平(シーチンピン)政権は、労働人口の減少と高齢化がもたらす経済成長の鈍化や社会保障負担の増大にどう対応するか、という問題意識から政策変更に踏み切ったのだろう。

From this point of view, the decision has come too late.
その観点から考えても、遅きに失したと言わざるを得ない。

A country’s demographic future can be predicted with considerable accuracy.
 人口は、かなりの確かさで将来を予測できる。

In China, where birthrates have fallen to extremely low levels due to the one-child policy, there have long been concerns that the effects of the aging population will start hurting the nation’s economic performance before its people become wealthy.
Due to this alarming prospect, there have been strong calls for the abolition of the controversial policy in China.
出生率が下がった中国には、経済的に豊かになる前に高齢化が進むという根本的な懸念があり、一人っ子政策の撤廃を主張する声はかねて強かった。

Why has the Chinese government been so slow to change the policy? One possible explanation is that a firmly entrenched system to regulate childbirths supported by a vast number of officials in central and local governments has led to vested interests.
 なぜ遅れたのか。考えられるのは、計画出産を管理する体制が中央から地方まで膨大な人員によって築き上げられ、一種の権益化が進んだことだ。

It has been reported that fines imposed on couples who have violated the rules have been a source of revenue for local governments.
違反者に科せられる罰金が地方政府の財源になったとも伝えられる。

This is a structural problem deep-rooted in the country’s administrative and fiscal systems.
行財政のあり方全体が絡んだ構造的な問題である。

Easing the restrictions now may not produce much economic effect. In large Chinese cities, where the number of newborns has already declined as significantly as it has in Japan, the step to relax the policy in 2013 has only led to a marginal rise in births.
 いまやっと制限緩和しても、経済効果はそうないかもしれない。大都市では日本同様の少子化が進み、一昨年の緩和による出生増は限定的だった。

Even if the number of babies increases significantly, it will be more than 10 years down the road before they can join the nation’s work force.
もし増えても、新たな働き手として社会に加わるのは十数年先だ。

The new Five-Year Plan also calls for promoting migration from rural areas to cities as a way to increase the working population.
 新しい5カ年計画には、労働人口を増やす方策として、農村人口の都市受け入れを促すことが盛り込まれた。

This policy measure alone is related to a wide range of issues, including land problems in farming villages and the necessity to expand the social security and education systems for urban residents.
このことだけでも、農村の土地問題、社会保障や教育の受け皿など、関連する課題が多岐にわたる。

In addition to the demographic shift, China is now simultaneously facing almost all the various challenges Japan had to grapple with over the period of its fast economic growth from the late 1950s through early 1970s, including widespread environmental pollution.
 こうした人口移動のほか、公害など、いわば日本の高度成長期を圧縮する形で諸問題に直面しているのが、いまの中国の姿だ。

The goal of the Xi administration’s domestic reform agenda should be to build a future where the country’s 1.3 billion people and children who will be born in the coming years can live with a sense of security.
習政権の国内改革がめざすべき目標は、13億人とこれから生まれる子どもたちが安心して暮らせる国造りに尽きる。

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2015年11月 1日 (日)

(社説)辺野古、本体工事着手 埋め立て強行は許されぬ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 30
EDITORIAL: Japan's cherished values apparently don't apply to Okinawa
(社説)辺野古、本体工事着手 埋め立て強行は許されぬ

How long does the central government intend to continue the history of discriminatory treatment against Okinawa?
 政府はいつまで、沖縄に差別的な歴史を強いるのか。

The government on Oct. 29 started the main part of land reclamation work in the Henoko district of Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, to build a new U.S. air base to replace the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Ginowan, a crowded city in the southernmost prefecture.
 米軍普天間飛行場の移設先、名護市辺野古で政府は、埋め立ての本体工事に着手した。

We cannot help but cast serious doubt on the way the Abe administration has been forging ahead with its plan to build the base, paying little attention to the voices of many people in Okinawa who have clearly rejected the plan.
 新基地建設に「NO」という多くの沖縄県民の声に耳を傾けようとせず、一連の手続きを強行する安倍政権の姿勢に、深刻な疑問を感じざるを得ない。

The administration is running roughshod over Okinawan people’s will and human rights.
 沖縄県民の人権と民意がないがしろにされている。

At the same time, the situation raises some serious questions about the moral standards of this nation, which keeps forcing Okinawa, only a small part of it, to bear an unfairly excessive burden for national security.
 同時に、沖縄という一地域に過度の負担を押しつける、この国のあり方が問われている。

Reasons for Okinawa’s rejection of Henoko plan
 ■沖縄の「NO」の理由

We again urge the administration to immediately stop the construction work in Henoko and hold serious talks with the Okinawa prefectural government over the issue.
 政府に改めて求める。工事を速やかに中止し、県と話し合いの場をもつべきだ。

