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2016年1月31日 (日)

民主党大会 新党も選択肢

毎日新聞ですが比較的平易な英文で書かれていますので、直接英文で意味はくみ取れるでしょう。
日本語の関連記事を同時に掲載します。

January 30, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Main opposition DPJ holds convention, may merge to form new party
民主党大会 新党も選択肢

The main opposition Democratic Party of Japan may seek to form a new party through a proposed merger with a smaller opposition party ahead of a parliamentary election this summer, DPJ President Katsuya Okada said Saturday at a party convention in Tokyo.

Okada expressed his intention to begin negotiations with Japan Innovation Party leader Yorihisa Matsuno over the idea of merging their parties in an effort to confront the ruling bloc in the upcoming House of Councillors election.

The two parties formed a joint parliamentary group in the House of Representatives in December. Differing opinions remain, however, among the members of the two opposition parties about the proposed merger.

"The formation of a new party is not being ruled out as an option. What is important is whether we would be able to share policies and philosophies in common and whether we would be able to pursue political cooperation to earnestly try to take over the reins of the government," Okada said.

"I hope to hold substantive talks with Mr. Matsuno, leader of the Innovation Party. The outcome we would agree on would be presented to party organizations," he said.

Matsuno and Rikio Kozu, president of the Japanese Trade Union Confederation, or Rengo, were among the guests at the DPJ convention held at a Tokyo hotel.

The DPJ adopted a fiscal 2016 action plan stressing the importance of opposition forces getting together to fight the ruling bloc led by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's Liberal Democratic Party in the upper house election, citing the possibility of a lower house election being held at the same time.

The DPJ was in power for three years through December 2012.

関連記事

民主党大会 岡田氏「新党も選択肢」 維新と直接交渉へ

 民主党は30日、東京都内のホテルで定期党大会を開いた。岡田克也代表はあいさつで、夏の参院選に向けた維新の党との新党結成について「選択肢として排除されていない」と述べ、今後、両党代表間で結論を出す考えを示した。民主党による維新の党の吸収合併か、両党の解党による新党かという方法には言及しなかった。参院選を「安倍政治の暴走を止める選挙」と位置付け、「代表として前面に立って全力を尽くす。結果にはすべての責任を負う」と決意を表明した。

 両党は3月末を目指して新党結成の可能性を探っているが、解党を主張する維新の党に対し、民主党は意見がまとまっていない。期限が迫る中、岡田氏は維新の党の松野頼久代表と直接、交渉することを決断。あいさつでは「結果によっては党内手続きが必要かもしれないが、まずは代表の私に任せてほしい」と述べた。

 来賓で招かれた松野氏は大会終了後、「岡田氏にしては相当踏み込んでくれた」と記者団に語り、近く協議を始める考えを表明した。民主党の前原誠司元代表は「お互いが解党し、もっと大きな勢力を結集した方がいいと今でも思っているが、国民に期待される新たなかたまりを作ってほしい」と述べ、当面、両党代表の協議を見守る姿勢を示した。

 岡田氏は大会で、安倍晋三首相との対決姿勢を鮮明にしたうえで、「立憲主義は危機的状況にある。改憲勢力が(参院で)3分の2を取れば、憲法改正をしてくると覚悟しなければならない。それは絶対に許してはならない」と指摘。安全保障関連法に反対する運動が全国に広がったことを踏まえ、「そういう勢力を結集して参院選を戦う」と訴えた。

 岡田氏は、参院選で改選数1の「1人区」(全国で32選挙区)対策として、共産党を含む野党協力を目指しているが、民主党内の異論や支持団体の連合に配慮し、大会では共産党に触れなかった。参院選の勝敗ラインも明示せず、大会後の記者会見で「数字で言うのは不毛だ」と述べた。

 大会では「安倍政権を打ち負かす大きな力の結集を図る」という2016年度活動方針を採択した。【田所柳子】

岡田代表の発言 骨子
・維新の党との新党結成も選択肢。維新と代表間で議論を集約する
・参院で改憲勢力が3分の2を占めるのを許さない
・参院選の勝利に全力を尽くす。結果にすべての責任を負う

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2016年1月30日 (土)

日銀 2%目標へ強い意志…マイナス金利導入

January 29, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
BOJ shows strong will to achieve 2% inflation target
日銀 2%目標へ強い意志…マイナス金利導入

The Bank of Japan (BOJ) on Jan. 29 announced plans to introduce a negative interest rate to demonstrate its strong commitment to achieving a 2 percent inflation target.
 日銀が異例のマイナス金利を導入した背景には、デフレ脱却に向けて掲げた2%の物価目標を達成する強い意志を示す狙いがある。

The central bank took the initiative after concluding that it would be difficult to attain its objective at an early date by simply focusing on monetary volume through massive purchases of government bonds.
これまでの日銀は国債を大量に購入することで市場にお金を流す「量」を重視してきたが、お金の量を操作するだけでは2%の物価目標の早期達成が困難になったと判断したためだ。

The BOJ maintains that its ''qualitative and quantitative monetary easing'' policy has produced results. Its decision to add interest rates to that policy reflects the central bank's plan to implement a flexible monetary policy.
日銀は国債を買い入れて市場にお金を流す「質的・量的金融緩和」について、「所期の効果を発揮している」としてきたが、「量」と「質」に「金利」を加えることでより柔軟に政策を運営していく考えだ。

In its new outlook report, the BOJ aims to achieve its inflation target in more than four years, instead of an initial objective of around two years. It says it is difficult to attribute the difficulty in achieving the 2 percent target to oil price declines. The BOJ was under pressure to further strengthen its monetary policy.
 今回まとめた展望リポートでは、2%の物価目標の達成時期が当初の「2年程度」から4年以上に後ずれした。その理由を「原油の下落」だけで説明するのは厳しく、金融政策の一段の強化が求められていた。

Financial markets have experienced confusion due to the Chinese economic slowdown and falling crude oil prices since the start of this year. If the BOJ had failed to take additional monetary easing measures, its resolve to achieve its 2 percent inflation target would have been questioned, and it would have faced the disappointment of its monetary policy having reached its limits.
年明け以降、中国経済の失速や原油価格の下落を受けて市場が混乱する中、今回、日銀が追加緩和を見送れば2%目標達成への本気度を疑われるとともに、「日銀の金融政策は限界」との失望を買う恐れがあった。

The BOJ thus was under pressure to implement a new set of monetary easing steps to surprise markets and renew its strong will to achieve a 2 percent inflation target.
市場のサプライズを起こす金融緩和を実施し、2%の物価目標達成に向けて強い意志を示す必要に迫られていた。

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2016年1月29日 (金)

18歳選挙権 参院選の投票機会を広げたい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expand voting opportunities for youths in upper house election this summer
18歳選挙権 参院選の投票機会を広げたい

The central and local governments, as well as political parties, must cooperate to create an environment in which young people who become newly eligible voters can use that right properly.
 新たに有権者に加わる若者が適正に選挙権を行使する。政府や自治体、政党が連携し、その環境整備を図りたい。

A lawmaker-initiated bill to revise the Public Offices Election Law was approved unanimously at a special committee of the House of Councillors. The bill is designed to eliminate cases in which young people who are expected to change their residence this spring cannot vote in the House of Councillors election slated for this summer. The committee’s approval makes it certain that the bill will be passed into law shortly.
 今春転居する予定の若者が夏の参院選で投票できない事態を解消する議員立法の公職選挙法改正案が、参院の特別委員会で全会一致で可決された。近く成立することが確実になった。

Under the current law, only eligible voters who have lived at their present residence for more than three months are listed on the voting register of municipal governments — villages, towns, wards or cities — and are able to cast ballots.
 現行法では、現住所で3か月以上居住している有権者でなければ、その市区町村の選挙人名簿に登録されず、投票できない。

Should the upper house election be officially announced on June 23, with voting to be held and the ballots counted on July 10, that would prevent from voting young people aged 18 or 19 who may change residences in order to enter the next stage of education or start working on March 23 or later.
 仮に参院選の日程が「6月23日公示―7月10日投開票」の場合、18~19歳の若者は、進学や就職などで3月23日以降に転居すると、投票が一切できなくなる。

This would have affected about 70,000 of the about 2.4 million youths who are expected to become newly eligible voters. With the legal revision, they will be able to cast their votes in the municipality where they lived before their move.
 新たな有権者約240万人のうち約7万人に影響する恐れがあったという。法改正により、転居前の自治体で投票が可能になる。

The lowering of the minimum voting age to 18 will encourage the young generation to participate in the political process, and may be an important turning point in expanding the base for democracy. Settling the legal deficiency and securing their opportunity to vote are appropriate measures.
 選挙権年齢の「18歳以上」への引き下げは、若い世代の政治参加を促し、民主主義の裾野を広げる重要な契機となり得る。法律の不備を解消し、投票機会を確保するのは、適切な措置である。

The election administration commission of each municipality must expedite such efforts as making systems modifications to voter registration to ensure smooth implementation.
 各選挙管理委員会は、選挙人名簿のシステム改修などを急ぎ、円滑な執行に努めねばならない。

More voting venues

The central government plans to submit a bill to revise the Public Offices Election Law, designed to enhance voters’ convenience, and have it passed into law.
 政府も今国会に、投票の利便性を高める公選法改正案を提出し、成立を図る方針だ。

Presently, voting on election day is limited to one polling place designated for each voter. With the government-initiated revision, voters will also be able to submit their ballots at a “common voting place,” to be newly set up at such venues as commercial facilities and stations. Voting hours will also be extended on days prior to the election day.
 今は、投票日の投票は指定の投票所1か所に限られるが、商業施設や駅などに新設する「共通投票所」も利用可能にする。期日前投票の投票時間も拡大する。

The revision is also intended to expand the range of minors allowed to accompany a voter into a polling station from infants, as stipulated in the present law, to people under 18. This is expected to help future voters feel familiar with casting ballots.
 有権者が投票所に同伴できる対象も「幼児」から「18歳未満」に広げるという。将来の有権者に、投票を身近に感じてもらう効果が期待できよう。

We hope the central and local governments will proactively work on building an environment in which voters are able to cast their votes with ease, while adopting all possible measures to prevent such dishonest acts as double voting and avoid errors.
 政府や自治体は、二重投票など不正やミスの防止に万全を期しつつ、投票しやすい環境作りに前向きに取り組んでもらいたい。

The turnout rate in various elections has been declining over many years, and the low interest in politics among young people is also a cause for concern. It is necessary to proactively enlighten young people about the importance of elections, which are the basis of democracy.
 各種選挙の投票率は長年、低下傾向にある。若い世代の政治への関心の薄さも懸念される。民主主義の根幹である選挙の重要性の積極的な啓発が求められる。

With an eye on the upper house election, political parties are throwing their energy into holding discussion meetings to be attended by legislators and students, and into transmitting information. We hope the parties utilize their exchanges with young people in their policy making.
 各党は、参院選に向け、議員と学生による討論会や情報発信などに力を入れている。若者との交流を政策立案に生かしてほしい。

Schools have already started such activities as inviting people including officials from local election administration commissions to help students learn about the Public Offices Election Law and the voting process and hold mock elections with fictitious candidates. With cooperation from such entities as local assemblies, opportunities should also be increased for students to talk with assembly members.
 教育現場では、選管職員らを招いて、公選法や投票方法の学習、架空の候補者を設定した模擬選挙などが始まっている。地方議会などの協力を得て、議員との対話の機会なども増やすべきだろう。

It is important to promote more pragmatic learning aimed at enhancing young people’s awareness as voters, while securing political impartiality.
 政治的中立性を担保しながら、より実践的な主権者教育を進めることが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 28, 2016)

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2016年1月28日 (木)

代表質問 不平等克服へ政策競え

--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 27
EDITORIAL: Parties should focus on correcting social disparities, not election
(社説)代表質問 不平等克服へ政策競え

How can we overcome social disparities that have become too commonplace today?
 私たちの社会で日常化している不平等を、どう克服していくべきか。

This was one of the urgent questions posed to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in the Diet on Jan. 26, the first day of this year’s questioning session by lawmakers representing their parties.
 きのう始まった国会の代表質問では、この喫緊の課題に向けた質疑も交わされた。

The Diet has a host of other crucial issues to address, such as the economy, diplomacy and national security, as well as the money scandal embroiling Akira Amari, the minister in charge of economic revitalization.
 経済成長や外交・安全保障政策、そして甘利経済再生相の金銭授受疑惑の解明――。いずれも、いま国会が取り組むべき重要な課題である。

But the growing disparities around the nation between regular and part-time employees, men and women, the big cities and the provinces and so on, are in special need of prompt attention.
 ただ、正社員と非正社員、男と女、都市と地方など日本社会で拡大しつつある様々な格差、すなわち不平等の解消は、とりわけ対応が急がれる。

Democratic Party of Japan leader Katsuya Okada said, “We would like to propose specific measures for correcting the disparities and ensuring a fair distribution of benefits.”
 民主党の岡田代表は「格差是正、公正な分配のための具体策について提案したい」と語り、

One of the initiatives he proposed was to increase the per-child amount of child-care benefits, and to raise the upper age limit for eligible children. To secure funding, Okada suggested increasing tax on financial incomes and reinforcing the progressivity of income and inheritance taxes.
児童手当の1人あたり支給額や児童扶養手当の支給対象年齢の引き上げなどを挙げ、財源として金融課税や所得税・相続税の累進強化を示した。

Prime Minister Abe promised in his policy speech to take further steps to realize his “equal pay for equal work” concept. Okada asked if Abe’s objective matches the DPJ’s demand for “equal treatment” of regular and part-time employees.
 また、安倍首相が施政方針演説で「実現に踏み込む」とした同一労働同一賃金について、もともと民主党が訴えているような正規と非正規雇用の「均等待遇」をめざすのかとただした。

Japan Innovation Party leader Yorihisa Matsuno referred to the number of people who are not paying into the national pension program and demanded swift action.
 維新の党の松野代表も、国民年金保険料を払っていない人などの数字をあげて、早急な対応を求めた。

According to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the relative poverty rate in Japan was 16.1 percent in 2012, which represented a gradual year-on-year growth. Limited to younger households consisting of members under 30 years old, the rate was 27.8 percent, and a much higher 54.6 percent for single-parent households.
 厚生労働省の調査によれば、日本の相対的貧困率は2012年で16・1%。年々少しずつ増加している。30歳未満の若年世帯では27・8%、1人親世帯では54・6%にも達している。

Acknowledging this reality, Abe replied, “We will continue to review and improve matters related to employment and social security to prevent the disparities from becoming permanent.”
 首相もこうした現状を踏まえ、「格差が固定化しないよう雇用環境の改善や社会保障環境の改善の見直しを行っていく」と応じた。

But the prime minister’s response to Okada’s proposals was somewhat too abstract to be satisfactory.
ただ、岡田氏の提案への首相の答弁はやや抽象的で、物足りなさが残った。

In his policy speech on Jan. 22, Abe attacked opposition parties and said, “An attitude of spending all one’s time simply criticizing, without putting forward any counterproposals, and expecting that everything will ‘all work out somehow’ is truly irresponsible towards the public.”
Abe then addressed the opposition camp, saying, “Instead, shall we not pit concrete policies against each other and hold constructive discussions?”
 首相はさきの施政方針演説で、「批判だけに明け暮れ、対案を示さず、後は『どうにかなる』。そういう態度は、国民に対して誠に無責任だ」と野党を批判し、「具体的な政策をぶつけあい、建設的な議論を行おう」と呼びかけた。

When he said that, he must have been thinking of the attitude of the DPJ and other parties toward the national security legislation and constitutional amendment. But surely, it is anything but “irresponsible” to resist any policy that goes against the Constitution. And it is only natural to be alarmed by the prime minister’s resolve to change the Constitution at all costs.
 首相の念頭には、安保関連法制や憲法改正への民主党などの対応があるのだろう。だが、憲法を逸脱する政策に反対を貫くことが無責任とは言えないし、内容より改憲ありきの首相の姿勢を警戒するのは当然だ。

In fact, it is the prime minister himself who needs to live up to his responsibility of responding “concretely and constructively” to questions and proposals put forth by the opposition camp.
 むしろ首相の方こそ、野党の疑問や提案に対して、「具体的に、建設的に」答える責任を果たしてもらいたい。

With the Upper House election coming up this summer, the current Diet session is expected to be a “short-term battle.” But there are numerous issues that need to be discussed, and the money scandal must be probed to everyone’s satisfaction.
 夏に参院選を控えたこの国会は短期戦とも言われる。一方、論ずべき課題は山積みであり、疑惑の解明も必須だ。

The session must not be allowed to become an ugly sparring contest, fought only with the upcoming election in mind.
選挙を意識した批判合戦に終わらせてはならない。

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2016年1月27日 (水)

中国の人権弾圧 身勝手な力の統治が目に余る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China must desist from its hardline moves to suppress human rights
中国の人権弾圧 身勝手な力の統治が目に余る

Chinese President Xi Jinping has apparently been further escalating his rule with force.
 中国の習近平国家主席が、力による統治を一段とエスカレートさせているということだろう。

The Xi administration put in force an “antiterrorism law” this month. The law makes it obligatory for Internet service providers and others to provide technical support to Chinese authorities to help decrypt information to prevent terrorist activities. The law also prohibits media from reporting terrorist activities in detail on the grounds that it might inspire copycat attacks.
 習政権が今月、「反テロ法」を施行した。インターネットサービス企業などを対象に、テロ防止のため暗号解読技術を提供するよう義務づけている。模倣されかねないテロを詳細に報じることも禁じた。

Concerns are only rising in the international community that restrictions on activities of foreign companies operating in China and controls on the freedom of speech and news reporting will be tightened further in the country.
 外国企業の活動規制や言論・報道統制が強化されるとの懸念が、国際社会で高まる一方である。

The antiterrorism law defines terrorism as “propositions and actions that generate social panic by such means as violence so as to achieve their political objectives.”
 反テロ法はテロについて、「暴力などの手段で社会をパニックに陥れ、その政治目的を実現する主張と行為」と定義している。

It is problematic that there is a possibility that by merely making propositions that are not accepted by the Chinese authorities, one can be punished. The definition of terrorist activities is also vague, leaving plenty of room for discretion.
 中国当局が認めていない主張をしただけで処罰される可能性があるのは問題だ。テロ活動の規定も曖昧で、裁量の余地が大きい。

There is a serious possibility of the authorities’ using the law arbitrarily to suppress the Uighur minority group under the guise of taking measures to fight against terrorism committed by Islamist extremists.
 深刻なのは、イスラム過激派のテロ対策に名を借りて、少数民族のウイグル族の抑圧に法を恣意しい的に利用する恐れがあることだ。

Late last year, prior to the enforcement of the new law, a Beijing-based reporter for a French news magazine who wrote articles critical of China’s policy on the Uighur minority was effectively expelled from the country.
 施行前の昨年末には、ウイグル族政策を批判する記事を書いた北京駐在の仏誌記者が既に、事実上の国外退去処分となっている。

China, under the one-party rule of the Communist Party, touts “the rule of law.” But there is no judicial independence in the country. The law is a means to carry out the rule of the party thoroughly.
 共産党の一党独裁下にある中国は、「法治」を掲げながらも、「司法の独立」はない。法は党の統治を徹底するための手段だ。

Ominous disappearances

Neither can it be overlooked that the authorities, in an arbitrary crackdown, have detained a large number of lawyers and activists who were striving to defend human rights.
 人権擁護に努める弁護士や活動家らを多数拘束し、一方的に弾圧している状況も看過できまい。

Earlier this month, a Swedish man working on human rights issues in China was taken into custody. He was detained for allegedly “posing a threat to national security,” by extending support to human rights lawyers with financial aid from foreign nongovernmental organizations and other entities.
 今月も、中国の人権問題に取り組むスウェーデン人男性を拘束した。海外の民間活動団体(NGO)などから資金援助を受けて人権派弁護士を支援し、「国家の安全を脅かした」のが理由という。

Xi has been solidifying his power base by removing his political enemies through the exposure of their corruption. Despite that, however, he may still harbor a strong sense of crisis over the possibility that public discontent, rooted in factors such as the country’s economic slowdown, may swell because such values as democracy and human rights may spread in society.
 習氏は、汚職摘発で政敵を排除し、権力基盤を固めてきた。それでも依然として、民主主義や人権などの価値観が社会に浸透し、経済の減速などで国民の不満が膨らむことに強い危機感を持っているのではないか。

Also, it cannot be tolerated that China has been bringing its high-handed methods to Hong Kong, where the “one country, two systems” applies.
 「一国二制度」が適用されている香港に、中国式の強権的手法を持ち込むことも容認できない。

In Hong Kong, five people related to a local bookstore — its shareholders, the store manager and others — reportedly disappeared. The store was selling “banned books” that are critical of China, and their publication or sale is prohibited in mainland China.
 香港では、書店の株主や店長ら関係者5人が相次いで失踪する事件が起きた。書店は、中国本土で出版や販売ができない中国に批判的な「発禁本」を扱っていた。

The Chinese authorities admitted that two of the five are indeed in mainland China, but emphasized that they went there of their own volition.
 中国側は、このうち2人が本土にいると認めたが、自らの判断で入ったなどと強調している。

The authorities are trying to fend off criticism that, with no investigative authority, they have allegedly taken people related to the case from Hong Kong to the mainland and put them into custody.
 捜査権限もないのに、中国当局が香港から関係者を連行、拘束したとの批判をかわす狙いだろう。

Should the hauling of those people before the Chinese authorities be a fact, it is a grave situation that would overturn Hong Kong’s “high degree of autonomy.” It is the responsibility of the Xi administration to give a thorough explanation of the matter not only to the residents of Hong Kong but also to the world.
連行が事実なら、「高度な自治」を覆す由々ゆゆしい事態だ。香港住民だけでなく、世界に説明を尽くすことが習政権の責任である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 26, 2016)

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2016年1月26日 (火)

廃棄食品問題 問われる日本の「食」

--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 24
EDITORIAL: Waste resale scandal puts safety of Japan’s food industry into question
(社説)廃棄食品問題 問われる日本の「食」

Industrial food waste, which should have been properly disposed of, has been found to be circulating in the market disguised as food products.
 本来は処分されなければならない産業廃棄物が「食品」に化け、市場に出回っていた。

The illegal sale of waste food items by an industrial waste disposal company in Aichi Prefecture surfaced after frozen beef cutlets discarded from Ichibanya Co., operator of a national chain of curry houses, were found on sale. There are indications that some of the cutlets had thawed before they appeared on the market, which could have harmed consumers' health.
 カレーチェーンを全国展開する壱番屋の冷凍カツで発覚した、愛知県の産廃業者による廃棄食品の横流し。市場に出回るまでに冷凍が解けた形跡があり、消費者に健康被害をもたらす可能性もあった。

The company’s chairman has admitted to his lawyer that he committed the irregularity for the sake of sales. We are only left to stare dumbfounded at the way rules were ignored.
業者は弁護士に「売るためにやった」と認めている。ルールを無視した行為に驚くばかりだ。

One hundred and eight other items were found at facilities of a company in Gifu Prefecture, which bought the cutlets from the industrial waste disposal company and resold them. To current knowledge, those products come from manufacturers and distributors based in 25 areas ranging from Hokkaido to Miyazaki Prefecture.
 産廃業者からカツを買って転売した岐阜県の業者の施設からはほかにも108品目が見つかった。現時点で、製造・販売元は北海道から宮崎県まで25自治体に及ぶ。

The food items, likely diverted off legal sales channels, include products from such major firms as Aeon Co. and Marukome Co.
横流しされたとみられる食品にはイオンやマルコメなどの商品も含まれる。

We are only left to watch the extent of the scandal’s reach. We hope the police will investigate the case through and through. The government should also conduct a nationwide survey.
問題はどこまで広がるのか。警察の徹底的な捜査を期待したい。国も全国的な調査をすべきだ。

The frozen beef cutlets in question, which had been discarded due to the suspected mixing in of foreign substances, returned to the channels of budget markets and were passed on among more than one tier of brokers after they were sold by the company in Gifu Prefecture.
 問題の冷凍カツは異物混入の恐れがあり、破棄されたものだが、岐阜県の業者の手を離れたあとは「格安市場」のルートに乗り、複数の仲買業者の間で転売された。

“We never suspected the products were waste items, because we know stock items are sometimes distributed at low prices,” one of the brokers said.
「在庫が安く出回ることはある。廃棄物とは思わなかった」と語る業者もいた。

But how could one assess the safety of food products without identifying their origins?
 だが素性の確認なしに、食品の安全性は判断できまい。

Irresponsible transactions could pour cold water on serious efforts at offering budget prices to meet consumer demand and on the activity of food banks and other entities that are providing surplus food items, which have no quality issues, to impoverished people and others.
 無責任な取引は、消費者ニーズに応えようと真面目に格安販売に取り組む人や、品質に問題のない余剰食品を生活困窮者らに提供するフードバンクなどの活動にも水を差しかねない。

Ichibanya, which saw its products mishandled, had left the cutlets intact when it commissioned the industrial waste disposal company to dispose of them. They ended up being sold illegally, partly because they retained the appearance of food products.
 製品を悪用された壱番屋は、産廃業者に処理を委託する際、カツに手を加えていなかった。食品の形をとどめていたことが横流しを招く一因となった。

Ichibanya made the right move by promptly formulating improvement measures after the scandal came to light. The company has said it will henceforth ensure its waste food products are destroyed so they can no longer be reused, or alternatively, if that is not possible, make sure its employees attend the disposal process, down to the final stages, for visual confirmation.
 問題発覚を受け、壱番屋がいち早く改善策を打ち出したことは当然だ。今後は再利用できない形で廃棄し、それができない場合は最終処理まで社員が立ち会い、目視で確認するという。

We hope those measures will help prevent a recurrence of improprieties.
再発防止に役立ててほしい。

Other food manufacturers should also intensify their monitoring to ensure their waste items are being properly processed.
 食品製造に関わるほかの事業者も、適正な処理がなされているか監視を強める必要がある。

The waste management and public cleansing law stipulates that dischargers of business-related wastes should be responsible for their disposal.
 廃棄物処理法が定めるように、事業活動にともなう廃棄物は、排出者自らが処理に責任を持たなければならない。

Two and a half million tons of food items are discarded annually in Japan as industrial waste. That immensity is partially attributed to the so-called “one-third rule” of the food industry, a business practice whereby products are not allowed to be delivered to retailers when one-third of the period from the manufacture date through the best-before date has passed, and whereby retailers take them off the shelves when two-thirds of that period have elapsed.
 国内で出る食品の産廃は年間250万トンにも及ぶ。その一因とされるのが食品業界の「3分の1ルール」だ。製造から賞味期限までの3分の1を過ぎた商品は小売店へ納品できず、小売店は3分の2を経過した時点で店頭から下げる商習慣だ。

Mass disposal of food products that remain edible is a built-in feature of Japan’s food industry. One could say the latest scandal thrust that reality back into the spotlight.
 まだ食べられる食品が、大量に破棄されることが織り込まれている日本の「食」――。今回の問題は、その現実を改めて白日の下にさらしたとも言える。

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2016年1月25日 (月)

科学技術計画 次代の暮らしに役立つ開発を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Pursue scientific advancements that will facilitate life for future generations
科学技術計画 次代の暮らしに役立つ開発を

Efforts should be expedited to create and improve a structure in which the strength of Japan’s long-cultivated science and technology will flourish.
 日本が培ってきた科学技術の力を花開かせる体制整備を急ぎたい。

The government endorsed at a Cabinet meeting the 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan, a five-year program devised to lay down guidelines for the nation’s science and technology policy, effective next fiscal year.
 政府は、来年度から5年間の科学技術政策の指針となる「第5期科学技術基本計画」を閣議決定した。

One of its main pillars is to build what can be described as a “super-smart society” that will network such apparatuses as robots, artificial intelligence and information technology equipment.
 柱の一つが、ロボットや人工知能、IT機器などをネットワーク化させる「超スマート社会」の実現だ。

If widely spread, much of this technology, including nursing-care robots, will help enable people to live comfortably. It can be widely applied in such fields as transportation, medical and financial services.
介護ロボットなど、普及すれば快適な暮らしに役立つ技術が多い。交通や医療、金融といった分野での応用範囲は広い。

In the United States, various corporations are moving forward with projects that transcend their primary lines of work, as illustrated by Google Inc.’s ambitious efforts to build a self-driving car. Although Japan has a large number of information-related companies and researchers, there have been conspicuous delays in this respect due to such factors as their less-than-satisfactory financial strength.
 米国では、グーグルが自動運転車の開発に挑むなど、業種の壁を越えたプロジェクトが進む。日本にも情報関連企業や研究者は多いが、資金力が劣ることなどから、立ち遅れが目立つ。

The new basic plan has pointed to the necessity of building and improving facilities and an information infrastructure that can be shared by corporations. To survive international competition in this field, the public and private sectors need to make integrated efforts to achieve this goal.
 基本計画は、各社が共用できる施設や情報基盤の整備の必要性を指摘した。国際競争に勝ち残るために、官民一体となった取り組みが求められる。

Another feature of the latest basic program is that an independent heading has been given to national security for the first time. This is aimed at emphasizing the importance of reinforcing cooperation between the government, industry and academia in the field of defense, thereby further encouraging the private sector to join the desired endeavor.
 安全保障の項目を初めて設けたのも、今回の基本計画の特徴だ。防衛分野での産学官の連携強化を掲げることにより、一層の民間参入を促す狙いがある。

Increase researchers

With China’s increased maritime and space activities, acts of international terrorism and cyber-attacks in mind, the basic plan will also seek to promote necessary research and development from now on. Efforts should be made to successfully put into practical use such technology as drone control techniques, a field of study in which universities are already making progress, as well as ultrahigh-performance resin.
 中国の海洋・宇宙進出や国際テロ、サイバー攻撃などを念頭に、今後、研究開発を進める。大学で既に研究が進む無人飛行機の制御技術や、超高性能樹脂などの実用化を目指したい。

It is worrying to note the decline in the competence of Japan’s scientific research. The basic plan expresses a sense of urgency about the lack of a desired increase in the number of theses in the realm of natural science, as well as those authored jointly with foreign scientists.
 気がかりなのは、日本の研究力の低下である。基本計画も、自然科学系の論文数や国際的な共著論文数が、思うように伸びていないことに危機感を示している。

Being quoted by many scientists is proof of the excellence of a thesis. Since the beginning of this century, Japan has suffered a continued decline in the ranking of nations whose top-level theses are frequently quoted.
 論文が多くの研究者に引用されるのは、優れた内容であることの証しだ。引用数が多いトップレベルの論文の割合を国別に比較した調査で、日本の順位は、今世紀に入って低下を続けている。

A major task facing the country is how to increase the number of researchers who can actively work internationally. Extending long-term assistance to scientists, not just excessively emphasizing their immediate accomplishments, is essential for the pursuit of this goal.
 世界的に活躍できる研究者をいかに増やしていくかが、日本の大きな課題である。目先の成果を過度に重視するのでなく、息の長い支援が求められる。

In many cases, young researchers who have obtained doctorates end up with limited-term positions at universities and elsewhere. They cannot afford to spend sufficient time on research activities. The situation has been viewed as a matter of social concern.
 博士号取得後の若手研究者は、大学などで任期が限られたポストにしか就けないケースが多い。じっくりと研究に取り組めないことが問題となっている。

We believe increasing the number of researchers with stable positions will be conducive to improving Japan’s research and development abilities.
 身分が安定した研究者を増やすことが、日本の研究開発力の向上につながるだろう。

Little progress is being made in increasing the percentage of female scientists. This is evident from one of the targets cited in the fourth basic plan, which sought to increase the percentage of women researchers to 30 percent of all newly employed scientists. This target remains unmet.
 女性研究者の割合も伸び悩んでいる。「新規採用で3割」という第4期計画の目標は未達成だ。

Advancing scientific technology that explores the unknown fields requires a diversity of human resources. It is also indispensable to facilitate an environment conducive to scientific work, so talented researchers can actively work to the fullest.
 未知の領域に挑む科学技術を発展させるためには、多様な人材が必要である。有能な研究者が存分に活躍できるよう、働きやすい環境の整備も欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 24, 2016)

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2016年1月24日 (日)

甘利氏献金報道 疑惑解明へ説明から逃げるな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Amari must not avoid explaining about scandal involving political funds
甘利氏献金報道 疑惑解明へ説明から逃げるな

A politics-and-money scandal involving Akira Amari, state minister in charge of economic revitalization — who has been acting as a control tower of the economic policies of the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe — has emerged.
 安倍政権の経済政策の司令塔役である甘利経済再生相に、政治とカネを巡る疑惑が浮上した。

Amari must unravel the facts promptly and make full explanations.
 甘利氏は、早急に実態を解明し、きちんと説明せねばならない。

The scandal was reported by Shukan Bunshun, a weekly magazine. The magazine alleges that Amari and his secretaries received illegal donations from a construction company in Shiroi, Chiba Prefecture, in return for extending influence to resolve an issue of compensation over a land dispute involving road construction.
 疑惑は、週刊文春が報道した。甘利氏や秘書が、土地トラブルの補償を巡る口利きの見返りとして千葉県白井市の建設会社から違法献金を受けたというものだ。

His secretaries were allegedly involved in negotiations over compensation with the Urban Renaissance Agency. The value of the funds and entertainment that the construction company allegedly provided Amari and his close aides is said to total ¥12 million, including ¥500,000 in cash Amari reportedly received at his ministerial office in November 2013.
 都市再生機構(UR)との補償交渉には、秘書が関与したとされる。2013年11月に甘利氏が大臣室で50万円を受け取るなど、甘利氏側への資金提供や接待は計1200万円に上るという。

If the allegations of influence-peddling and acceptance of cash prove true, it will have serious consequences. Amari and his secretaries may face charges of graft for influence-peddling and violation of such laws as the Political Funds Control Law.
 仮に口利きや現金授受が事実ならば、重大な問題だ。あっせん利得罪や政治資金規正法違反などに問われる可能性がある。

What kind of relationship did Amari’s office have with the construction company, and how were the secretaries involved in the negotiations for compensation? What actually happened in connection with the alleged donations? Amari must conduct detailed investigations into these matters and provide compelling explanations.
 甘利事務所と建設会社はどんな関係で、秘書は補償交渉にどう関わったのか。献金の実態はどうだったのか。これらについて、事実関係を詳しく調査し、納得のいく説明を行うべきである。

Concerning the allegations involving his secretaries, Amari said verification will be conducted by a team that includes specialists. Depending on the results of the probe, his supervisory responsibility for secretaries may be questioned.
 甘利氏は秘書の疑惑について、専門家を交えて検証する考えを示した。その内容次第では、秘書に対する監督責任も問われよう。

Minimize impact on TPP

Amari declared during a news conference that he “did nothing illegal.” But he acknowledged part of the magazine report, including meeting with officials of the construction company. He said, “There are some discrepancies between what was reported in the article and what I remember.” These explanations are not enough to dispel the suspicions.
 甘利氏は記者会見で、「法に反する行為はしていない」と明言した。ただ、建設会社関係者との面会は認め、「記事と私の記憶が違うところが何点かある」と語るなど、報道の一部は肯定している。これでは疑惑は払拭されない。

In regard to the allegation that he received cash, Amari said, “Within a week, I will check my memory and speak about it.” As he stated, he must hold himself accountable.
 自らの現金授受に関して「1週間以内に記憶を確認してお話しできる」と強調した。発言通り、説明責任を果たす必要がある。

Amari represented Japan in the negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement, which will be signed in a ceremony scheduled for Feb. 4. He will take charge of answering interpellations during the current Diet sessions on TPP-related bills.
 甘利氏は、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の責任者で、2月4日にはTPP署名式が予定される。今国会でのTPP関連法案の審議でも、専ら答弁に立つ。

It is necessary to minimize the impact of the scandal on deliberations on TPP bills.
 今回の献金疑惑がTPP法案の審議に影響を与えることは最小限にとどめる必要がある。

Three ministers — including Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Yuko Obuchi — have resigned over scandals involving politics and money since the second Abe Cabinet was inaugurated in December 2012.
 「政治とカネ」の問題では、12年12月の第2次安倍内閣の発足以来、小渕優子経済産業相ら閣僚3人が辞任している。

In charge of promoting Abenomics economic policies, Amari is a principal minister of the Abe Cabinet along with other Cabinet members including Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga. The latest scandal is considered more serious than the past cases and may shake the backbone of the Abe administration, depending on how it evolves.
 甘利氏は、経済政策「アベノミクス」を担当し、菅官房長官らとともに、内閣の中核を担う主要閣僚である。今回の疑惑は、過去の「政治とカネ」の問題と比べても重く、展開次第では安倍政権の屋台骨を揺るがしかねない。

Entrusting Amari with how to deal with the matter, Abe said he believes “Amari will be accountable.” Ahead of the House of Councillors election set for this summer, Abe must realize the stern fact that dark clouds have started forming over his administration and remain alert.
 安倍首相は、甘利氏に対応を任せ、「説明責任を果たしてくれると確信している」と語った。夏に参院選を控えて、安倍政権に暗雲が漂い始めているとの厳しい自覚と緊張感を持つ必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 23, 2016)

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2016年1月23日 (土)

ジャカルタテロ 「イスラム国」の脅威アジアに

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Jakarta terrorist attacks show threat posed by ISIL has reached Asia
ジャカルタテロ 「イスラム国」の脅威アジアに

It has become clear that the threat of terrorism, influenced by radical ideology, has spread from the Middle East, Europe and the United States to Southeast Asia.
 過激思想の影響を受けたテロの脅威が、中東、欧米から、東南アジアにまで浸透していることが鮮明になった。

A group of men exploded bombs and exchanged gunfire with police in central Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, the nation with the world’s largest Muslim population. Eight people, including four perpetrators, died and more than 20 others were injured.
 世界最大のイスラム人口を抱えるインドネシアの首都ジャカルタの中心部で、男らが爆弾を爆発させ、警官隊と銃撃戦を繰り広げた。犯行グループ4人を含む8人が死亡し、20人以上が負傷した。

The scene of the attacks was in a downtown area where a large commercial facility is located. The Japanese Embassy is also nearby. As in the case of simultaneous terrorist attacks carried out in Paris in November last year, the latest attacks were made against “soft targets” such as a coffee shop, where security is relatively light.
 現場は、大型商業施設などがある繁華街で、日本大使館にも近い。狙われたのは、昨年11月のパリ同時テロと同様に、コーヒーショップなど警備が比較的手薄な「ソフトターゲット」である。

The authorities are investigating the incident as terrorism masterminded by an Indonesian militant who joined the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant group and is now living in Syria. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attacks.
 当局は、過激派組織「イスラム国」に加わったシリア滞在中のインドネシア人戦闘員が主導したテロと見て、捜査している。「イスラム国」も犯行声明を出した。

Such despicable brutality that indiscriminately attacks ordinary citizens and foreigners is intolerable. The international community must urgently strengthen cooperation in antiterrorism measures.
 一般市民や外国人を無差別に襲う卑劣な蛮行は許されない。国際社会が改めてテロ対策で連携を強めることが急務だ。

It was reported that the mastermind of the Jakarta attacks has been attempting to establish a Southeast Asian branch of ISIL and may have tried to expand ISIL’s influence in the region by waging terrorist attacks using Indonesian collaborators.
 この首謀者は、「イスラム国」の東南アジア支部の設立を企て、インドネシアの仲間を使ってテロを起こすことで影響力を拡大しようとした可能性があるという。

Promote unity

If this is true, it is a serious problem. The authorities must strive to uncover the whole truth of the latest incident and restore order.
 事実とすれば、深刻な問題である。当局には、事件の全容解明と治安回復に努めてもらいたい。

It is also necessary to counter ISIL’s propaganda campaign by promoting unity among moderate Muslims.
 穏健なイスラム教徒の結束を図り、「イスラム国」の宣伝戦に対抗することも求められる。

Activities of terrorist organizations have been abating in Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries in recent years since the authorities tightened their crackdown on such groups.
 インドネシアなど東南アジア各国では近年、当局の取り締まりが強まったため、国内のテロ組織の活動が下火になっていた。

But these countries must stay alert against a possible revival of domestic terrorist organizations at the instigation of ISIL and the possibility that a united front between ISIL and those organizations will become more active.
 「イスラム国」の扇動によって国内のテロ組織が息を吹き返し、両者の「共闘」が活発化する事態を警戒せねばならない。

It is said that about 380 people from Indonesia have joined ISIL. From Southeast Asia as a whole, about 600 people are said to have joined ISIL and other militant groups.
 「イスラム国」には、インドネシアから約380人が参加したとされる。東南アジア全体では、「イスラム国」などに約600人が加わっているともいわれる。

It is worrisome that there is an increasing risk that well-trained militants may return to their countries and commit large-scale terrorism.
 心配なのは、訓練を積んだ戦闘員が帰国し、大規模なテロに及ぶ危険性が高まっていることだ。

In connection with this, the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations must strictly implement immigration controls and other measures.
 東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)各国は、出入国管理などを厳格に実施する必要がある。