Let us look back again on Okinawa’s history from the viewpoint of Okinawa’s people.
 いま一度、沖縄県民の心情に寄り添ってみたい。

In the closing days of the Pacific War, Okinawa became a scene of a devastating ground battle that killed a quarter of the local population. Okinawa was used as a “sacrifice” for the defense of mainland Japan.
 太平洋戦争末期、沖縄は県民の4人に1人が犠牲になる痛ましい地上戦を経験した。本土防衛の「捨て石」とされたのだ。

For many years after the end of the war, Okinawa was excluded from the benefits of Japan’s postwar Constitution, which espouses pacifism and guarantees basic human rights. The U.S. military, which ruled Okinawa with an iron fist, took land from local residents forcefully with “bayonet and bulldozer” and built bases around the prefecture.
 その沖縄は戦後、平和主義や基本的人権を保障した日本国憲法から隔絶された。米軍統治のもと、「銃剣とブルドーザー」で土地を奪われ、強権的な支配のなかで米軍基地が広がる。

Forty-three years since Okinawa’s long-awaited reversion to Japanese sovereignty, the prefecture, which constitutes only 0.6 percent of national land, is still home to 73.8 percent of the facilities used exclusively by the U.S. military in Japan.
 念願の本土復帰から43年。今なお、国土の0・6%の沖縄に全国の73・8%もの米軍専用施設を抱えている。

Seven decades since the end of World War II, no other area in the world hosts as many foreign military bases.
 戦後70年たつのに、これほど他国軍の基地が集中する地域が世界のどこにあろうか。

Okinawa has been continuously plagued by accidents, crimes, noise and other problems related to U.S. bases. This is the grim reality of Okinawa.
度重なる事故や犯罪、騒音などの基地被害に脅かされ続けてもいる。それが沖縄の現実である。

Despite all of this, Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga doesn’t deny the importance of Japan’s security alliance with the United States. Nor does he demand that the United States return its Kadena Air Base, which is important for deterrence provided by the U.S. forces.
 それでも、翁長雄志知事は日米同盟の重要性を否定していない。抑止力で重要な米空軍嘉手納基地の返還も求めていない。

Onaga and people in Okinawa are saying “no” to the government’s blatant attempt to force Okinawa to accept a new U.S. military base despite the prefecture’s long history of suffering from the heavy U.S. military presence.
 こうした歴史をたどってきた沖縄に、さらに「新たな基地建設」を押し付けようとする。そんな政府の姿勢に「NO」の声を上げているのだ。

Once a new base with state-of-the-art military facilities is built in Henoko, it will be hard to get it removed. It is quite likely to become a permanent base.
 辺野古に最新鋭の基地が造られれば、撤去は難しい。恒久的な基地になりかねない。

Listen to the voices of the people
 ■民意に耳を傾けよ

The will of people in Okinawa to reject the planned new base was made indisputably clear in a series of elections last year. Candidates opposed to the Futenma relocation plan won in the Nago mayoral election in January, the Okinawa gubernatorial poll in November and in all of Okinawa’s four single-seat constituencies in the Dec. 14 Lower House election.
 それに「NO」を告げる沖縄の民意は、昨年の名護市長選、県知事選、総選挙の四つの小選挙区で反対派が相次いで勝利したことで明らかである。

But the series of actions taken by the Abe administration to build the new base makes it hard to believe that the administration has any serious interest in listening to the voices of people in Okinawa.
 政府にとって沖縄の民意は、耳を傾ける対象ではないのか。着工に向けた一連の手続きにも、強い疑問を禁じ得ない。

To override Onaga’s decision to revoke approval of land reclamation work for the Henoko project, the Defense Ministry’s Okinawa bureau resorted to the administrative complaint investigation system to request a temporary injunction against Onaga’s move. The land minister, a member of the same government, on Oct. 27 issued the requested injunction.
 翁長知事による埋め立て承認の取り消しに対し、沖縄防衛局は行政不服審査制度を使い、同じ政府内の国土交通相が取り消し処分の執行停止を認めた。

The system is originally designed to provide relief to private individuals who have suffered damage from actions by administrative organizations.
 この制度はそもそも、行政機関から不利益処分を受けた「私人」の救済が趣旨である。

How can the Defense Ministry’s local bureau qualify as a “private individual?” Is it reasonable for the land minister, a member of the Cabinet, to decide on a dispute between the central government and a prefectural government? There is serious doubt about the fairness of this step.
防衛局は「私人」なのか。政府と県の対立を、政府内の国土交通相が裁くのが妥当なのか。公正性に大きな疑問符がつく。