ISIL has clearly said that Japan is one of its targets. Terrorism that has reached Southeast Asia is not someone else’s problem. In December, the government established Counterterrorism Unit-Japan (CTU-J), which is tasked with consolidating information regarding terrorism overseas.
 「イスラム国」は、日本も標的だと明言している。東南アジアまで迫ったテロは対岸の火事ではない。政府は昨年12月、海外のテロ情報を集約する「国際テロ情報収集ユニット」を新設した。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida stressed, “By utilizing the unit and other resources, we want to take steps to thoroughly ensure the safety of Japanese nationals overseas.” To this end, it is essential to share terrorist information with ASEAN countries.
 岸田外相は「ユニットなども活用しつつ、海外の邦人の安全対策に万全を期したい」と強調している。ASEANとテロリスト情報の共有を進めることが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 20, 2016)

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2016年1月22日 (金)

甘利氏疑惑 「記憶あいまい。きちんと整理し説明したい」

毎日新聞は英訳版を出版するのだったら、もっと正確に翻訳してもらいたいなと感じました。
読売のような逐語訳的な翻訳も息が詰まりますが、英訳版では、やはり逐語訳が基本でしょう。
事件が安倍政権にとって大打撃となるのは必至です。
自民党の暗い体質(=建設業者との癒着)を暴き出した週刊文春の取材力には恐れ入りました。

January 21, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Amari says memories of meet where he allegedly took 500,000 yen payment 'vague'
甘利氏疑惑 「記憶あいまい。きちんと整理し説明したい」

参院決算委員会 第三者交えた調査の意向を明らかに

Cabinet minister Akira Amari said on Jan. 21 that he can't remember what happened during a visit to his office when, a weekly magazine alleges in its latest issue, he personally accepted 500,000 yen from a Chiba Prefecture-based construction company.
"I remember accepting visitors, but my memories of what happened are vague," Amari, minister in charge of economic revitalization, said during a House of Councillors Audit Committee meeting. He also stated that "a thorough investigation will be conducted so that I can fulfill my responsibility to explain the situation." Amari furthermore indicated he intended to include third parties in the probe.
The weekly magazine Shukan Bunshun carried an article in its Jan. 21 issue stating that Amari had accepted money from the construction firm in return for dispute mediation services provided by the minister and his aides.
 甘利明経済再生担当相は21日午前の参院決算委員会で、千葉県の建設会社から自身や秘書が口利きの依頼を受け、見返りに現金を受け取ったとの週刊文春(21日発売)の報道について、「しっかり調査して説明責任を果たしたい」と述べ、第三者を交えた調査を行う意向を明らかにした。大臣室で自ら現金50万円を受け取ったとの指摘には、「訪問を受けたのは事実だが、何をしたのかは記憶があいまいだ。整理して説明したい」と述べるにとどめ、否定しなかった。

"I will fulfill my duties with all my energy," Amari said, denying any intent to resign over the allegations. Regarding his aides' involvement, however, Amari said that "I first heard of it in media reports, and I'm now trying to confirm the details." Amari is the Abe government's point man on the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade deal, and the minister said he would do his utmost to prevent the money scandal allegations from affecting Diet deliberations on the treaty.
 甘利氏は「託された職務を全力で全うする」と辞任を否定。罪に問われるような事実も「一切ない」と述べたが、秘書の疑惑については「報道で初めて知った。確認中だ」と語った。また、甘利氏が担当する環太平洋パートナーシップ協定(TPP)の国会審議への影響は「出ないよう全力を尽くす」と述べた。

In response to a question from opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) lawmaker Misako Yasui, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said of Amari, "I believe that he will fulfill his responsibility to explain the situation."
 安倍晋三首相は甘利氏について「説明責任を果たしてくれるものと確信している」と述べた。民主党の安井美沙子氏への答弁。

Meanwhile, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga told reporters that "of course we are setting up Mr. Amari's scheduled appearance" at the planned Feb. 4 TPP signing ceremony in New Zealand. Suga also revealed that the government is setting up Amari's trip to the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos, Switzerland.
 これと関連し、菅義偉官房長官は記者会見で、ニュージーランドで来月4日に行われるTPP署名式に関し「甘利氏の出席で当然調整していく」と言及。スイスでの世界経済フォーラム年次総会(ダボス会議)も甘利氏を派遣することで調整していることを明らかにした。

Opposition parties intend to use Diet deliberations to question Amari thoroughly over the possible money scandal. DPJ Diet affairs chief Yoshiaki Takaki stated, "Even as (Mr. Amari) pushes major changes to the lives and livelihoods of farming families, these allegations surface. This is an enormous problem." Takaki also said his party would "naturally be looking into" the prime minister's responsibility.
 野党は今後の国会審議で徹底追及する方針だ。民主党の高木義明国対委員長は「農家に大きな生活の変化を強いる立場にありながら、こうした疑惑が出てきた。極めて問題は大きい」と指摘。首相の任命責任も「当然問われてくる」と語った。

Japan Innovation Party Diet affairs head Takashi Ishizeki added to the chorus of opposition party dismay over the possible scandal, saying, "From the perspective of the Japanese people, from the true feelings of the masses, I condemn this. The (ruling) Liberal Democratic Party is returning to its roots."
維新の党の石関貴史国対委員長も「国民の視線、庶民の実感から糾弾する。古い体質の自民党に戻っている」と批判した。

(no english part observed)
 TPPは安倍政権の成長戦略の柱で、2016年度予算案に関連経費も盛り込まれている。経団連の榊原定征会長は21日、記者団に「透明性、公正性、説明責任をしっかり果たしていただきたい」と語った。

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2016年1月21日 (木)

中国GDP減速 安定成長へ構造改革が急務だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China needs structural reforms to achieve stable economic growth
中国GDP減速 安定成長へ構造改革が急務だ

How can China’s economy shift onto a track of stable growth, while preventing itself from stalling?
 景気の腰折れを防ぎながら、いかに安定した成長軌道へ移行するか。

Steering China’s economy as its growth continues to slow down has become an ever more difficult task.
 減速が続く中国経済の舵かじ取りは、一段と難度を高めている。

China’s real gross domestic product grew 6.9 percent year on year in 2015, the lowest growth in 25 years.
 中国の2015年の実質国内総生産(GDP)が前年比6・9%増と、25年ぶりの低い伸びとなった。

The sluggish growth primarily stems from slackened investment and production activities, as efforts to get rid of excessive production capacity and real property inventory have made little progress.
過剰な生産設備や不動産在庫の解消が進まず、投資や生産活動が鈍ったのが主因だ。

Exports also declined 2.8 percent from the previous year. As the country’s price competitiveness weakened due to rising labor costs, its status as “the world’s factory,” exporting and selling low-priced products in great volume, has lost much of its luster.
 輸出も前年より2・8%減少した。人件費の上昇で価格競争力が弱まり、安価な製品を大量に輸出・販売する「世界の工場」の地位が色あせてきた。

China had set its full-year growth target at “around 7 percent.” The National Bureau of Statistics of China emphasized that “the 6.9 percent growth is still in line with the government target.” But the country’s high growth model led by investment and exports is already approaching its limits.
 中国は成長目標を「7%前後」としてきた。国家統計局は「6・9%の成長率は政府の目標に符合している」と強調したが、投資と輸出中心の高成長モデルはもはや限界に近づいている。

It is a matter of urgency for China to shift to a consumption-driven growth model, as advocated by the administration of President Xi Jinping.
 習近平政権の掲げる消費主導の成長モデルへの転換が急務だ。

The Chinese authorities said they will promote structural reforms, such as reducing the systemic oversupply of steel and coal. Temporary stimulus measures alone, such as increasing public spending, will not be sufficient. It may be necessary to force through reforms while overcoming resistance from state-owned enterprises and local governments stubbornly hanging on to their vested interests.
 当局は、鉄鋼や石炭の過剰供給体制の縮小など、構造改革を進めるという。財政出動などの一時的な景気刺激策だけでは不十分だ。既得権益に固執する国有企業や地方政府の抵抗を抑えて、改革を断行する必要があるだろう。

Better numbers needed

In stimulating consumption, developing new products and new services sought by consumers would be effective. In order to bring out the vigor of the private sector, which would serve as a pillar of innovation, it is essential to reorganize and shrink state-owned enterprises.
 消費喚起には、顧客の望む新製品や新たなサービスの開発が有効だ。イノベーション(技術革新)の担い手となる民間の活力を引き出すためにも、国有企業の再編・縮小が欠かせない。

It is worrisome that China’s economic statistics lack credibility. There is strong suspicion that the Chinese authorities calculate statistics on the high side to make the nation’s economy look better than it really is. They should not relax their reform efforts, while patching things up for the time being with make-believe figures.
 気がかりなのは、中国の経済統計が信頼性を欠いていることだ。経済を実際より良く見せるため、当局が統計を高めに算出しているとの疑念は根強い。見せかけの数字で当座を取り繕って、改革の手を緩めてはなるまい。

Concerns over the uncertain outlook of the Chinese economy and the yuan’s fall have brought about a vicious cycle in the international flow of money, becoming a serious risk factor for the global economy.
 中国経済の先行き懸念と人民元安は、国際的な資金の流れに悪循環を引き起こし、世界経済の深刻なリスク要因になっている。

The projected decline in China’s oil demand, in line with its economic slowdown, has further dampened crude oil prices. Drops in crude oil prices are driving the “oil money” of the oil-producing countries in the Middle East, whose fiscal conditions have deteriorated, to return to their domestic markets, which is said to be a factor behind a worldwide decline in stock prices.
 景気減速に伴う中国の石油需要の減退予測は、原油価格の低迷に拍車をかけた。原油安は、財政が悪化した中東産油国の「オイルマネー」を国内へと回帰させ、世界株安の一因とされる。

Further decline in the value of the yuan has accelerated an exodus of capital out of the country. Fears are rising that the performance of Chinese companies, burdened with debts denominated in foreign currencies, will deteriorate.
 人民元安の進行は、資本の国外流出を加速させた。外貨建ての負債を抱える中国企業の業績を悪化させる恐れが高まっている。

Also, in order to keep the yuan from weakening further, it is important to create an environment for foreign investment funds to go back to China again, by promoting financial system reforms, including easing regulations on currency trading and liberalization of interest rates.
 人民元安に歯止めをかけるためにも、為替取引の規制緩和や金利自由化などの金融制度改革を進めて、中国に再び投資資金が向かう環境を整えることが肝要だ。

Grasping the structural change in China’s economy, Japanese businesses also have to review their business plans so that they can meet the new needs of consumers and businesses in China.
 日本企業も中国経済の構造変化を捉え、中国の消費者や企業の新しいニーズに応えられるよう、ビジネスを見直さねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 20, 2016)

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2016年1月20日 (水)

イラン制裁解除 合意履行を中東安定へ生かせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Use implementation of Iran N-deal to build stability in Middle East
イラン制裁解除 合意履行を中東安定へ生かせ

How to draw Iran into the world community and bring stability to the Middle East, which has been thrown into an increasing state of confusion? A crucial moment lies ahead to tackle this challenge.
 イランを国際社会にいかに引き込み、混迷を深める中東情勢の安定につなげるか。これからが正念場である。

Iran and six other countries — the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Russia and China — have announced the implementation of a nuclear deal reached last July that called for lifting sanctions by the United States, the European Union and the U.N. Security Council in return for Iran’s downsizing of its nuclear facilities.
 米英仏独露中の6か国とイランは、イラン核施設の縮小と引き換えに、米国や欧州連合(EU)、国連安全保障理事会の制裁を解除する昨年7月の核合意の履行を発表した。

Iran has already transferred most of its stored low-enriched uranium to Russia and removed two-thirds of 19,000 centrifugal separators for enrichment. The International Atomic Energy Agency has confirmed this in an on-site inspection.
 イランは既に、貯蔵していた低濃縮ウランの大半をロシアに搬出し、濃縮用の遠心分離器約1万9000基の3分の2を撤去した。国際原子力機関(IAEA)の査察官が現地で確認した。

This would extend the period needed for Iran to complete the production of nuclear weapons from a range of “two to three months” to a range of “one year or more” if the country undertakes it. The IAEA maintains surveillance, and sanctions will be reimposed if violations are found. This can be lauded as a measure to put the brakes on nuclear development to a certain degree.
 イランが核兵器製造に着手しても、完成までの期間は「2~3か月」から「1年以上」に延びた。IAEAが監視し、違反があれば制裁は再発動される。核開発への一定の歯止めと評価できよう。

U.S. President Barack Obama said the world would be “more secure.” To prevent Iran from moving to become a nuclear power after the 15-year period for implementation of the deal ends, it is essential for the United States and other related countries to support Iran’s moderate reform policy line.
 オバマ米大統領は「世界はより安全になった」と強調した。15年間の合意履行期間終了後、イランが核保有に動き出さないよう、米国など関係国が穏健改革路線を後押しすることが欠かせない。

Given the release of U.S. citizens, including a reporter, who had been held by Iran, the channel between the two countries with no diplomatic relations has strengthened.
 イランが拘束していた米国人記者らが解放され、国交のない米国とイランのパイプは一層太くなった。

How to use this to end the civil war in Syria and wipe out the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militant group is now the question.
シリア内戦の終結や過激派組織「イスラム国」の掃討などにどう生かすかが問われる。

Rebuild alliance

Iran, a major Shiite-dominated Muslim country, supports the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad and has been intensifying its confrontation with Saudi Arabia, a leading country of Sunni Muslims, which calls for the ouster of Assad. Israel is also nervous about ballistic missile development by Iran, a country which is hostile to it.
 イスラム教シーア派大国のイランはシリアのアサド政権を支援し、「アサド退陣」を求めるスンニ派の盟主サウジアラビアとの対立が先鋭化している。イスラエルは、敵対するイランの弾道ミサイル開発にも神経をとがらせる。

Washington has announced additional sanctions against Iran over its missile development, but Saudi Arabia and Israel have become deeply distrustful of the United States. Obama must push ahead with reestablishing the alliance with the two countries.
 米国はミサイル関連で対イラン追加制裁を発表したが、サウジとイスラエルの対米不信は根深い。オバマ氏は、両国との同盟関係の再構築も進めねばならない。

Iran will resume crude oil exports and expand transactions significantly with foreign financial institutions and businesses, which had been subject to a de facto ban due to sanctions imposed by the United States. Crude oil bills said to total $100 billion and other funds, which have been frozen in bank accounts of foreign countries, will become accessible.
 イランは原油輸出を再開し、米国の制裁で事実上禁じられていた外国金融機関、企業との取引が大幅に拡大する。計1000億ドルとされる原油代金などの外国口座の資金も凍結が解除される。

Iran’s crude oil reserves rank fourth in the world, and its natural gas reserves rank first. Other countries place high expectations on the country’s market, sustained by its rich natural resources and population of nearly 80 million people.
 原油埋蔵量が世界4位、天然ガスは1位という豊富な資源と、8000万人近い人口を抱える市場に対する各国の期待は大きい。

Japan, which has concluded an investment agreement with Iran, expects diversification of its sources for crude oil procurement, an increase in automobile exports and an entry into plant facilities construction and management. Efforts must be made to promote information gathering and realize participation in the Iranian market.
 投資協定締結で合意している日本は、原油調達先の多角化や自動車などの輸出増加、プラント進出を見込む。情報収集を進め、市場参入に結びつけたい。

Of concern is a scenario in which crude oil prices drop further with Iran producing more, thereby causing the worsening of economic conditions in oil-producing countries and global declines in stock prices. If Saudi Arabia and Iran are engaged in a continued struggle for hegemony in the Middle East, neither the abatement of regional tensions nor the stability of the world economy can be expected.
 懸念されるのは、イランの増産で原油安が進み、産油国の経済悪化と世界的な株安を招く事態である。サウジとイランが覇権争いを続ければ、中東情勢の沈静化も、世界経済の安定も望めまい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 19, 2016)

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2016年1月19日 (火)

株安と安倍政権 経済政策に「百年の計」を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 16
EDITORIAL: A heavy price to pay for Abe's short-sighted economic policy
(社説)株安と安倍政権 経済政策に「百年の計」を

The Japanese stock market has been in serious turmoil since the start of the year. The benchmark Nikkei stock average fell in all of the first six days of trading. Postwar Japan had never before experienced a New Year six-day losing streak. During the first two weeks of the year, the Nikkei was temporarily more than 2,000 points lower than its close at the end of 2015.
 株式市場で年初から波乱含みの展開が続いている。日経平均株価は大発会から6営業日連続で下げた。これは戦後初めての事態だ。年初来の下げ幅も合計で一時2000円を超えた。

The stock market’s rout was due mainly to overseas factors like China’s increasingly pronounced economic slowdown. Nevertheless, the decline of stock prices has come as a heavy blow to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who has been stressing the fact that the Nikkei index has more than doubled during the three years since he took office as a major achievement of his "Abenomics" economic policy.
 中国経済の減速など海外要因が理由とはいえ、政権3年間で株価が2倍以上に上昇したことを「アベノミクスの成果」と誇る安倍政権にとっては痛手だろう。

Even so, neither the government nor the Bank of Japan should scramble to take new measures to prop up stock prices immediately.
だからと言って政府や日本銀行が目先の株価対策に走るようなことがあってはならない。

The stock market’s climb in the past three years has been driven mainly by the BOJ’s aggressive monetary expansion. In the meantime, the economy as a whole has been barely growing. That means the market rally has not been underpinned by an improvement in the real economy.
 これまでの株高は、超金融緩和によってもたらされた側面が強い。経済成長のほうはゼロに近いわずかな伸びにとどまっており、実体経済とは遊離した株高だったと言える。

If so, the government’s economic policy should not be affected by what is happening in the stock market. The government should take the latest stock market retreat as a warning signal calling for an effective long-term economic strategy.
ならば、経済政策が株価に振り回される必要はない。政府には、この株安を長期的な備えを促す警鐘として受け止めてほしい。

The direction of the flow of money in the world is beginning to change radically. Late last year, the U.S. Federal Reserve Board ended its zero interest rate policy and raised interest rates for the first time in seven years.
The Fed’s action has set off a reversal in the direction of the flow of money. For years, money had been moving from industrial nations into emerging countries. The global glut of liquidity created by monetary easing in most of the developed world is likely to shrink in the coming years.
 世界のお金の流れは大きく変わろうとしている。昨年末、米連邦準備制度理事会(FRB)が7年ぶりにゼロ金利を解除し、利上げに踏み切ったことで、先進国から新興国へと流れていたお金の潮流に巻き戻しが始まった。世界中でだぶついていた緩和マネーは今後収縮していく可能性が強い。

Major adjustments in world stock markets that have received a big boost from global monetary expansion are inevitable. The downturn of the Japanese stock market in the past two weeks should be seen as a consequence of this structural shift in the global trend. It should be assumed that the epic global stock market rally actually ended last summer when China’s fall-off in growth battered markets around the world.
 緩和の恩恵を受けてきた株式市場で調整がおきるのは避けられない。最近の日本の株安もそういう構造変化の文脈でとらえたほうがいい。世界中が歴史的な株高に沸いた時期は、昨夏のチャイナ・ショックまでと見るべきだろう。

PRICE OF SHORTSIGHTED ECONOMIC POLICY
 ■目先優先のつけ回る

The Abe administration has shown a troubling tendency to place too much importance on short-term results and evaluations in its economic policy. The administration appears to have failed to take into account the implications of its economic policy for future generations as it has focused too much on meeting the current expectations of the public.
 安倍政権の経済政策は、短期的な成果や評価を重視しすぎるきらいがある。人々の目の前の期待に応えようとする一方で、将来世代への視点を著しく欠いているのではないか。

Symptomatic of this tendency is how the government has been crafting the policy proposal to exempt foodstuffs from the scheduled consumption tax increase in April 2017.
 来年4月に予定される消費増税で食料品などに導入する軽減税率を巡る政策対応は、その典型と言っていい。

Although the government has no clear plan to raise the estimated 1 trillion yen ($8.5 billion) needed to finance the food exemption, Abe recently indicated in a Diet session that the government will consider using the increase in tax revenues for that purpose.
 軽減税率を構えるために必要な財源1兆円のめどがたっていないなかで、首相は国会で「税収上ぶれ分」を検討することに言及した。

It is extremely irresponsible to count on an increase in tax revenues when deciding on such a permanent economic policy measure.
税収が予想より増えるのをあてにして恒久的な政策を決めるのは、きわめて無責任だ。

If tax revenues fail to rise above the estimate, the government will end up funding the measure with new debt. In other words, this approach will only pass on the problem to future generations.
税収が予想より増えなかった場合、結局は、政府が新たな借金でしのぐしかなくなる。つまりは、これも将来世代への問題の先送りにすぎない。

The BOJ’s “different dimension” monetary easing, which has been supporting Abenomics, also entails an “invisible financial burden on the public.”
 アベノミクスを支える日銀の異次元緩和にも「見えない国民負担」が隠されている。

Currently, the central bank is purchasing huge amounts of government bonds at high prices. When the economy starts picking up, however, bond prices will fall while yields rise. Monetary tightening in response to improvement in economic conditions will result in heavy losses for the BOJ due to negative yields. The central bank could even find its liabilities exceeding its assets. This is a situation that will require taxpayer money to be used to cover the losses.
いま日銀は高値で国債を大量購入しているが、いずれ景気がよくなれば国債価格は下落(利回りは上昇)する。その局面での金融引き締めは日銀には逆ざやとなって巨額損失が見込まれる。債務超過の恐れもある。穴埋めに使われるのは国民の税金である。

This, too, is an approach that could force future generations to pay the price of a shortsighted policy focused on bolstering economic growth and stock prices in the near term.
 足元の経済成長や株高という目先の政策を優先してきたつけが将来に回りかねない危うさがここにも潜んでいる。

MORE ATTENTION TO INTERESTS OF FUTURE GENERATIONS
 ■将来世代と連結で

Still, the administration insists that Abenomics is working. Then why are Japanese companies reluctant to raise wages and eager to build up cash reserves, even though they are generating record profits? Why are Japanese consumers unwilling to ramp up their spending?
 それでも政権は「アベノミクスは成功している」としている。ならば、なぜ企業は史上最高益をあげても賃上げに及び腰で、内部留保をため込むのか。国民が消費に尻込みするのはどうしてなのか。

Keiichiro Kobayashi, a professor of economics at Keio University, says the “short-term optimism” expressed emphatically by the government has underscored its failure to face up to the harsh reality, resulting in the spread of “long-term pessimism” among companies and consumers.
 小林慶一郎慶大教授は「“短期楽観”を強調する政府の姿勢そのものが厳しい現実を見ていないことを露呈し、かえって企業や消費者を“長期悲観”に陥らせている」という。

Shifting the burden to future generations will not change the fact that taxpayers in this country will have to cover the price sooner or later.
 国民負担を先送りしても、いずれ、この国の誰かが支払わなければならない。

The burden could grow further in the meantime, leading to bigger tax increases and sharper spending cuts over time. There is even the possibility that people’s livelihoods may be threatened by hyperinflation in the future.
先送りしている間にそれがいっそう膨れあがり、時間の経過とともに増税や歳出削減の規模が大きくなってしまうかもしれない。いつか超インフレに襲われ生活が脅かされる可能性だってある――。

It seems that the Japanese people are increasingly aware of these possibilities and acting accordingly.
 国民はすでにそう予感し、行動しているのではないか。

In order to allay such anxiety among the public, it is necessary for the government to evaluate and announce both the short- and long-term effects of policy measures by estimating their consolidated results for retirees, the working population and future generations.
 そんな不信を取り除くには、リタイア世代、現役世代、将来世代をあわせた現在と未来の「連結決算」で政策効果を検証し、国民に示す必要がある。

At the beginning of the year, both the stock market and the business community were brimming with optimism about the nation’s economic outlook. It was as if market players and business leaders believed that they would be saved by simply talking themselves into betting on the government’s claim that everything will go well.
 年初には株式市場や経済界には経済の先行きを楽観する声があふれていた。政権と声を合わせ「うまくいく」と自己暗示をかけることが救われる道なのだと信じているかのように。

REAL CHALLENGE IS FISCAL REHABILITATION
 ■財政再建こそが課題

But the era of excessive liquidity due to extreme easing of the monetary policy is now coming to an end. The government’s excessively optimistic growth forecasts--a nominal economic growth of 3 percent and a real economic growth of 2 percent--and its medium-term fiscal plan, based on this hope-for-the-best policy stance, will both turn out to be serious mistakes sooner or later.
 だが、超金融緩和がもたらしたカネ余りの時代は終わりを迎えようとしている。「名目3%、実質2%成長」という楽観に楽観を重ねた政府の経済見通しと、それに基づく中期財政計画は早晩、行き詰まる。

Pushing through fiscal reforms based on more realistic views about the nation’s economy, which also take account of the possibility of a prolonged period of economic stagnation, will become the biggest policy challenge.
さえない経済の時代が長く続くことも想定した現実的見通しに基づいて財政再建を進めていくことが、最重要課題になるはずだ。

The current Diet session is considering a draft supplementary budget that contains an outlay for cash payments to the elderly with small pension pots, a measure that has all the hallmarks of a giveaway of taxpayer money.
 今国会でも、ばらまき的色彩が濃い低年金高齢者への給付金を盛り込んだ補正予算案が審議されている。

The Abe administration’s attention is apparently focused on this summer Upper House election.
安倍政権の関心は夏の参院選対策に向けられているのだろう。

Politicians should look further into the future and tackle fiscal rehabilitation under a farsighted policy program. The Abe administration should concentrate its policy efforts on such challenges.
 もっと先も見据え、日本の国家運営の「百年の計」を考えて財政再建に取り組む姿勢がいまの政治にほしい。政権のエネルギーはそこに注ぐべきだ。

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2016年1月18日 (月)

台湾総統選 対中急接近が生んだ蔡新政権

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Rapid rapprochement with China led to new administration in Taiwan
台湾総統選 対中急接近が生んだ蔡新政権

The people of Taiwan have applied the brakes to rapid rapprochement with China.
 中国への急接近に台湾住民がブレーキをかけたと言えよう。

In the presidential election in Taiwan, Tsai Ing-wen, chair of the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) — the biggest opposition party — won by a wide margin over her main rival, namely Chu Li-luan. Chu is chair of the ruling Nationalist Party, which has pursued a policy of bringing about reconciliation with China. The election marked the first change of government in eight years.
 台湾総統選で、「台湾独立」志向が強い最大野党・民進党の蔡英文主席が、対中融和を進めてきた与党・国民党の朱立倫主席らに大差をつけて、当選した。8年ぶりの政権交代である。

Concern that Taiwan might be swallowed up by China if Taiwan’s reconciliatory policy toward China continued at the current pace may have expanded public support for Tsai.
 このままのペースで対中融和が続けば、中国に呑のみ込まれてしまいかねない。そんな不安が、蔡氏の支持を拡大したのだろう。

In the previous presidential election held four years ago, Tsai asserted, “Taiwan is already a sovereign and independent country” and was defeated by Taiwan’s current president, Ma Ying-jeou.
 蔡氏は、4年前の前回総統選で、「台湾は既に主権独立国家」と主張し、馬英九総統に敗れた。

As Taiwan has increasingly become economically dependent on China, concern over possible deterioration in relations between Taiwan and China has spread among business and other circles.
中国への経済依存が強まる中、経済界などで対中関係悪化への懸念が広がったからだ。

Tsai’s election strategy this time proved effective. She repeatedly reiterated her pledge to maintain the status quo in relations with China — not to seek independence or unification — while suppressing the pro-independence tone of the DPP.
 今回は、民進党の「独立」色を封印し、「独立」でも「統一」でもない「現状維持」の方針を繰り返し訴える戦術が奏功した。

Public opinion polls showed that the majority of people in Taiwan support maintaining the status quo.
世論調査によると、台湾住民の大半は、「現状維持」を望んでいる。

In her victory speech, Tsai said, “Our message to the international community is that democracy is deeply ingrained in Taiwan.”
 蔡氏は「台湾に民主主義が浸透していると、国際社会に伝えることができた」と勝利宣言した。

Imbalance spurs resentment

The Nationalist Party’s Chu has touted to voters the stability in Taiwan-China relations, in light of the first summit talks between Taiwan and China held in November. Yet there was deep resentment among the people that the fruits of closer economic ties with China have been felt only by the wealthy.
 国民党の朱氏は、昨年11月の初の中台首脳会談を踏まえ、中台関係の安定をアピールしてきた。だが、住民には、経済緊密化の恩恵が一部の富裕層にしか及んでいないという反発が根強かった。

The Nationalist Party also suffered a major defeat in polls to elect legislators, held simultaneously with the presidential election. This has been attributed to a growing sense of “Taiwanese identity” among the young generation, the perception that China and Taiwan are separate.
 国民党は、総統選と同時に行われた立法委員(国会議員)選でも大敗した。中国と台湾は別だとする「台湾人意識」が若い世代の間で高まったためとみられる。

The DPP has won a majority in the legislature for the first time, which is expected to lead to a stable administration.
 民進党は初めて単独過半数を獲得し、安定政権へ道筋をつけた。

The New Power Party, led by young Taiwanese who opposed Taiwan’s policy toward China and unlawfully occupied the parliament in 2014, also won seats. This indicates that the new party has absorbed those who were dissatisfied with the Nationalist Party-led administration.
2014年、対中政策に反対し、立法院(国会)を占拠した若者ら中心の新党「時代力量」も議席を得た。国民党政権への不満の受け皿になったことを示している。

The urgent challenge for Tsai is to achieve economic development that will be felt among the Taiwanese people, while stabilizing Taiwan’s relations with China.
 蔡氏にとっては、対中関係を安定させつつ、経済発展を達成し、その成果を台湾住民に実感させられるかどうかが喫緊の課題だ。

It is worrisome that Tsai has not accepted the “1992 consensus,” under which both China and Taiwan recognized the “One China principle.” China’s administration under President Xi Jinping, which aims to eventually realize the unification of China and Taiwan, has indirectly warned that unless Tsai recognizes the 1992 consensus, there will be no “status quo.”
 蔡氏の不安要素は、中台双方が「一つの中国」の原則を認めたとされる「1992年合意」を受け入れていないことだ。
 将来的な「統一」を狙う習近平政権は間接的な表現ながら、92年合意を認めなければ、「現状維持」はできないと警告している。

Should Tsai continue to refuse to endorse the 1992 consensus, China is likely to apply pressure by restricting cross-strait economic exchanges, thus rocking the new administration. China’s trump cards may include curbs on Chinese tourists visiting Taiwan and direct flights between China and Taiwan.
 蔡氏が92年合意を拒否し続けるのなら、経済交流に圧力をかけ、新政権を揺さぶるつもりではないか。台湾を訪れる中国人観光客や旅客機の直行便の制限などもカードの一つだろう。

The future course of the cross-strait relations between China and Taiwan will affect the stability of East Asia. China must respond appropriately.
 台湾海峡の行方は、東アジアの安定に関わる。中国に求められるのは、責任ある対応である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 17, 2016)

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あたらしい旅情報マガジンがリリースされました  TABI CAFE

人間が生きていく上で一番大切なものは、人と人とのつながりではないでしょうか。
65歳以上の高齢者の占める人口数が、全体の25%を超えてしまっている、高齢者社会ではなおさらのことです。

旅情報で有名な、あのココマチ合同会社が、地域の情報を発信するWEBマガジンを、新たにリリースしました。
TABI CAFEというモダンな名前ですが、高齢者たちにとっても、郷愁を誘うような素敵な名前です。

豊かな資産力を使って、海外旅行や国内旅行をする高齢者が激増してきています。
知らない街にお出かけして、そこで、人と人とのつながりを深めてみるのも、素晴らしい試みです。
人と人とのつながりが深まれば、それらの人々が暮らすその街とのつながりだって自然に深まってきます。

地域情報 を発信するWEBマガジン、TABI CAFEには、全国各地や世界中の新鮮な旅情報であふれています。
それらの情報がリアルタイムであるという点も、旅人の心をくすぐるのではないでしょうか。

わたしは、最近、こういう風に思うようになりました。
旅とは、実は、人生そのものなんだなーと。



地域の情報を発信するWEBマガジン|TABI CAFEのサービスをリリース ココマチ合同会社



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2016年1月17日 (日)

金融市場大荒れ 中国発の不安連鎖を断ち切れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Break chain of anxiety triggered by China causing turmoil in global markets
金融市場大荒れ 中国発の不安連鎖を断ち切れ

Turmoil in the global financial markets, caused by uncertainty regarding the Chinese economy, has been continuing.
 中国経済への不信を震源とする世界の金融市場の動揺が続いている。

On the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the benchmark Nikkei average briefly tumbled below 17,000 points. It later firmed up to a certain degree, but the Nikkei average has dropped as much as 1,800 points since the beginning of January.
 東京市場の日経平均株価は一時、1万7000円を割り込んだ。その後は、やや持ち直したが、年明け以降の株価の下げ幅は1800円にも達した。

The plunge in Tokyo stock prices was triggered by the 15 percent drop in the Shanghai stock market since the beginning of this year. Fluctuations of stock prices have also continued in major stock markets in the United States, Europe and other countries in Asia.
 中国・上海市場が年初来、15%も下落したことが引き金となった。欧米、アジアの主要市場でも株価の乱高下が止まらない。

The turmoil has been partly caused by investment money having nowhere to go in markets plagued by fear over the stagnation of China’s economic growth and the plummeting value of the yuan.
 中国経済の成長鈍化と、通貨・人民元の下落への不安感が市場を覆い、投資マネーが行き場を失ったことが混乱を招いている。

The decline of stock prices has also been spurred by oil-producing countries selling huge amounts of stock in markets around the world as the fall of crude oil prices shows no sign of bottoming out.
 原油相場の下落に歯止めがかからない中、産油国が各国市場で保有株を大量に売却したことも株安に拍車をかけている。

On the New York market, the crude oil price briefly dropped to the $29 range per barrel, the lowest level in 12 years. But still no signs of a rebound are evident.
 米ニューヨーク市場では、原油が一時、1バレル=29ドル台まで下がり、12年ぶりの安値をつけた。反発のきっかけも見えない。

This chain of anxiety has to be broken to calm down the markets. Cooperation among the monetary authorities of all countries is essential, but China’s responsibility is particularly grave.
 不安の連鎖を断ち切り、市場の沈静化を図る必要がある。各国金融当局の協調が大切だが、とりわけ中国の責任は重大である。

Chinese President Xi Jinping’s government is aiming at a “new normal” economy, meaning the transition of the Chinese economy from investment-based growth to stable, consumption-led growth. But it has not yet clarified the path to achieve this.
 習近平政権は、投資中心の成長から消費主導の安定成長に移行する「新常態」(ニューノーマル)を目指しているが、その道筋は明確になっていない。

Map out path

The Chinese government should take measures to prevent a rapid downturn of the current economy, and formulate plans to reform state enterprises and deal with nonperforming loans at regional financial institutions. Beijing should specify a road map for such policy measures.
 当面の景気の急減速を防ぐ手立てを講じる。さらに、国有企業改革や地域金融機関の不良債権処理などを具体化する。こうした政策の工程表を明示すべきだ。

It also must try to communicate carefully with markets, changing its makeshift actions over systems to suspend trading and restrict stock transactions when a market experiences sudden change.
 相場急変時の取引停止制度や株の売却規制をめぐる場当たり的な対応を改め、市場と丁寧に対話する努力も欠かせない。

The United States ended its zero-interest policy in December, and is eyeing the possibility of raising interest rates further. It must consider carefully when interest rates should be raised again, and how much the hike should be, after analyzing what effect the country’s monetary policy will have on the global market.
 米国は昨年12月、ゼロ金利政策を解除し、一段の利上げを視野に入れる。自国の金融政策が国際市場にどう波及するかを分析し、次の利上げ時期や上げ幅を慎重に検討することが求められる。

Meanwhile, it is important for Japan to prevent the current turmoil in its domestic market from having a negative effect on the real economy.
 日本は、現在の国内市場の動揺が実体経済に悪影響を及ぼさないようにすることが重要だ。

Companies have logged record-level earnings, and the Japanese economy is making a mild recovery. The falling crude oil prices have benefits for corporate activities and household economies. We don’t have to be too pessimistic about the current economic situation.
 企業は過去最高水準の好業績を記録し、景気は緩やかな回復を続けている。原油安も、企業活動や家計にはメリットがある。過度に悲観する必要はあるまい。

However, the yen’s rising value is a source of concern. Many Japanese companies assume an exchange rate of $1 to about ¥120. If the yen becomes stronger than its current value of $1 for about ¥117, it will push down the earnings of export-oriented companies such as automakers and electronics manufacturers.
 ただ、円高の進展は懸念材料である。企業の多くが想定する円相場は、1ドル=120円前後だ。現在の117円前後より円高が進めば、自動車や電機といった輸出関連企業の業績を下押ししよう。

While paying consideration to such concerns, the government must prioritize enhancement of its growth strategy. We expect the government to raise the level of the nation’s economy by proceeding with the creation of new enterprises and the development of employment opportunities.
 こうした懸念に目配りしつつ、何より必要なのは、政府の成長戦略を強化することだ。新事業の創出や雇用機会の拡大を進めて、経済の底上げを急ぎたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 16, 2016)

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2016年1月16日 (土)

エホバの証人とは

Jehovah’s Witnesses—Who Are We?
エホバの証人とは

We come from hundreds of ethnic and language backgrounds, yet we are united by common goals.
エホバ の 証人 は 世界 中 に い て,人種 や 国籍 は 様々 です が,同じ 目的 で 結ば れ て い ます。

Above all, we want to honor Jehovah, the God of the Bible and the Creator of all things.
何 より も,すべて の もの を 創造 し た 聖書 の 神エホバを 賛美 し たい と 思っ て い ます。

We do our best to imitate Jesus Christ and are proud to be called Christians.
また,クリスチャンと し て,イエス・ キリスト に 倣お う と 励ん で い ます。

Each of us regularly spends time helping people learn about the Bible and God’s Kingdom.
聖書 や神 の 王国に つい て 学ぶ の を 助ける 活動 に,皆 が 参加 し て い ます。

Because we witness, or talk, about Jehovah God and his Kingdom, we are known as Jehovah’s Witnesses.
エホバ 神 と その 王国 に つい て 語る ゆえ に,エホバ の 証人と し て 知ら れ て い ます。

Explore our site. Read the Bible online. Learn more about us and our beliefs.
この サイト を ご覧 に なれ ば,エホバ の 証人 と その信じ て いる 事柄に つい て もっと 知っ て いただけ ます。

https://www.jw.org/en/
https://www.jw.org/ja/

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日韓慰安婦問題 合意履行に朴氏の責任は重い

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Park bears heavy responsibility to implement ‘comfort women’ deal
日韓慰安婦問題 合意履行に朴氏の責任は重い

At a time when North Korea’s latest nuclear test has threatened the stability of the region, improving Japan’s relations with South Korea is an urgent task. The leadership of South Korean President Park Geun-hye will be tested on this issue.
 北朝鮮の核実験で地域の安定が脅かされる中、日韓関係改善は急務だ。韓国の朴槿恵大統領の指導力が問われている。

During her New Year press conference, Park spoke about the deal Tokyo and Seoul reached late last year on the so-called comfort women issue. Park reiterated her position to seek public support for the deal, saying she would “do [her] best to ensure its content was acceptable.”
 朴氏は年頭の記者会見で、昨年末の日韓による慰安婦問題の妥結について、「合意内容が受け入れられるよう最善を尽くす」と述べ、国民の理解を求める姿勢を強調した。

The deal is a breakthrough that improved the strained ties between Japan and South Korea. It is natural that Park will exert every possible effort to make sure the deal is smoothly implemented.
 合意は、停滞していた日韓関係に突破口をもたらした。朴氏が合意の円滑な履行に向けて、最大限の努力をするのは当然である。

Public opinion surveys conducted in South Korea have revealed that many people are displeased with the deal. Their reasons include the view that “opinions of former comfort women were not listened to.” A support group for former comfort women blasted the deal and said it “betrayed” the South Korean people. Ripples created by this comment are spreading.
 韓国の世論調査では、「元慰安婦の意見を聞かなかった」などとして、合意を評価しない人が多い。元慰安婦支援団体が、合意は国民への「裏切り」だと反発していることに波紋が広がっている。

Park insisted the government had held talks with former comfort women and the support group 15 times before the deal was reached and had listened to their wishes. She emphasized that three important points — clarifying the involvement of the former Imperial Japanese Army; an official apology from the Japanese government; and compensation funded by the Japanese side — were all reflected in the deal.
 朴氏は、政府が事前に15回も元慰安婦や支援団体と協議し、要望を聞いたと力説した。旧日本軍による関与の明確化、日本政府の公式謝罪、日本側予算による補償という3点が重要で、すべて合意に反映されていると主張した。

Under the agreement, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed an apology and the government recognized the involvement of military authorities at the time. The Japanese government will contribute about ¥1 billion as humanitarian support to a foundation the South Korean government will establish to assist former comfort women. Park’s explanation aims to deepen public understanding of the deal.
 合意では、日本側が軍の関与を認め、安倍首相がお詫わびを表明した。韓国政府が設立する元慰安婦支援の財団に、日本政府が人道支援として、約10億円を拠出する。朴氏の説明には、合意への国民の理解を深める狙いがある。