At the same time, the Abe administration has also embarked on the procedures for administrative substitute execution under the local government law in an attempt to disempower the prefectural government.
 政府は同時に、地方自治法に基づく代執行手続きにも着手し、知事の権限を奪おうとしている。

The administration’s confrontational attitude indicates that it has no intention to try to find common ground with the prefecture.
その対決姿勢からは、県と接点を探ろうという意思が感じられない。

As a point to note for the Okinawa governor’s permission for land reclamation in Henoko, talks are supposed to be held between the central government and the prefectural government before the main part of the work begins.
The administration has said repeatedly that the talks are already over, turning a deaf ear to the prefectural government’s claim that they are not.
 埋め立て承認の留意事項として本体着工前に行うことになっている事前協議についても、政府は「協議は終わった」と繰り返し、「終わっていない」という県の主張を聞こうとしない。

In addition, the administration has announced its decision to provide state subsidies for local development directly to the three districts of Kushi, Henoko and Toyohara in Nago, collectively known as the “Three Kube Districts,” bypassing the governments of Okinawa Prefecture and Nago.
 さらに政府は名護市の久志、辺野古、豊原の「久辺3区」に対し、県や市の頭越しに振興費を直接支出するという。

Do all these facts mean the administration intends to simply ignore the opinions and intentions of the prefectural and municipal governments, which are opposed to the Henoko base plan? Does the Abe administration think only areas that support its policy constitute the nation it serves?
 辺野古移設に反対する県や市は無視すればいい、そういうことなのか。自らの意向に沿う地域だけが、安倍政権にとっての「日本」なのか。

During the one-month intensive talks between Tokyo and Okinawa over the issue held this summer, the administration did little more than let the prefectural government say what it had to say.
 この夏に行われた1カ月の政府と県の集中協議も、結局は、県の主張を聞き置くだけに終わった。

Given that the administration later switched to a hard-line stance toward the prefecture, it is hard to deny that the talks were only intended as a means to buy time for enacting national security legislation.
その後、政府が強硬姿勢に一変したことを見れば、やはり安保関連法を通すための時間稼ぎにすぎなかったと言わざるを得ない。

Japan’s integrity called into question
 ■日本が問われている

Removing the danger posed by the Funtenma air base is the usual refrain used by the government to justify its plan to build a new base in Henoko.
 「普天間飛行場の危険性を除去する」。政府はいつもそう繰り返す。

When the United States considered curtailing and consolidating its military bases in Okinawa, however, the Japanese government showed reluctance in supporting the idea.
しかし、かつて米国で在沖米海兵隊などの整理・縮小案が浮上した際、慎重姿勢を示したのは日本政府だった。

Nineteen years have passed since the 1996 agreement between Tokyo and Washington on the return of the Futenma base to Japan. Its original purpose was to ease the burden borne by Okinawa.
 96年の普天間返還の日米合意から19年。本来の目的は、沖縄の負担軽減のためだった。

To achieve the purpose, the government should first make all-out efforts to deliver on its promise to former Okinawa Governor Hirokazu Nakaima that the operations of the Futenma base will be terminated within five years.
 そのために、まず政府がなすべきは、安倍首相が仲井真弘多(ひろかず)・前知事に約束した「5年以内の運用停止」の実現に向けて全力を傾けることではないか。

The United States has been taking steps to deal with a major cut in its Marine Corps troops stationed in Okinawa, such as planning a transfer of thousands of Marines from Okinawa to Guam and rotational deployments to Hawaii and Australia.
 米国は、在沖海兵隊のグアム移転や、ハワイ、豪州などへの巡回配備で対応を進めている。

The situation argues for Japan’s fresh efforts to reassess its official position that the relocation of the Futenma base to Henoko is the only possible option and explore an alternative way through a major review of all factors underlying its security strategy for the entire region, including the supposed necessity of a new facility to take over the functions of the Futenma base.
 その現状を見れば、「辺野古移設が唯一の解決策」という固定観念をまずリセットし、地域全体の戦略を再考するなかで、代替施設の必要性も含めて「第三の道」を模索すべきだ。

The will of the people in one prefecture has been continuously ignored. As a democratic country, Japan must not overlook this reality.
 ひとつの県の民意が無視され続けている。民主主義国として、この現実を見過ごすことはできない。

Is Japan really a nation that respects human rights? Is it a nation where people can influence the future of their own communities?
 日本は人権を重んじる国なのか。地域の将来に、自分たちの意思を反映させられる国なのか――。

The question posed by the Futenma dispute is whether Japan, our nation, is a country that cherishes universal values.
 私たちの日本が、普遍的な価値観を大事にする国であるのかどうか。そこが問われている。

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