Worrying signs

It is questionable that, concerning the statue of a girl symbolizing comfort women in front of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul, Park said this was “not the kind of issue the government can give orders over.” The Japanese government has demanded the statue be removed, and South Korea promised it would strive to resolve this issue in an “appropriate” manner. The statue issue must not be left unaddressed.
 朴氏がソウルの日本大使館前の少女像について、「政府がああしろこうしろと言える問題ではない」と語ったのは、疑問だ。日本が撤去を求め、韓国は「適切な解決」への努力を約束した。このまま放置することは許されまい。

Recently, the Seoul Eastern District Court ordered Prof. Park Yu Ha, author of “Teikoku no Ianfu” (Comfort women of the empire), to pay compensation to former comfort women who claimed the scholar’s book defamed them.
 ソウル東部地裁は、学術書「帝国の慰安婦」の著者、朴裕河教授に対して、元慰安婦の名誉を傷つけたとして賠償を命じた。

The ruling acknowledged that, based on the 1993 Kono Statement and other sources, the comfort women had been “forcibly mobilized” and “forced to live like sex slaves.” This ruling was one-sided in contradicting Japan’s position on this issue and went too far. It must not be allowed to negatively impact the implementation of the comfort women deal.
 判決は、1993年の河野官房長官談話などを根拠に、慰安婦が「強制動員され、性奴隷同様の生活を強要された」と認定した。日本の立場に反する一方的で、行き過ぎた判断である。合意の履行に悪影響を与えてはならない。

After launching her administration, Park devoted considerable effort to strengthening ties with China. However, since North Korea’s nuclear test, it is apparent Seoul and Beijing differ in their fervor in dealing with Pyongyang.
 朴政権は発足後、対中関係の強化に力を入れてきた。だが、核実験後は、対北朝鮮政策を巡って中国との温度差が目立っている。

In her “remarks to the people” that Park made at the start of her press conference, she expressed dissatisfaction with China’s refusal to ease its reluctance to impose tougher sanctions on North Korea. Park also clearly stated she would “consider” the proposed deployment of a cutting-edge U.S. missile defense system in South Korea — a plan China opposes.
 朴氏は、記者会見の冒頭に発表した国民向けの談話で、中国が制裁強化に慎重な構えを崩さないことに不満を示した。中国が反対する最新鋭の米ミサイル防衛システムの韓国配備についても、「検討していく」と明言した。

Park’s move to lessen her excessive leaning toward China, and her switch to attaching greater importance to cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea on security issues, will boost the deterrent against North Korea.
 朴氏が対中傾斜を修正し、安全保障を巡る日米韓の連携を重視する方向に転じたことは、北朝鮮への抑止力を高めよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 15, 2016)

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2016年1月15日 (金)

オバマ演説 指導力回復へ全力尽くす時だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
United States must do everything possible to regain global leadership
オバマ演説 指導力回復へ全力尽くす時だ

It is hard to say that the United States is sufficiently exercising its leadership in dealing with North Korea’s nuclear development and the threat of terrorism by extremist groups. We hope the United States will proactively work to solve these issues.
 北朝鮮の核開発や過激派によるテロの脅威への対処で、米国の指導力が十分に発揮されているとは言い難い。懸案の解決に向けて、積極的に取り組んでもらいたい。

In his final State of the Union address, U.S. President Barack Obama said, “Priority No. 1 is going after terrorist networks” and indicated his intention to go all out to destroy the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group.
 オバマ大統領は施政方針となる任期最後の一般教書演説で、「最優先課題はテロリストのネットワークを追いつめることだ」と述べ、過激派組織「イスラム国」壊滅に全力を挙げる意向を示した。

Yet he fell short of unveiling any concrete measures to defeat ISIL. As things stand now, it will be difficult for him to make any significant achievements in his remaining year in office.
 だが、打倒への具体的な道筋は明らかにしなかった。このままでは、残り任期1年で大きな成果を上げるのは困難だろう。

The modus operandi of limiting military operations and emphasizing international cooperation unless the United States and its allies face a direct threat is showing its limitations. Shouldn’t Washington consider sending out additional special forces?
 米国や同盟国が直接の脅威に直面しない限り、軍事行動を控え、国際協調を重視する手法は限界を露呈している。米軍特殊部隊の増派も検討すべきではないか。

It is also questionable that Obama declared the continuation of the half-measure strategy that “we keep America safe and lead the world without becoming its policeman.”
 「世界の警察官にならずに米国の安全を維持し、世界を導く」という中途半端な戦略の継続を表明したのも疑問だ。

North Korea has conducted nuclear tests as many as three times while Obama has been in office, taking much of the luster from his comments about “a world without nuclear weapons,” which he advocated in a Prague speech shortly after he took office.
 北朝鮮は、オバマ政権下で3回も核実験を行い、就任直後のプラハ演説で唱えた「核兵器のない世界」はすっかり色あせた。

In his State of the Union address three years ago, the president pledged to take “firm action” in response to a nuclear test conducted by North Korea. This time, however, he made no reference to Pyongyang’s latest test.
 3年前の一般教書演説では、北朝鮮の核実験に「断固とした行動」を明言したのに、今回は言及しなかった。

N. Korea strategy at dead end?

This can be interpreted as Washington reaching a dead end in its strategy in dealing with North Korea. Vis a vis the state, it is important to explore ways to hold a dialogue depending on its behavior, while increasing pressure.
戦略の行き詰まりとも受け取られよう。北朝鮮には圧力を強化しつつ、相手の出方に応じて対話も模索することが肝要だ。

We also think Washington should have taken prompter, stronger action against China, as the country is turning the artificial islands it has built into military strongholds in the South China Sea. To prevent China from accelerating its attempts to change the status quo by force, it is also vital for U.S. military vessels to regularly sail near the artificial islands.
 南シナ海で中国が進める人工島の軍事拠点化に対しても、より迅速で強力な行動が必要だったのではないか。「力による現状変更」を加速させないためには、人工島付近での艦艇航行を定期的に実施することも欠かせない。

It was appropriate that Obama called on Congress to swiftly approve the Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement, saying, “With TPP, China does not set the rules in that region; we do.” Washington should learn from its failed approach of prioritizing cooperation with China while turning a blind eye to human rights and other issues.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)について、オバマ氏が「中国でなく、我々が地域のルールを作る」と、議会に早期承認を求めたのは適切である。中国の人権問題などに目をつぶり、協調を優先して失敗した教訓を生かすべきだ。

In his speech, Obama emphasized his achievements over the past seven years and the continuation of his policies, rather than concrete solutions for these problems.
 オバマ氏は演説で、問題の具体的な解決策よりも、7年間の実績と政策の継続に重点を置いた。

The Obama administration deserves credit for weathering the financial crisis under way at the time it was inaugurated and for implementing its rebalancing policy, which focuses on Asia and has promoted the reinforcement of the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 政権発足時の金融危機を克服し、「アジア重視」政策や日米同盟強化を進めたことは評価できる。

It was also reasonable for Obama to cite such achievements as the country’s normalizing diplomatic ties with Cuba, reaching a nuclear accord with Iran and inking the Paris accord on measures against climate change.
キューバとの国交回復やイラン核合意、気候変動対策のパリ協定を成果としたのももっともだ。

He spoke of his policies of promoting reform of the medical insurance system and immigration system, and pursuing gun control. U.S. citizens are divided on these issues, and the split in public opinion is becoming more serious.
 医療保険制度改革や移民制度改革、銃規制を推進する方針を示したが、米国民の賛否は分かれ、国論の分裂は深刻化している。

Obama must take seriously the situation illustrated in recent public opinion polls, which have found that about 70 percent of people think the country is heading in the wrong direction.
 世論調査で約7割が「米国は悪い方向に進んでいる」と回答している現実を、オバマ氏は真摯しんしに受け止めねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 14, 2016)

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2016年1月14日 (木)

朝鮮半島緊張 北のさらなる挑発を許さない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
World must refuse to tolerate further provocation by North Korea
朝鮮半島緊張 北のさらなる挑発を許さない

Triggered by North Korea’s latest nuclear test, tensions are running high on the Korean Peninsula. Further military provocation by that country absolutely cannot be tolerated.
 北朝鮮による核実験を機に、朝鮮半島の緊張が高まっている。北朝鮮のさらなる軍事挑発は、断じて容認できない。

The U.S. forces flew a B-52 strategic bomber over South Korea. “This was a demonstration of the ironclad U.S. commitment to our allies in South Korea and in Japan,” Adm. Harry Harris, commander of the U.S. Pacific Command, said in a statement.
 米軍のB52戦略爆撃機が韓国上空を飛行した。米太平洋軍のハリス司令官は、「同盟国である韓国と日本への防衛義務に対する決意を示すものだ」とする声明を発表した。

It was greatly significant for the United States to take swift action to demonstrate its deterrent power in an effort to maintain regional stability.
 米国が地域の安定を維持するために、迅速な行動で抑止力を体現した意義は大きい。

The B-52 bomber, a plane that can carry nuclear bombs and cruise missiles, is said to be one of the U.S. weapons about which North Korea has the deepest concern. It also has a long flight range. In the latest flyover, the U.S. bomber took off from and returned to an air base in Guam.
 B52は、核爆弾や巡航ミサイルの搭載が可能で、北朝鮮が最も警戒する兵器の一つだとされる。航続距離が長く、今回はグアムの空軍基地から往復した。

It is essential for the United States to strongly and repeatedly warn North Korea that no act of military provocation, such as an artillery attack on the South, will be tolerated. U.S. military options under consideration for the immediate future include the deployment of a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and a stealth fighter.
 米国が北朝鮮に対して、韓国側への砲撃などの軍事挑発は許さないという強い警告を与え続けることが肝要である。今後は、原子力空母やステルス戦闘機などの展開も検討されている。

Two days after the North’s nuclear test, South Korea resumed loudspeaker propaganda broadcasts condemning its northern neighbor’s regime in the vicinity of the Demilitarized Zone. This was based on South Korea’s conclusion that the latest nuclear test constituted “an extraordinary situation” in which the country could restart propaganda broadcasts. In August, the South and the North had reached a deal under which anti-Pyongyang propaganda would not be resumed unless such a situation arose.
 韓国は核実験の2日後、軍事境界線付近で、北朝鮮の体制を非難する宣伝放送を再開した。核実験が、昨年8月の南北合意で決めた放送再開の条件である「異常事態」に当たると判断したためだ。

Bitterly antagonized by the South Korean action, the North has reportedly reinforced frontline troops. All this is giving rise to aggravating hostility between the North and South.
 北朝鮮は強く反発し、軍の前線部隊を増強したとされる。南北対立は激化している。

North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, first secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, is attempting to justify the nuclear test by calling it “a self-defensive measure to defend the sovereignty of the country and vital rights of the nation.” His statement is a self-righteous assertion that ignores international condemnation, and it is utterly unacceptable.
 金正恩第1書記は、核実験について、「国の自主権と民族の生存権を守る自衛的措置だ」と正当化しようとしている。国際社会の非難を顧みない独善的な主張であり、到底受け入れられない。

An array of sanctions

At the initiative of the United States, the U.N. Security Council is proceeding with work to draft a resolution aimed at imposing sanctions on North Korea. Attention is focused largely on such measures as restrictions on banking transactions involving North Korea and restraint on port calls by North Korean ships. The envisaged sanctions must be made effective enough to make North Korea pay the price for its nuclear testing.
 国連安全保障理事会では、米国が中心となって、制裁決議案作りが進んでいる。北朝鮮との銀行取引規制や船舶の入港制限の強化などが焦点になる。核実験を実施した北朝鮮に代償を払わせるため、実効性のある制裁にすべきだ。

What is important is for pertinent nations to take concerted action to reinforce sanctions against North Korea. China, a country that can exert influence on North Korea, must fully cooperate with other nations in adopting the resolution and strictly implementing it.
 大切なのは、関係国が制裁強化で足並みをそろえることである。北朝鮮に影響力のある中国は、決議案の採択と厳格な履行に全面的に協力せねばならない。

In video footage used in a recent program aired by Korean Central Television that focused on Kim, an image of Liu Yunshan — a member of the Chinese Communist Party’s Politburo Standing Committee — has been removed. The initial footage showed Liu attending a military parade in Pyongyang last October.
 朝鮮中央テレビが放映した金第1書記の記録映像では、昨年10月の軍事パレードに参列した中国共産党の劉雲山政治局常務委員の姿をカットした。

There is reason to believe the deletion of Liu’s image was intended to serve as a restraining influence on China, which has denounced the recent nuclear test and is joining talks over a resolution against the North Korea.
核実験を非難し、決議案協議に関わる中国を牽制けんせいする思惑があったのではないか。

Japan, a nonpermanent member of the Security Council, should be proactively involved in promoting negotiations over the envisaged resolution. In commenting on anti-Pyongyang sanctions to be imposed by Japan on its own, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has said, “Stern measures will be adopted.”
 非常任理事国である日本も、決議案協議に積極的に関与したい。安倍首相は、日本の独自制裁についても、「厳しい対応をとっていく」と表明した。

Japan, the United States and South Korea will hold a string of talks at the level of bureau chief and vice minister this week. It is important for the three nations to closely cooperate with each other to prevent North Korea from going out of control.
 日米韓は今週、外務省の局長級、次官協議を相次いで開く。3か国が緊密に連携し、北朝鮮の暴走を抑えることが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 13, 2016)

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2016年1月13日 (水)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡: 脳科学と人の心 /東京

January 10, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Brain science and the human spirit
香山リカのココロの万華鏡: 脳科学と人の心 /東京

I wonder what kind of year this is going to be.
 今年はどんな年になるのだろう。

As a psychiatrist, this year is likely to be one wherein I will take a fresh look at the question of just what exactly is the human spirit.
精神科医の私にとっては、あらためて「人の心って何だろう」と考える年になりそうだ。

The advances recently made in the field of brain science have been astounding.
近年の脳科学の進歩はすさまじい。

Ohio State University announced last year that it had finally utilized pluripotent stem cells derived from human skin cells in order to culture an eraser-sized "miniature brain," which included nearly all of the genes of a 5-week-old fetus.
昨年はついに、アメリカのオハイオ州立大学で人間の皮膚細胞由来の多能性幹細胞を使って、妊娠5週の胎児の脳のほぼすべての遺伝子を持った消しゴムサイズの“ミニチュア脳”が培養されたと報じられた。

It seems clear, then, that it will become possible within a short time frame to reproduce a human brain.
おそらく近い将来、誰かの脳をもう一つ作ることも可能になるに違いない。

On second thought, however, I'll bet that before this occurs, analyses of the brain's neural networks will proceed in a manner such that people will be able to replicate their own brain on a computer.
 いや、その前に脳の神経ネットワークの解析が進み、自分の脳をそのままコンピューター上に再現することができるかもしれない。

I remember a scene from a science fiction movie where a woman was able to converse with a computer that utilized the same pattern as the brain of her dead husband. Soon, this will actually become a reality.
SF映画では「亡くなった夫の脳と同じパターンを持ったコンピューターと妻が対話する」といったシーンも出てくるが、それが間もなく現実になろうとしているのだ。

Let's imagine that this does indeed occur.
 「もしそうなったら」と想像してみよう。

A vendor providing a "replacement brain" service comes to your house, picks up skin and hair samples of your dead family member from off the floor, and takes them away.
「脳復元サービス」の業者があなたの家を訪れ、すでに世を去ったあなたの家族の皮膚や髪の毛の一部を床から拾い上げ、持ち帰る。

You later receive notification that the artificial brain is ready, and it is delivered to your home along with an attached apparatus that allows you to converse with it.
しばらくすると「完成しました」と連絡が来て、人工の脳とそれに接続された会話装置が届く。

You flip the switch, and the nostalgic voice of your relative says, "It's been a long time! Are you studying like you should be?
I know you don't like English!" Naturally, you are also able to hold conversations with the device -- meaning that you can laugh and fight with your family member just like you always did before.
スイッチを入れると「久しぶり。ちゃんと勉強してる? あなたは英語が苦手だから」となつかしい家族の声が聞こえてくる。もちろん対話も可能。昔と同じように笑い合ったりケンカしたりすることもできる……。

Some people are likely to think, "This is amazing! I hope this will become a reality as soon as possible!"
 「すごい。早く実現しないかな」と思う人もいるかもしれない。

Many others, however, probably feel that no matter how much a particular response pattern is able to be duplicated, it could never take the place of their beloved kin.
しかし、多くの人は、「いや、いくら反応のパターンは同じでも、それは私の愛する家族ではない」と感じるのではないだろうか。

And even if one's own brain were able to be simulated via this type of service, few are those who would feel as if they had actually attained the ability to live forever.
また、そういうサービスで自分の脳が再現されたとしても「永遠の命が手に入った」と考える人は少ないはずだ。

If this is the case, then, what does it mean to exist as a particular human being?
 だとしたら「その人である」とはいったい何なのだろう。

Is it the act of possessing a body?
からだがあるということか。

This is clearly not so, since the relatives or lover of someone whose face or other bodily features had become greatly disfigured in an accident would be unlikely to conclude that the individual had suddenly become a different person.
それは違う。事故などで顔やからだが大きく損傷されても、家族や恋人は「もうあなたではない別人になった」とは思わないはずだ。

This being the case, then, it is clear that there is a deep connection between existing as an individual being human being and the fact that we have only one life -- even though no one yet possesses a definitive answer with respect to this matter.
そう考えると、「その人である」ということと「命が一度きりであること」は深く関係しているようだ。ただ、この問題についてのはっきりした答えはまだ誰も手にしていない。

Every single individual who sits with lowered eyes and sheds tears while sitting in my office possesses their own unique spirit, and is living their one unique life -- a fact in and of itself that explains the reason why we all get hurt and suffer.
 診察室でうつむく人、涙をこぼす人。みんな「自分だけの心」を持ち、「一度きりの人生」を生きているからこそ、傷ついて苦しむのだ。

This year, then, I would like to continue probing and agonizing together with all of you with respect to the following questions: What does it mean to be human? And just what is the human spirit?
「人って何だろう」「心って何だろう」。今年も迷い悩みながら、みなさんといっしょに考えていきたい。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)

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今日のイチオシDreamNews

DreamNews
今日のイチオシDreamNews

FORTUNA Tokyo、恋する乙女のバイブル「イタズラなKiss~THE MOVIE~」とタイアップ!2016年1月開催の香港ファッションウィークで新作とともに映画衣装を発表!! 株式会社Beat Communication

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2016年1月12日 (火)

中東と日本 傍観者でいられない

--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 10
EDITORIAL: Japan should not be passive bystander as tensions rise in Middle East
(社説)中東と日本 傍観者でいられない

Tensions are rising in the Middle East as Saudi Arabia and Iran are at loggerheads with each other.
 サウジアラビアとイランの対立で、中東情勢が緊迫の度を深めている。

By no means should Japan just be looking on at a time when the Middle East is standing at a doorway to further turbulence.
 中東がさらなる混迷の入り口に立っている時に、日本が傍観者でいていいはずがない。

During his New Year news conference, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe evoked the fact that Japan will assume the presidency at the Group of Seven summit this year and that Japan has become a nonpermanent member of the U.N. Security Council.
 安倍首相は年頭の会見で、日本がことし主要国首脳会議の議長国であることや、国連安全保障理事会の非常任理事国であることにふれ、こう強調した。

“(The year 2016) will be a year in which Japan’s diplomacy will lead the world,” Abe emphasized in that context. “I intend for Japan to lead the world by looking squarely at the future with a global perspective and laying out the most appropriate road map in order to foster peace and prosperity in the region and around the world.”
 「日本外交が世界を引っ張っていく1年となる」「地域や世界の平和と繁栄のために、グローバルな視点に立って将来を見据え、最も適切な道筋を示すことにより、世界をリードしていきたい」

We sincerely hope that those words will be fulfilled. And there is one thing we want Abe to do exactly for that reason.
 言葉通りであって欲しい、と切に願う。だからこそ、ここで首相に求めたいことがある。

We want him to make sure that Japan will exercise its diplomatic potential in averting a conflict between Saudi Arabia and Iran, just as it will respond to the recent nuclear test by North Korea.
 北朝鮮の核実験への対応と同様に、サウジとイランの紛争回避に向けても、日本外交の力を発揮してもらいたいのだ。

During last year’s Diet deliberations on the security legislation, Abe cited potential deployment of the Self-Defense Forces to minesweeping operations in the Strait of Hormuz as a concrete example of the ways Japan will be exercising its right to collective self-defense.
 昨年の安保法制をめぐる国会審議で首相は、ホルムズ海峡での機雷掃海への自衛隊派遣を集団的自衛権行使の具体例として挙げた。

But minesweeping operations will only become necessary after a conflict has erupted.
 だが機雷除去の必要が出てくるのは、あくまで紛争が起きてしまった後の話である。

Diplomatic efforts to prevent the breakout of a conflict are the most needed at present to face the crisis that is unfolding before our eyes.
 目の前の危機に立ち向かうため、いま何よりも求められるのは、紛争が起きる前に止める外交努力にほかならない。

Along with supporting the arbitration efforts by the United States, European nations and other parties, Japan should also work with the global community in trying to find out what could be done at this moment.
 日本も、米欧を中心とした仲介努力を支えるとともに、いま何ができるのか。知恵を絞って国際社会と協調したい。

Japan possesses a diplomatic asset, which allows it to hold a dialogue, under a certain level of mutual trust, with Saudi Arabia and other Arab states, Israel and Iran, despite the historically entangled relations between the three parties.
 歴史的に複雑な関係にある、サウジなどアラブ諸国やイスラエル、イランのいずれとも一定の信頼関係の下で対話ができることは、日本外交の資産だ。

Unlike the United States and European nations, Japan has so far applied the brakes on using force overseas. We could now make the most of the confidence in Japan, which has played an original role in nonmilitary, humanitarian aid that is intended to stabilize the livelihood of Middle Eastern people.
 米欧と異なるのは、日本がこれまで海外での武力行使に歯止めをかけてきたことだ。中東の人々の暮らしの安定をはかる非軍事の人道支援で独自の役割を果たしてきた日本への信頼を、ここで生かせないか。

We should not forget that participation of the SDF in logistical support operations for foreign troops, which will become feasible under the new security legislation, could rather undermine Japan’s moral high ground.
 留意すべきは、安保法制で可能になる他国軍の後方支援活動に自衛隊が加わることは、日本の強みをかえって失わせかねないことである。

Military strength and geographical distance matter in military action. But nonmilitary diplomacy of arbitration is feasible even without strong military power or in far-flung areas.
 軍事的な行動は、軍事力の大小や地理的な遠近が影響する。だが非軍事の仲介外交なら、強大な軍事力がなくても、距離が遠い地域でも力は発揮できる。

Seeking a way to avert a conflict in a peaceful manner on the basis of the diplomatic asset that Japan has accumulated over the postwar years would be the best way for Abe to live up to the promises of “diplomacy that takes a panoramic perspective of the globe” and “proactive pacifism”--both being the prime minister’s pet slogans--in the real sense of those terms.
 戦後日本が積み重ねてきた外交的資産のうえに、平和的な紛争回避の可能性を探る。
 それこそが真の意味での「地球儀を俯瞰(ふかん)する外交」「積極的平和主義」の名にふさわしい。

Seldom do we believe there is any easy approach to doing so. But that is the sort of diplomacy that Japan should be seeking as a pacifist nation.
 容易な道だとは思わない。ただ、平和国家日本のあるべき外交の姿はそこにある。

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2016年1月11日 (月)

北朝鮮核問題 問われる中国の行動

--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 9
EDITORIAL: China crucial to moves to rein in North Korea
(社説)北朝鮮核問題 問われる中国の行動

In response to Pyongyang’s fourth nuclear test, the U.N. Security Council will soon start discussions on a new resolution to impose additional sanctions on North Korea.
 北朝鮮による4度目の核実験を受け、国連安保理は新たな制裁決議に向けた論議を始める。

After North Korea’s third nuclear test three years ago, the Security Council issued a resolution warning that “further significant measures” will be taken if the country conducts another nuclear test.
 前回3年前の実験後の決議では、再び強行すれば、「さらなる重大な措置をとる」と警告していた。

There is a compelling case for stronger international actions to punish North Korea.
制裁強化は当然だ。

Members of the Security Council should unite and adopt a new resolution swiftly to make North Korea realize the serious consequences of its outrageous act.
 安保理が結束して早期に新決議を採択し、北朝鮮に暴挙の重大さを明示せねばならない。

However, it should be noted that the Security Council’s warnings and sanctions included in its past resolutions concerning North Korea’s nuclear and missile programs have been ineffective.
 ただ、これまで北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題では安保理決議を重ねてきたが、警告や制裁が効果的だったとはいえない。

The primary reason for this failure is a large hole in the international coalition to put pressure on North Korea. That hole is China, on which the secluded and isolated country has been heavily dependent both politically and economically.
 最大の要因は、包囲網に大きな「穴」があるからだ。北朝鮮が政治・経済の両面で最も頼りとする中国である。

Traditionally, the relationship between China and North Korea has been described as ties bound by a blood pledge because China fought for the North during the Korean War (1950-1953).
 中朝の間柄は、朝鮮戦争をともに戦った血盟関係とうたわれた。

During the Cold War era, China and North Korea confronted the United States together as members of the communist bloc.
同じ共産圏陣営として米国と対峙(たいじ)した時代もあった。

But China’s position in the world has changed since those days. It is now a leading power that has as much responsibility for international affairs as the United States and major European countries.
 だが、いまや中国の立ち位置は違う。米欧と並ぶ国際責任を担うべき大国である。

Beijing should now act in a way that does not allow North Korea to commit any more reckless acts that threaten global security.
世界の安全を脅かす北朝鮮の暴走をこれ以上、許してはなるまい。

In order to stop Pyongyang’s nuclear and missile programs from repeating and accelerating, China needs to take an action against its neighbor that represents a clear departure from its past pattern.
 核・ミサイル問題の連鎖を断つためには、中国が北朝鮮に対し、はっきりと過去にない行動を起こす必要がある。

For years, China has continued providing support to North Korea, even though it has often been annoyed by Pyongyang’s behavior.
 中国はこれまで、北朝鮮のふるまいを不快に思いつつも支援は続けてきた。

That is mainly because China is intent on preventing any situation that could lead to the collapse of North Korea, which could pose a serious threat to its own security.
自国の安全保障上、北朝鮮の崩壊につながりかねない事態を警戒するからだ。

Moreover, China’s three northeastern provinces near the border with North Korea have strong interdependent economic ties with the country. This makes it even more difficult for Beijing to impose effective sanctions against the North.
 加えて中朝国境近くの東北3省では北朝鮮との経済的な相互依存が深いため、中国も実効的な制裁が容易にできない。

A disorderly collapse of North Korea would also have dire consequences for other neighboring countries, including Japan and South Korea. One big worry is a possible large-scale refugee crisis.
 日本や韓国など周辺地域にとっても北朝鮮が無秩序に崩壊すれば、難民問題など重大な脅威にさらされる危うさがある。

Even so, if China continues to support North Korea, the regime of Kim Jong Un will keep making the same mistakes. China should take the initiative in ratcheting up pressure on the regime.
 だとしても結局、中国が北朝鮮の後ろ盾を演じているだけでは、金正恩(キムジョンウン)政権は過ちを繰り返すのみだろう。まず中国が圧力の水位を高めるべきだ。

At the same time, a fundamental solution to the North Korea problem requires active involvement by Washington.
 一方で北朝鮮問題の根本的な打開には、やはり米国の積極関与が欠かせない。

What North Korean leaders want the most is a fresh round of talks with the United States for a peace treaty.
北朝鮮指導部が最も望むのは、米国との平和協定をめざす協議だからだ。

U.S. President Barack Obama has been sticking to a policy of refusing to start serious talks with North Korea unless the country takes concrete and convincing actions toward abandoning its nuclear arms program.
 オバマ政権は、北朝鮮が核放棄へ具体的な行動をとらない限り、本格的な対話には臨まない方針を続けてきた。

But this policy has failed to work.
だが、その政策も功を奏さなかった。

The Obama administration may be responsible for the fact that it has allowed North Korea to conduct three nuclear tests during its tenure.
 オバマ政権のうち、北朝鮮に3度も核実験を許したという結果責任は、米国にもあろう。

The United States needs to work with Japan, South Korea, China and Russia to figure out a new strategy for dealing with North Korea under the leadership of Kim Jong Un.
 米国は、日韓中・ロシアと連携して、金正恩政権下の北朝鮮との新たな向き合い方を探る必要がある。

Starting dialogue with Pyongyang under the framework of the six-nation talks on its nuclear ambitions, for instance, would not necessarily mean making a concession to the country.
6者協議などの枠組みで対話をしても、それは必ずしも譲歩を意味しない。

All the countries concerned are facing tough challenges in dealing with North Korea, but have no choice but to start making serious efforts to work out ways of playing more active roles through a combination of a hard and a soft approach toward Pyongyang.
 北朝鮮をめぐり、関係国すべてが難しいかじとりを迫られるが、硬軟とりまぜた積極関与に向け知恵を絞るしかあるまい。

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2016年1月10日 (日)

DELL from U.S.A









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中国ロケット軍 米への挑戦示した核部隊強化

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s conspicuous nuclear unit build-up poses challenge to U.S.
中国ロケット軍 米への挑戦示した核部隊強化

The hard-line stance of China, which is trying to drive the United States out of the Asian order and establish its own hegemony, is becoming increasingly conspicuous.
 アジア秩序から米国を排除し、自らの覇権を確立しようとする中国の強硬姿勢が、一段と鮮明になってきた。

Chinese President Xi Jinping’s government announced that an airfield has been completed on one of its artificial islands in the South China Sea and that a “civilian plane” test-landed there.
 習近平政権は、南シナ海の人工島の一つに飛行場が完成し、「民間機」による試験飛行を実施したと発表した。

China is apparently trying to make its effective control of the South China Sea a fait accompli while covering up its true intention of turning the artificial islands into military strongholds.
 軍事拠点化の意図を糊塗ことしながら、南シナ海の実効支配を既成事実化する目論見があるのだろう。

After the first test, Beijing ignored criticism from the international community and repeated test operations of the airstrip. This defiant attitude could increase tensions in the region and cannot be tolerated.
その後も、国際社会の批判を顧みず、滑走路の運用テストを重ねている。地域の緊張を高める挑戦であり、容認できない。

It is essential to restrict China’s actions constantly through continued navigation by U.S. naval vessels around the artificial islands in the South China Sea and other means. Japan and the United States must enhance their partnerships with relevant countries, including India, Australia and Southeast Asian nations, to deal with the situation.
 米国が南シナ海の人工島周辺で艦艇航行を続けるなど、中国の行動への牽制けんせいを欠かさないことが肝要である。日米は、インドや豪州、東南アジアなどの関係国と連携を深め、対処せねばならない。

Efforts by Xi’s government to make China a “maritime power” and acceleration of its “strong army policy” are sources of concern.
 深刻なのは、「海洋強国」の実現を目指す習政権が「強軍路線」を加速させていることだ。

China recently disclosed that it is building its second aircraft carrier — the first to be built entirely with domestic technology. Beijing already possesses one aircraft carrier but its hull was built in Ukraine and the ship was refitted in China.
 最近は2隻目の空母を建造していると明らかにした。現在、ウクライナで建造中だった船体を購入し、改修した空母を保有しているが、国産空母は初めてだ。

China’s alleged aim of forming three carrier fighting groups by 2020 is becoming more and more likely.
 2020年までの3個空母戦闘群の編成が目標だとされる。それが現実味を帯びてきた。

Military modernization

The organizational reform of Chinese forces, to develop the capability to react quickly for modern warfare, is also becoming concrete.
 現代戦への即応態勢を整える軍の機構改革も具体化し始めた。

China upgraded its Second Artillery Corps to a “Rocket Force,” apparently aiming to enhance the nation’s nuclear capability and its joint operations with ground, sea and air forces.
 第2砲兵(戦略ミサイル部隊)の「ロケット軍」への格上げは、核戦力を増強し、陸海空軍との統合運用を強化する目的だろう。

Moreover, a “strategic support force” believed to be in charge of cyber-attacks and military use of space has also been created. This makes clear Beijing’s intention to vie with the United States.
 サイバー攻撃や宇宙空間の軍事利用を担うとみられる「戦略支援部隊」も新設した。米国に対抗する思惑を明確に示したものだ。

Xi’s administration is proceeding in a full-fledged manner with the “One Belt, One Road” initiative, which aims to build a huge economic bloc. It reportedly plans to connect Asia and Europe with land-based and oceanic “Silk Roads” and develop infrastructure such as roads and ports in countries located along them.
 習政権は巨大経済圏構想「一帯一路」を本格的に推進する。アジアと欧州を陸と海のシルクロードで結び、沿線国の道路や港湾などのインフラを整備するという。

The initiative apparently not only aims to expand Beijing’s economic influence in connection with the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. It also must be noted that the initiative is the other side of a military strategy akin to a “string of pearls” that aims to build a network of strongholds for the Chinese Navy when it operates across open oceans.
 その狙いは、中国主導のアジアインフラ投資銀行(AIIB)と連動した経済的影響力の拡大だけではあるまい。中国海軍の外洋展開の拠点網「真珠の首飾り」の構築など、軍事面と表裏一体の関係にあることに警戒が必要だ。

It is also increasingly of concern that the dogmatic stance of Xi’s government might cause tense relations with Taiwan.
 習政権の独善的な姿勢が台湾との関係でも緊張を招かないか、との懸念も強まっている。

In Taiwan, a survey regarding its presidential election scheduled for Jan. 16 shows that a candidate from the Democratic Progressive Party, the independence-oriented largest opposition party, has a wide lead over her rival of the ruling Kuomintang (KMT), which has been taking a conciliatory approach toward Beijing. A change of government is likely to happen there for the first time in eight years.
 今月16日の台湾総統選では、「独立」志向の最大野党・民進党の候補が、対中融和を進めてきた与党・国民党の候補に、世論調査で大差をつけている。8年ぶりの政権交代の可能性が大きい。

If the DPP takes office, China should seek dialogue with the new government instead of heading for a collision. This is the responsibility of a major power that has a strong influence on the stability of the Taiwan Strait.
 民進党政権が誕生しても、対立に舵かじを切るのではなく、対話を模索することが、台湾海峡の安定に関わる大国の責任ではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 9, 2016)

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2016年1月 9日 (土)

サウジVSイラン 断交は中東の混迷深めないか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Middle East troubles deepen as rift between Saudi Arabia, Iran grows
サウジVSイラン 断交は中東の混迷深めないか

The action poured cold water on the efforts of the international community to end the Syrian civil war.
 シリア内戦終結を目指す国際社会の努力に水を差す行為と言えよう。

Saudi Arabia, leader of the Sunni Muslim world, broke off diplomatic relations with Iran, a major Shiite power. Bahrain and Sudan followed Saudi Arabia in severing diplomatic ties with Iran, and Kuwait and other countries recalled their ambassadors from Tehran.
 イスラム教スンニ派の盟主サウジアラビアが、シーア派大国イランとの国交を断絶した。バーレーンやスーダンはサウジに追随してイランと断交し、クウェートなども駐イラン大使を召還した。

The Yemeni civil war also has been turned into a proxy war between the administration of Sunni President Abed-Rabbo Mansour Hadi, which is backed by Saudi Arabia, and pro-Iranian Shiite armed forces. Iran lambasted Saudi Arabia, saying its embassy in Yemen had suffered damage in Saudi airstrikes.
 イエメン内戦も、サウジが支援するスンニ派のハディ政権と、親イランのシーア派武装勢力の代理戦争と化している。イランは、在イエメン大使館がサウジ軍の空爆で被害を受けた、と非難した。

If hostility deepens between Saudi Arabia and Iran, both of which are major oil-producing countries in the world, it is feared that their deteriorating relationship could influence the crude oil market and global economy. Both countries must restrain themselves and swiftly attempt to calm the situation.
 世界有数の産油国であるサウジとイランの確執が深まれば、原油市場や世界経済への影響も懸念される。両国は自制し、沈静化を急がねばならない。

Peace negotiations aimed at bringing about a ceasefire and transfer of power in Syria are expected to be held in late January. A situation should be avoided in which Iran, which supports the administration of Syrian President Bashar Assad, and Saudi Arabia, which demands Assad’s resignation, intensify their invective, with the result that the negotiations merely spin around in circles.
 今月下旬には、シリアの停戦と政権移行に向けた和平協議が予定される。アサド政権を支援するイランと、「アサド退陣」を求めるサウジが反目を強め、協議を空転させてはならない。

The deepening of the Sunni-Shiite sectarian conflict is causing further disarray in the Middle East. This is a serious situation.
 スンニ派とシーア派の宗派対立の拡大は、中東の一層の混迷につながる。憂慮すべき事態だ。

If the Syrian civil war is prolonged, the sweeping operation to eliminate the Sunni extremist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) will be delayed and the outflow of refugees to Europe will continue.
 シリア内戦が長引けば、スンニ派の過激派組織「イスラム国」の掃討が滞り、欧州への難民流出にも歯止めがかからなくなる。

Execution of cleric

Saudi Arabia cut its diplomatic relations with Iran because the Saudi Embassy in Tehran was attacked by rioting Iranians.
 サウジが断交した理由は、テヘランのサウジ大使館がイラン人暴徒に襲撃されたことである。

Ensuring the safety of foreign diplomatic missions is an obligation under international law. Iran’s security system, which could be regarded as conniving at the rioters’ intrusion into the embassy’s premises, is problematic.
 外国公館の安全確保は国際条約で義務付けられている。侵入を黙認したとも見なされるイランの警備体制には問題があろう。

However, the conflict was triggered by Saudi Arabia’s execution of a noted Shiite cleric for leading demonstrations criticizing the Saudi royal family.
 だが、対立の発端は、王家を批判するデモを主導したとして、著名なシーア派指導者をサウジが処刑したことにある。

Iran called for the cleric to be pardoned by Saudi Arabia and the United States also opposed the execution on humanitarian grounds, as it feared the situation would be aggravated. Saudi Arabia bears very heavy responsibility for executing the cleric in spite of these moves.
 イランは指導者の赦免を要求し、米国も人権問題や事態悪化の懸念から処刑に反対していた。それにもかかわらず、死刑を執行したサウジの責任も重い。

Saudi King Salman does not follow the traditional moderate line of the royal family but instead aggressively intervenes in conflicts. Behind this may be distrust toward the United States’ Middle East strategy, as the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama shifts its focus toward improving relations with Iran and downgrading the U.S.-Saudi relationship.
 サウジのサルマン国王は、王家の伝統的な穏健路線を踏襲せず、紛争への積極的な介入が目立つ。オバマ米大統領が中東戦略の軸足をイランとの関係改善に移し、米・サウジ同盟を軽視しているとの不信感が背景にあるのだろう。

Lifting of sanctions against Iran by the United States and European countries, based on the nuclear agreement, is expected to start as early as this month. Saudi Arabia’s hard-line policy is the result of urgent concern that if Iran resumes exporting crude oil, the current low oil prices could sink further and the deterioration of Saudi Arabia’s fiscal condition would accelerate.
 核合意に基づく米欧のイラン制裁解除は、今月にも始まる見込みだ。イランが原油輸出を再開すれば、原油安が一段と進み、サウジの財政悪化が加速するとの危機感も強硬策を後押ししている。

The United States, which plays a role in maintaining stability in the Middle East, can only exert a limited influence on Saudi Arabia and Iran. Under the circumstances, will Russia, which is prepared to act as an intermediary in the Saudi-Iran conflict, be the only player to boost its presence in the region?
 中東の安定維持を担う米国がサウジとイランに限定的な影響力しか持てなくなっている。このまま、仲介の意向を示したロシアの存在感が高まるだけなのか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 8, 2016)

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2016年1月 8日 (金)

優れた日本のアニメ、ゲーム、マンガを世界に発信する、多言語の時代到来です

これは驚きました。
最近のニュースでは一番驚かされました。
アベノミクスの一億総活躍社会構想ともマッチします。
株式会社AWESOME JAPAN(代表:金野 太一) のはなしです。

英語のAWESOME(オーサム)という意味は二つあります。畏敬(いけい)の念を起こさせる、という意味がひとつです。米語では、すばらしいとか最高とかいう意味で、よく使われる単語です。株式会社AWESOME JAPANで使われているAWESOMEの意味は、米語式だということができます。

AWESOME JAPANでは、ただいま、日本のアニメ、ゲーム、マンガを世界に向けて一緒に発信してくれる人材を求めています。
文化を世界に向けて発信するのに一番大切なのが言語です。
日本語のままでは世界に通用しないからです。
そこで多言語翻訳ということになります。
英語が主体ですが、そのうちに、世界中の言語に翻訳して、日本の貴重な文化を世界に伝えることになります。

AWESOME JAPANの尊い理念に感動させられました。
理念は大別して二種類に分けられます。
ひとつめが、多言語翻訳などを通じて、日本のコンテンツを正しく海外市場へ流通させすることです。それで日本文化が見直されます。
ふたつめには感動すら覚えました。
ふたつめは、子供たちに夢を与えるという貴い理念です。



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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北朝鮮核実験 脅威の深刻化に迅速対応せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Intl community must address N. Korea nuclear threat swiftly / Regime’s unpredictable moves fuel instability
北朝鮮核実験 脅威の深刻化に迅速対応せよ

◆包囲網強化へ国際社会は結束を◆

The nuclear threat posed by North Korea has entered a new stage. The international community must unite and take all possible steps to maintain the peace and stability in Asia.
 北朝鮮の核の脅威が新たな段階に入った。アジアの平和と安定の維持へ国際社会は結束し、手段を尽くすべきだ。

North Korea has conducted its fourth nuclear test. Via a news broadcast on Korean Central Television, Pyongyang announced that it had successfully tested “its first hydrogen bomb.” It also said that with the success, the country had “joined the advanced ranks of nuclear weapons states that possess even hydrogen bombs.”
 北朝鮮が4回目の核実験を強行した。朝鮮中央テレビを通じて、「最初の水爆実験」に成功し、「水爆まで持つ核保有国の前列に立った」と発表した。

It was the second nuclear test conducted by the regime under its current leader, Kim Jong Un, following the one carried out in 2013.
 金正恩政権では、2013年に続く2回目の核実験だ。

In May, the country is scheduled to hold a Congress of the Workers’ Party of Korea for the first time in 36 years. Kim, the first secretary of the party, may have intended to demonstrate his clout both at home and abroad by achieving the possession of a “hydrogen bomb.”
 今年5月には36年ぶりの朝鮮労働党大会の開催を予定している。金第1書記は、「水爆」保有という実績を作り、国内外に威信を誇示したつもりなのか。

Outrageous act
 ◆アジア安定損なう暴挙

We can never tolerate such an outrageous act by North Korea, which violates a number of resolutions by the U.N. Security Council that impose sanctions and call for the country to refrain from conducting nuclear tests and to abandon its nuclear ambitions.
 核実験の自制や核放棄を求める国連安全保障理事会の数々の制裁決議に違反する暴挙は、断じて容認することができない。

As the seismic energy observed following the test was smaller than that observed in the previous test, most experts are skeptical that the latest test was of a hydrogen bomb. Some experts have said that it may have been a test of a “boosted fission bomb.” To begin with, it is uncertain whether the test was successful or not.
 観測された地震のエネルギーが前回より小さいことなどから、専門家の間では、水爆実験に否定的な見方が強い。「ブースト型(強化型)原爆」ではないか、との指摘も出ている。そもそも実験が成功したかどうかも不明だ。

Even so, it is worrisome that a series of nuclear tests makes it more likely that the country will be able to develop smaller and more powerful nuclear weapons.
 懸念されるのは、核実験を重ねることで、核兵器の小型化や高性能化が進むことだ。

North Korea is said to have deployed a large number of Rodong ballistic missiles that can reach Japan. Should North Korea become able to mount nuclear warheads on such missiles, Japan’s security environment will dramatically deteriorate.
 北朝鮮は、日本を射程に収める弾道ミサイル・ノドンを大量に実戦配備しているとされる。核弾頭の搭載が可能になれば、日本の安全保障環境は劇的に悪化する。

It is only reasonable for Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to have said that the latest nuclear test is a “serious threat to the security of our nation,” adding, “I strongly condemn this.”
 安倍首相が「わが国の安全に対する重大な脅威で、強く非難する」と表明したのは当然である。

The Kim regime has been trying to improve the country’s relations with China recently.
 金政権は最近、中国との関係改善を図っていた。

Liu Yunshan, a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, who ranks fifth in the party hierarchy, took part in a commemorative event held in October to mark the 70th anniversary of North Korea’s Workers’ Party. Liu urged North Korea to refrain from conducting such acts as a nuclear test.
昨年10月の朝鮮労働党創建70年記念行事には、中国共産党序列5位の劉雲山政治局常務委員が参列し、核実験などの自制を働きかけた。

Kim hinted in December that his country “possesses a hydrogen bomb.” But he made no reference to “nuclear” in his New Year’s address.
 金第1書記は昨年12月に「水爆保有」を示唆したが、年頭演説では「核」に言及しなかった。

As North Korea did not give advance notice either to China or to the United States this time and there were hardly any indications that such a test was imminent, the latest test was a complete surprise. Making any rational predictions regarding the Kim regime has become ever more difficult.
 今回の核実験は、米中への事前の通告がなかったうえ、兆候もほとんど確認できず、寝耳に水だった。金政権に関する合理的予測が一層難しくなったと言えよう。

Pass resolution
 ◆日米は制裁決議に動け

North Korea’s latest move may be an indication that Kim, who is trying to maintain his clout with a “reign of terror” by purging senior members of the ruling party one after another, is increasingly acting arbitrarily on his own authority.
 幹部を相次いで粛清する「恐怖政治」で権力維持を図る金第1書記が、独断専行に拍車をかけていることが一因ではないか。

The latest statement asserted that North Korea would not suspend or abandon its development of nuclear weapons “unless the United States has rolled back its hostile policy toward [North Korea].” Some perceive the latest nuclear test as having been aimed at resuming dialogue with the United States.
 北朝鮮は声明で「米国の敵視政策が根絶されない限り、核開発の中断や放棄はない」と主張した。核実験は、米国との対話の再開を目指したものとの観測もある。

In October, however, U.S. President Barack Obama clearly stated that his administration would respond to North Korean nuclear testing with reinforced sanctions. North Korea’s latest move will only serve to internationally isolate the country even further.
 だが、オバマ米大統領は昨年10月、核実験には制裁強化で応える方針を明確にしている。北朝鮮は国際的孤立を深めるだけだ。

The U.N. Security Council is set to convene an emergency session and discuss how to deal with the latest nuclear test. It is important to adopt a resolution to effectively strengthen sanctions on North Korea as soon as possible, thereby clarifying the council’s resolve to press the country to abandon its nuclear weapons program.
 国連安保理は緊急会合で、核実験への対応を協議する。実効性ある制裁強化の決議を早期に採択し、北朝鮮に核放棄を迫る意思を明確に打ち出すことが重要だ。

The latest provocation comes as Japan regained a nonpermanent seat on the security council this month. Japan should join hands with the United States and other pertinent countries to become proactively involved in adopting a sanctions resolution against North Korea.
 日本は今月、安保理の非常任理事国に復帰したばかりだ。米国などと連携し、制裁決議の採択に積極的に関与するべきだ。

The government has convened a meeting of four relevant Cabinet members of the National Security Council. They have analyzed information about North Korea’s action and discussed ways to deal with the situation. The government is considering the idea of reinstating some of the sanctions it lifted in July 2014, including one aimed at basically banning North Koreans from entering Japan.
 政府は国家安全保障会議(NSC)の4大臣会合を開いて、情報を分析し、今後の対応を協議した。14年7月に解除した北朝鮮籍者の入国の原則禁止など、一部の制裁の復活を検討している。

North Korea has also continued to put off reporting to Japan the results of its renewed investigation into the fate of Japanese nationals abducted by that country. We believe the government must take stern action against North Korea.
 北朝鮮は、日本人拉致被害者の再調査の報告についても先送りし続けている。政府は、厳しい措置を取らねばなるまい。

It is important for the government to persistently seek action from North Korea while adhering to the fundamental principle regarding efforts to comprehensively resolve issues related to that nation, including the abduction problem and its nuclear weapons and missiles programs.
 拉致と核・ミサイル問題を包括的に解決する基本方針を堅持しながら、粘り強く働きかけを続ける必要がある。

It is also important to increase cooperative ties between the Self-Defense Forces and U.S. forces, based on the Japan-U.S. alliance. The security-related laws established in autumn last year have made it possible for our nation to take such measures as defending U.S. vessels engaged in keeping guard against any attempt to launch a ballistic missile. Efforts should be made to expand joint Japan-U.S. vigilance and surveillance activities in areas surrounding Japan, thereby increasing deterrence.
 日米同盟に基づく自衛隊と米軍の連携を強化することも大切だ。昨秋成立した安全保障関連法で、弾道ミサイル発射を警戒中の米艦の防護などが可能になった。日本周辺での日米共同の警戒監視活動を拡充し、抑止力を高めたい。

It is also indispensable to facilitate close cooperation with South Korea. South Korean President Park Geun-hye has emphasized the importance of forcing North Korea to “pay the right price” for its latest provocation.
 韓国との緊密な協調も欠かせない。朴槿恵大統領は、北朝鮮に「相当する対価を払わせなければならない」と力説した。

China pressure vital
 ◆中国の「圧力」がカギだ

Late last year, the Japanese and South Korean governments reached a deal on the issue of so-called comfort women. The momentum generated for improving Japan-South Korea relations should be efficiently used to deepen bilateral cooperation.
 日韓両政府は昨年末、慰安婦問題で合意した。関係改善の機運を生かし、協力を深めるべきだ。

The key to dealing with North Korea from the standpoint of increased pressure on that country is China.
 北朝鮮への圧力を強める観点でカギとなるのは、中国である。

The Chinese Foreign Ministry has expressed “resolute opposition” to North Korea’s nuclear test, urging Pyongyang to honor its pledge of denuclearization.
 中国外務省は核実験に「断固とした反対」を表明し、北朝鮮に非核化の約束を守るよう促した。

China was previously hesitant to impose tough sanctions that could destabilize the North Korean regime, despite championing efforts to make the Korean Peninsula nuclear-free. There is no doubt that China’s lenient stance has allowed North Korea to develop nuclear weapons.
 中国は従来、「朝鮮半島の非核化」を掲げながらも、北朝鮮の体制の不安定化につながるような厳しい制裁には及び腰だった。その甘い姿勢が北朝鮮の核開発を許してきたのは間違いない。

North Korea relies on China for most of its petroleum. North Koreans cannot live without commodities from China.
 北朝鮮は、石油の大半を中国に依存する。国民生活も中国からの物資なしには成り立たない。

This is at last the time when the administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping, which can make or break North Korea, must go all out to exert pressure on Pyongyang, thereby forcing North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons.
 北朝鮮の命脈を握る習近平政権は、今度こそ、核放棄への圧力に本腰を入れなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 7, 2016)

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2016年1月 7日 (木)

この冬、家族のお楽しみは動物園、水族園めぐりです

東京ズーネット は東京動物園協会が管理運営する、東京近郊の動物園と水族園のHPです。
新年は申年(さるどし)ですが、2016年の1月7日から3月6日までの期間に限り、「Visit ほっと Zoo 2016」というイベントが開催されます。
イベント会場が4カ所もあるので、どれにしようか迷うほどですが、出来るだけ子供たちが喜びそうなところを選びたいものです。
ひとつのイベント会場だけではなくて、2か所、3か所、あるいは全部の4カ所訪問なんていうプランも素敵ですね。
冬場の動物園では、冬場だけにしか見られないような、とってもほっとな動物たちの素顔に接することもできます。
葛西臨海水族園では南極のペンギンたちを見ることができますが、こちらは、冬ならではの素顔が見られそうですね。
ペンギンはなんといっても極寒の南極生まれですから。
Visit ほっと Zoo 2016特設ページ に、冬場の動物園と水族園の楽しみ方が満載です。
お子様連れで訪れるのも良いですし、恋人同士がデートをする場所としても、理想的な環境です。










ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ  レビューブログからの情報です

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サウジとイラン 中東安定に向け和解を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 6
EDITORIAL: Saudi Arabia-Iran reconciliation needed to prevent further Mideast turmoil
(社説)サウジとイラン 中東安定に向け和解を

This year also began with chaos in the Middle East dominating international news. Conflict is deepening between Saudi Arabia and Iran, the two major players in the region.
 ことしも国際ニュースの幕開けは中東の混迷だった。地域大国のサウジアラビアとイランが対立を深めている。

With war and unrest continuing in various parts of the Middle East, these nations ought to be living up to their heavy responsibilities. Their commitment and collaboration are especially indispensable to breaking the deadlock in the situations in Syria and Iraq.
 中東各地で紛争や混乱が続くなか、両国が本来果たすべき責任は重い。とりわけシリアとイラクの情勢打開には、両国の関与と協調が不可欠である。

Saudi Arabia and Iran should be exploring means of compromise now. Further escalation of conflict will seriously affect Mideast peace, refugee and anti-terrorism policies, the crude oil market and all other issues of global concern. The international community must hasten to mediate and urge the two countries to meet halfway, with the United States in the lead.
 ここは歩み寄りの道を探るときである。争いが激化すれば、中東和平、テロや難民対策、原油市場など、あらゆる国際問題に深刻な打撃を与える。国際社会は、米国を筆頭に積極的な仲介と調整を急ぐべきだ。

Saudi Arabia and Iran have a long history of enmity. The former considers itself the leader of the Islamic majority Sunnis, while the latter is the leading nation representing the minority Shias.
 サウジとイランの反目の歴史は長い。サウジはイスラム教の多数派スンニ派の盟主を自認する一方、イランは少数派シーア派を代表する大国である。

The current feud was triggered by Saudi Arabia’s execution of a Shiite cleric for staging a street demonstration. In Tehran, a mob attacked the Saudi Embassy and set it on fire. Riyadh cut diplomatic relations with Tehran, and Bahrain and Sudan followed suit.
 今回の発端は、街頭デモを主導した罪でサウジがシーア派指導者を死刑にしたことだ。イラン国内で怒った群衆が、サウジ公館を壊し、放火などをした。サウジは断交を宣言し、バーレーンやスーダンも同調した。

Even before this latest falling-out, Saudi Arabia and Iran were sworn rivals vying for regional supremacy. And the Iraq War became a turning point. After the war, the Iraqi regime switched from Sunni to Shiite and Iran’s influence in the region grew dramatically, much to Saudi Arabia’s alarm.
 もともとサウジとイランは、地域の覇権をめぐってあつれきを強めてきた。その節目はやはりイラク戦争だった。イラクの政権がスンニ派からシーア派に移って以降、イランの影響力が大きく伸び、サウジの警戒心は増大した。

The civil wars in Syria and Yemen have an element of surrogate wars between Saudi Arabia and Iran, both of whom are continuing to back their respective “friends” in various parts of the Middle East. The Sunni-Shia religious feud has now become one of the biggest risks for the region.
 シリアとイエメンの内戦は、両国の代理戦争の側面があるほか、中東各地でそれぞれが自国に近い勢力に肩入れを続けている。スンニ派とシーア派の宗派対立はいまや、中東を覆う最大リスクの一つとなっている。

Should the current conflict spill into Iraq and Bahrain where tensions already run high between the feuding sects, the entire Middle East will become destabilized. And Saudi Arabia itself would have to worry about its internal stability, since 15 percent of its population are Shias.
 今回の対立が、国内で両派が緊張関係にあるイラクやバーレーンなどに波及すれば、中東全体が動揺する。約15%のシーア派人口を抱えるサウジ自身の国内の安定への懸念も拭えない。

These problems began to emerge with the waning of America’s influence in the region. Saudi Arabia used to boast close relations with the United States, but the latter’s increased dialogue with Iran in recent years and the conclusion of a nuclear deal have added to Riyadh’s growing dissatisfaction and frustration with Washington.
 そもそも、こうした問題があらわになった背景には、中東での米国の影響力の衰えがある。かねて米国との緊密な関係を誇っていたサウジは、米国が近年イランと対話を進め、核開発をめぐる合意を結んだことで、いっそうの焦りと不満を募らせていた。

Given this background, the United States bears no small responsibility. The same could be said of the Jewish state of Israel, which is increasingly mistrustful of Iran. It is definitely the job of the United States to take the lead in urging Saudi Arabia and Israel to practice restraint.
 そうした経緯からも、米国の責任は重いというべきだ。イランへの警戒心を強めているのはユダヤ国家のイスラエルも同じである。サウジやイスラエルに自制を求め説得するのは、依然米国が率先すべき仕事だ。

Russia has offered to mediate. But right now, the entire international community should stand together and deal with the situation as one. The United States, Russia and European nations need to discuss concerted action at the United Nations Security Council. And the rest of the international community, including Japan, should support such efforts.
 ロシアが仲介の意向を示してはいるが、ここは国際社会が一致して対処する態勢を固めるべきだ。米欧とロシアは国連安保理などで協調行動を論議すべきだろう。そうした作業を、日本を含む国際社会も支えたい。

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2016年1月 6日 (水)

通常国会開幕 「戦後の岐路」問う論戦を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 5
EDITORIAL: Lawmakers can't be allowed to obscure issues on Japan’s future course
(社説)通常国会開幕 「戦後の岐路」問う論戦を

This year’s ordinary Diet session convened on Jan. 4, immediately after the traditional three New Year holidays, an unusually early start of the national legislature’s work.
 通常国会がきのう開幕した。三が日が明けて早々、異例に早い召集となった。

This is an extremely important Diet session.
 極めて重要な国会である。

The administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe wants to initiate an amendment to the Constitution after the Upper House election slated for this summer.
 夏に参院選がある。安倍政権はその後、憲法改正の国会発議を視野に入れている。

The unusually early summoning of the Diet is a move to push ahead with a constitutional amendment.
 異例の早期召集は、そのための布石でもある。

The early beginning of the regular Diet session also makes it possible to hold simultaneous elections for both houses.
この時期の召集なら、衆参同日選も可能だ。

Although it is unclear if Abe will actually adopt this electoral tactic, simply having this option makes it easier for the ruling camp to create a division within the opposition bloc.
実際に踏み切るかはさておき、同日選の選択肢を手にするだけで野党を分断しやすくなる。

The ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party and its junior partner, Komeito, already controls more than a two-thirds majority in the Lower House. The Abe administration is aiming to secure a two-thirds majority also in the Upper House to rewrite the Constitution. Such a presence in both chambers is needed to initiate any constitutional amendment process.
 衆院は自公両党で発議に必要な総議員の3分の2以上の勢力をもつが、参院でも3分の2の「改憲勢力」を確保したい。それが政権の狙いだ。

ABE CHANGES STANCE AFTER ELECTIONS
 ■選挙前後の使い分け

At the Upper House election, Japanese voters will have to decide on whether to give Abe a clear and lopsided mandate to pursue his political agenda. The election could shape up as a major turning point for postwar Japan.
 「安倍1強政治」を加速させるか、転換させるか。夏の参院選は、戦後日本の大きな分岐点になる可能性がある。

This Diet session will offer an important opportunity for the public to think about the nation’s future course before the Upper House election. We urge both the ruling and opposition camps to hold in-depth debates on key policy issues to give the voting public a well-founded basis for their decisions at the polls.
 この国会は、国民にとって、参院選を前に日本の針路を考える重要な機会となる。判断材料となるような、深みのある論戦を与野党双方に求める。

In his New Year news conference on Jan. 4, Abe said he wants to start tackling “new challenges for building a new future for the nation” in 2016, stressing his policy efforts to create “a society where 100 million people will play active roles,” his vision for Japan’s future.
 「新しい国づくりへの新しい挑戦を始める年にしたい」
 安倍首相はきのうの年頭会見で抱負を語り、1億総活躍社会づくりなどを強調した。

But we cannot take these words at face value. The Abe administration has a history of emphasizing economic issues before elections and then forcing through its favorite policy initiatives by using the power of numbers after winning the polls. The administration has often used this political ploy on the strength won through an election.
 だが、額面通りには受け取れない。選挙前は経済最優先と言いながら、選挙に勝てば、自らこだわる政策を数の力で押し通す――。選挙至上主義とも言えるそうした政治手法が、安倍政権では際立つからだ。

This was the case after the 2013 Upper House election, when the administration successfully sought the enactment of the state secrets protection law, and also after the 2014 Lower House election, when it pursued, again successfully, the passage of new national security legislation.
 2013年の参院選後の特定秘密保護法のときも、14年の総選挙後の安保法制のときも、そうだった。

Lawmakers of both the ruling and opposition camps now believe that Abe’s next political goal is a constitutional revision.
次は憲法改正を持ち出すだろう、というのが与野党一致した見方である。

In a late November meeting of a group of conservative politicians he himself leads, Abe made the following remark: “We need to recall the original political goal adopted (by the LDP) at its foundation, which was to change the various systems created during the period of occupation (of Japan by the Allied Powers), including amending the Constitution.”
 昨年11月末、安倍首相は自ら率いる右派系議員の会合で、こう述べている。
 「憲法改正をはじめ、占領時代に作られた様々な仕組みを変えていこうという(自民党の)立党の原点を呼び起こさなければならない」

If the ruling coalition wins in simultaneous elections for both Diet houses, the administration will have three years to pursue its policy agenda without having to face any national poll. Even if Abe does not opt to dissolve the Lower House for simultaneous elections, a victory in the upper chamber will give the coalition more than two election-free years.
 仮に参院選で与党が勝てば、同日選なら3年間、参院選単独でも2年以上、大きな国政選挙に臨まなくても済む「時間」を手にすることになる。

That will create a political environment that allows the Abe administration to make even bolder political moves than those it has already taken, including initiating a constitutional amendment.
 改憲の発議を含め、これまで以上に思い切った手を打てる環境が整う。

BLOCK ATTEMPTS TO OBSCURE REAL ISSUES
 ■争点隠しを許さない

The Abe administration has shown a clear tendency to change its policy narrative after elections in various areas, including the economy.
 「選挙前」と「選挙後」を使い分ける政権のやり方は、これにとどまらない。
 一つは、経済だ。

One typical approach used by the administration involves talking only about “benefits” for voters before elections, delaying any reference to a painful increase in the burden on taxpayers until after the polls.
 有権者受けする「給付」を先行させる一方、痛みを伴う「負担増」は選挙後に先送り。そんな手法が目立つ。

The draft supplementary budget for the current fiscal year, for instance, contains 330 billion yen ($2.77 billion) of spending to pay 30,000 yen each to old people with small pension pots.
 今年度補正予算案には、年金額が少ない高齢者に1人あたり3万円、総額3300億円を配ることを盛り込んだ。

This spending will put a heavy financial burden on future generations while its beneficiaries include many people with ample assets.
低年金者には資産を多く持つ人もいるのに、巨額の給付のツケが将来世代に回される。

As for the proposed food exemptions from the scheduled consumption tax rate hike in April 2017, the administration has postponed its decision on how to finance the 1 trillion yen needed for the measure.
 17年度から導入する消費税の軽減税率も、1兆円もの税収減の財源探しを先送りした。

The administration has also shown a habit of changing its political tune in the area of national security.
 もう一つは、安全保障だ。

Although the security legislation that passed the Diet last year is slated to come into force in March, the administration has decided to put off, until after the Upper House election, the addition of one important task to the list of new missions the Self-Defense Forces is expected to perform in United Nations peacekeeping operations under the laws.
The task is to rescue foreign forces or other organizations that have come under attack in areas away from the zone where the SDF is engaged in PKO activities.
 安保法制が3月に施行されるが、政権は国連平和維持活動(PKO)に派遣する自衛隊への「駆けつけ警護」任務の追加を参院選後に先送りする。

The administration has also postponed submitting a bill to the Diet that would revise Japan’s Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) with the United States to expand the scope of the SDF’s logistic support for U.S. forces. The revision would allow the SDF to provide ammunition to U.S. forces, for example.
 米軍への弾薬提供など、後方支援を広げる日米物品役務相互提供協定(ACSA)改定案の国会提出も先送りだ。

Public opinion is sharply and equally divided over the security legislation. The administration apparently wants to avoid stirring up fresh public opposition to the legislation before the vital election.
 安保法制に対する世論は二分されている。重要な選挙を前にして、反発を再燃させたくないという判断だろう。

The opposition parties have the heavy responsibility to prevent the ruling camp from obscuring key policy issues during the last Diet session before the election and ensure in-depth discussions on these topics.
 選挙前の最後の論戦となる国会で、与党の「争点隠し」とも言える動きをどう覆し、議論を深めていくか。
 野党の責任は重い。

OPPOSITION PARTIES SHOULD SEEK BROAD COOPERATION
 ■幅広い国民と連帯を

What kind of role should the opposition parties perform to counter the Abe administration’s dominant power?
 「安倍1強政治」に対抗するために、野党がいま、果たすべき役割は何か。

First and foremost, they should offer a realistic alternative to Abe’s government through effective maneuverings at the Diet, electoral cooperation and joint policymaking.
 まず国会対応や選挙協力、政策づくりを通じて、1強に代わりうる「もう一つの選択肢」を国民に示すことだ。

Calls for repealing the security legislation, which is strongly suspected to be unconstitutional, and protecting constitutionalism, which the Abe administration has failed to respect, can galvanize opposition parties into joining forces against the powerful ruling coalition.
 違憲の疑いが濃い安保法制を白紙に戻す。安倍政権が軽視する立憲主義を守る。それが結集軸になるはずだ。

As long as the opposition camp remains fragmented, there will be no political force that can effectively represent people concerned about the direction in which the government is trying to lead the nation.
 野党がバラバラなままでは、今の政治に危惧を抱く民意は行き場を見いだせない。

More than anything else, opposition parties need to seek cooperation with a broad spectrum of people by responding sympathetically to their wishes and concerns.
 そして何より、幅広い国民の思いや不安と共感しながら、連帯をはかることである。

Last year, the government’s initiative to enact the security legislation provoked various civil actions against the move, including demonstrations in front of the Diet building.
 昨年、安保法制をめぐって国会前の街頭活動など市民の動きが呼び起こされた。

What opposition parties should recall now is the fact that decisions on the future of the nation are, after all, up to the people with whom sovereign power resides.
 野党が改めて思い起こすべきは、国の針路を最終的に決めるのは、主権者たる国民だということだ。

The Diet can initiate constitutional amendments, but they must be approved by the people with a majority vote in a special referendum.
憲法改正も、国会議員による発議だけでは決まらない。国民投票による過半数の賛成が必要である。

The vital choice facing the nation is between politics simply driven by the power of a majority won through an election and politics more based on broad consensus built through sympathy and solidaity with the public.
 選挙での勝利や、議員の数の力で押し切る政治か。国民との共感と連帯に基づく、合意形成を重視するのか。

This choice offers hope for new politics.
 その問いに、新たな政治の可能性が見えてくる。

The voting age will be lowered to 18 from the current 20, starting with the Upper House election.
 今回の参院選から18歳選挙権が認められる。

The Diet has a duty to debate key policy issues from a long-term perspective that encompasses not only the present but also the future when the new young voters will play leading roles in society.
 今だけでなく、彼らが生きて行く未来を見すえた論戦をしなければならない。

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2016年1月 5日 (火)

分断される世界 連帯の再生に向き合う年

-- The Asahi Shimbun, Jan. 1
EDITORIAL: We must heal dangerous divisions in the world
(社説)分断される世界 連帯の再生に向き合う年

A new year has arrived, with the world remaining to be plagued by deep and dangerous divisions.
 地球が、傷だらけで新年を迎えた。

Our world today is full of divisions due to racial, religious, economic, generational and various other factors.
 民族や宗教、経済、世代……。あらゆるところに亀裂が走っている。

Globalization is supposed to create a world where national borders become increasingly permeable and irrelevant, but, ironically, the world as we see it is crisscrossed with dividing lines.
国境を超越した空間を意味するはずのグローバル世界は今、皮肉なことにたくさんの分断線におおわれている。

To heal these divisions, world leaders should be striving to build a society where people can live with a sense of security by promoting reconciliation and removing inequalities.
 それを修復するために、和解を進め、不公平をなくし、安心できる社会を実現する――。
 それこそが指導者の使命であろう。

Regrettably, however, there are many political, religious and opinion leaders across the globe who try to promote their agendas by taking advantage of divisions in society. And such people often earn plaudits by doing so.
だが、むしろ社会の分断につけこむ政治家や宗教者、言論人も登場し、しばしば喝采を浴びている。

But there have also been some notable efforts to heal rifts and explore new forms of global consolidation. The 2015 United Nations climate change conference (COP21), held in Paris late last year, for instance, produced a landmark agreement on a new international framework for reducing planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions in the years after 2020. The breakthrough was made possible as countries united for a real solution to the challenge of stemming global warming, which transcends their parochial interests.
 他方、亀裂を埋めて新しい連帯の形を探す。そんな動きも出ている。たとえば昨年末、パリでの国連気候変動会議(COP21)で、各国は地球温暖化対策で新しい枠組みに合意した。それぞれの思惑を超えた真の解決に向けて結束した。

The world needs to start its efforts in the new year to tackle the formidable challenges it faces today by confronting, one by one, the crises of solidarity and empathy threatening its future.
 新年の挑戦は、連帯と共感の危機にひとつひとつ向き合うことから始まる。

POLITICS TO DEEPEN RIFTS
 ■溝を深める政治

The Islamic State (IS) is an extremist organization that tries to divide people by promoting its fanatic dogma.
 「イスラム国(IS)」は、狂信的な教義を掲げて人々の分断を謀る過激派組織だ。

The IS not only enslaves and kills people who refuse to obey it in areas it controls. The group is also working to create a deep rift between Muslims and the rest of the world by inciting hatred among Muslims toward other religions and cultures.
 支配地域で従わない人々を隷属化し殺害するだけではない。ほかの宗教や文化を憎悪の対象にしてイスラム教徒との間に深い溝を作ろうとしている。

How are people and countries who have become targets of terror attacks by the IS responding to the threat?
 その刃を向けられた側は、どう応えようとしているか。

In Europe, a wary attitude toward refugees from the Middle East and Muslim immigrants in the region has intensified sharply. In France and some other European countries, there is strong public support to xenophobic rightist parties.
 欧州では、中東からの難民やイスラム系移民層への警戒感が急速に強まった。フランスなどで、排他的な右翼政党の支持が高い。

In the United States, Donald Trump, the leading contender to become the Republican Party’s presidential nominee, has called for a “total and complete shutdown” of the country’s borders to Muslims and made some other outrageous proposals. He remains very popular.
米国では共和党の大統領候補選びで「イスラム教徒を入国禁止に」などと放言し続けるトランプ氏の人気が衰えない。

People such as Trump call for measures that create divisions to fight the efforts to create divisions by people like Muslim extremists. Their approaches are strangely similar to those of their supposed enemies in that they are designed to divide the world.
 分断に分断で対抗する。敵対し合っているはずの勢力が、世界を分断するという点では奇妙に共鳴し合っている。

Social rifts due to widening economic inequality are also becoming increasingly serious in many parts of the world.
 経済的な不平等の拡大による社会の亀裂も深刻化している。

According to a report released last year by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, in 2013 income gaps were the largest in the past 30 years in most of its 34 member countries. Assets are even more concentrated in the hands of the wealthy few than income, according to the OECD.
 経済協力開発機構(OECD)の昨年の発表によると、2013年に、大半の加盟国(34カ国)の所得格差が過去30年で最大になった。また、資産は所得以上に富裕層に集中しているという。

In his best-selling book “Capital in the Twenty-First Century,” which has attracted global attention, French economist Thomas Piketty points out that inequality can lead to serious social divisions. In a society with extreme levels of wealth concentration, Piketty maintains, people’s discontent triggers a revolution unless it is suppressed with an iron fist.
 フランスの経済学者ピケティ氏は、世界的に注目された大著「21世紀の資本」のなかで、あまりに富の集中が進んだ社会では、人々の不満を強権で抑えつけるか、革命が起きるしかなくなる、と不平等がはらむ危険を指摘している。

SPIRIT OF BROTHERHOOD GONE AWRY
 ■「同胞」意識の迷走

Japan is not free from the various divisions plaguing the world, either.
 日本もこうした多くの亀裂を免れているわけではない。

Japan cannot be described as a country eager to accept refugees, who number in the tens of millions in the world. Japan’s refugee policy doesn’t reflect any keen awareness of the unfolding crisis of solidarity.
 世界で数千万にのぼる難民の受け入れという点で積極的な国とは言えない。そこに連帯の危機への問題意識は低い。

Japan is no exception, either, to the global trend toward greater economic inequality.
 経済的な不平等についても例外国ではない。

In fact, income equality in this nation has widened to a level even higher than the average among the OECD countries.
それどころか所得格差はOECD平均を超えて広がっている。

The ratio of poverty among children and the percentage of non-regular workers in the overall workforce in Japan are both on the rise.
子どもの貧困率や雇用の非正規率も上昇している。

Japan is now a mere shadow of the country of equality it used to be.
かつての平等な国の姿はすっかり遠くなった。

Despite growing inequities, the proposed integrated tax and social security reform to improve the situation has been making little headway. Social solidarity in this nation is only weakening.
にもかかわらず、社会保障と税の一体改革もままならず、この国の社会的連帯は弱まるばかりだ。

The issue of the heavy concentration of U.S. military bases in Okinawa Prefecture is also causing a division in Japan. What many of the people in Okinawa are asking the mainland to do is to share the burden of hosting so many U.S. bases, which is simply too heavy for just one prefecture to keep bearing.
 沖縄の米軍基地問題も日本に分断を生んでいる。県民の多くが本土に求めるのは、一県には重すぎる負担の分担だ。

They are asking for help from their fellow countrymen.
「同胞」から「同胞」への支援要請である。

But the mainland has been making rather cool responses to Okinawa’s request for support. Political leaders in Tokyo have cast the issue as a partisan battle over security policy.
 しかし本土の反応は冷たい。政治は問題を安全保障をめぐる党派的な対立の構図に還元してしまう。

This attitude gives no hint of true nationalism, which creates empathy for and solidarity with fellow countrymen.
そこに「同胞」への共感と連帯をもたらす本来のナショナリズムは、見る影もない。

The kind of narrow-minded nationalism that tilts toward exclusion instead of embrace, like populism, causes society to become divided rather than united.
 「包摂」より「排除」に傾くナショナリズムは、ポピュリズムと同様に社会を統合するより分断する。

BEFORE DEMOCRACY COLLAPSES
 ■民主主義壊れる前に

What is needed for the world to overcome the trend toward becoming more and more divided?
 克服には何が必要だろうか。

The agreement reached in the COP21 conference seems to be a result of a globally shared pragmatic recognition of the reality that countries cannot find a true solution to this challenge as long as they focus on trying to avoid bearing their fair share of the burden for the time being.
 COP21の合意は、自分の負担を避けようとするだけでは、問題のほんとうの解決にはつながらないと、各国の間で実際的な考えが共有された成果ではないだろうか。

Eisaku Ide, an economics professor at Keio University who has received the “Osaragi Jiro Prize for Commentary” for his book “Keizai no jidai no shuen” (End of the age of economy), stresses the importance of pragmatic thinking.
 また、経済の視点から社会の分断を考察した「経済の時代の終焉(しゅうえん)」で大佛次郎論壇賞に決まった慶応義塾大学経済学部の井手英策教授も、実際的な考え方の重要性を指摘する。

Ide, who studied social divisions from the economic viewpoint in the book, says in Japan a deep rift has emerged between high- and middle-income groups on the one hand and the low-income class on the other, rapidly eroding empathy among people for other members of society.
 教授によると、日本では中高所得層と低所得層の間に溝ができ、人々の間の共感が消滅しつつある。

What is crucial for fixing this problem, Ide argues, is not any ideology or doctrine but the pragmatic recognition that people gain from mutual help by becoming beneficiaries and happy people themselves.
修復には理念ではなく「お互い助け合った方が得をする、自分も受益者になる、幸せになるという視点が必要だ」と話す。

The effectiveness of promoting people’s understanding of the benefits of pursuing practical solutions rather than doctrines and ideologies offers an important insight into the efforts to revive solidarity and empathy in society.
 理念より実際的な解決への理解を広める。連帯や共感の再生への取り組みを可能にするための重要な手がかりではないか。

Social divisions pose a serious threat to democracy. People stop respecting political decisions unless they feel that they have been involved in making the decisions.
 社会の分断は民主主義にとって脅威だ。「私たちみんなで決めた」という感覚がなければ、人々は政治的な決定を尊重しようとはしなくなる。

This situation then causes society to be divided further into smaller groups in a vicious cycle.
そしてそれはさらに社会を細分化する悪循環を招く。

We must confront our society’s illness of becoming more and more divided and make effective efforts to enhance policies and opinions that refuse to take advantage of such divisions.
 私たちの社会が抱える分断という病理を直視し、そこにつけ込まない政治や言論を強くしていかなければならない。

We must do so before the problem becomes so serious as to ruin democracy.
 民主主義さえも台無しにするほどに深刻化する前に。

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2016年1月 4日 (月)

あたらしいタイプの旅行ガイド、ココマチでつながる人と人、人と街

あたらしいタイプの旅行ガイドサイトの登場です。
それはココマチです。
キーワードはココマチでつながる人と人、人と街です。

旅行は、それが国内旅行でも、海外旅行でも、その本質は同じだと思います。
旅行が楽しいのは、旅行先で知り合えることができる人たちではないでしょうか。
旅行先には様々な街があります。
全国各地の街、世界各国の街を知る機会にもなります。
その街が気に入れば、何度もその場所を訪問するリピーターとなる人も多く存在します。
わたしはそれが高じて、ついにはタイに永住する決心をしたほどです。

あたらしいタイプの旅行ガイドサイト、ココマチは、全く魅力的です。
ネット環境さえあれば、世界のどこにいても、好きな時間にサイトに接続することができます。
ココマチで旅行ガイドを調べるのも良いでしょうし、世界各地の旅行者たちからリアルタイムで情報が入るのも、とても新鮮な企画です。
旅とは人生そのものではないでしょうか。
最近そう思えるような年代に到達しました。
ココマチ で遊んでみるのも、人生です。



旅行ガイドや口コミ、メッセージ送信のサイト、ココマチ(https://coco-machi.jp)のAndroidアプリがリリース



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

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脅威増す世界 対「イスラム国」で結束強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
International community must solidify its unity against ISIL
脅威増す世界 対「イスラム国」で結束強めよ

 ◆米主導の秩序をどう維持するか◆

The threat of terrorism stemming from extremism is shaking the U.S.-led international order based on law and democracy.
 過激思想によるテロの脅威が、米国主導の法と民主主義に基づく国際秩序を揺さぶっている。

About 25,000 foreign fighters from over 100 countries have joined the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), an extremist group based in Syria and Iraq. There has also been a stream of so-called “homegrown terrorism,” with young people who were raised in the United States or Europe, and influenced by radical beliefs, committing violent acts within their native countries.
 シリアとイラクを拠点とする過激派組織「イスラム国」には、100か国以上の外国人戦闘員約2万5000人が参加する。感化された欧米の若者が自国で犯行に及ぶ「ホームグロウン・テロ」も続発している。

Terrorism is an issue that is not exclusive to such regions as the Middle East or Europe. It is a challenge that must be addressed by the whole world. The international community must stand together, with the United States taking the lead, to continue fighting a protracted battle.
 テロはもはや中東や欧州などの地域にとどまらない。世界全体で取り組むべき課題である。米国を中心に国際社会が結束して、息の長い戦いを続けねばならない。

President must lead
 ◆次期大統領は指導力を

In the November U.S. presidential election, major points of contention will include Washington’s measures to fight the ISIL, its policy on the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement and its rebalancing to Asia policy. We hope in-depth discussions will be conducted through the election campaigns in a direction that will encourage the United States to take a more leading role.
 11月の米大統領選では、「イスラム国」対策をはじめ、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)、「アジア重視」政策などが主要な争点になる。選挙戦を通じて、米国がより指導的な役割を果たす方向で議論が深まることを期待したい。

Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, the front-runner for the Democratic nomination, has emphasized that “if the United States does not lead, there is not another leader, there is a vacuum and we have to lead.” Her remarks likely express her desire for more U.S. involvement on the diplomatic front.
 民主党の候補争いでトップを走るヒラリー・クリントン前国務長官は、「米国以外にリーダーはいない。米国が主導しなければ、力の空白が生まれる」と強調している。外交面で米国の関与を拡大する意欲の表れだろう。

If the United States falls into isolationism, there will be a power vacuum in various parts of the world, as Clinton has asserted, and turmoil will spread around the globe.
 米国が孤立主義に陥れば、クリントン氏の主張する通り、世界各地で「力の空白」が生じ、混乱が広がるだけである。

It is a matter of concern that Donald Trump, a real estate giant who aims to win the Republican presidential nomination, has been gaining popularity with his extreme remarks, including a call for banning all Muslims from entering the United States.
 懸念されるのは、共和党の大統領候補指名を目指す不動産王ドナルド・トランプ氏が、イスラム教徒の入国禁止案など極端な発言で人気を集めていることだ。

Trump may run out of steam as the presidential race gets into full swing. But the fact that he has so far retained strong support, despite his extreme remarks, may indicate U.S. citizens’ dissatisfaction with the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama.
 選挙戦の本格化に伴い、トランプ氏が失速する可能性はある。それでも、根強い支持を保ってきたところに、国民のオバマ政権への不満が見てとれる。

From the bitter lessons learned from the fatalities of U.S. soldiers and increased anti-American sentiment due to the Iraq war, Obama has maintained a policy of not sending large numbers of ground combat troops to areas of conflict. We can understand his belief that long-lasting stability cannot be built in the Middle East just through the power of U.S. forces.
 オバマ大統領は、イラク戦争後の米兵の犠牲や反米感情の増大に苦しんだ教訓から、紛争地に大規模な地上戦闘部隊を派遣しない方針を維持してきた。米軍の力だけで中東に長期的な安定は築けないという考えは理解できる。

Ease sectarian strife
 ◆宗派対立緩和が不可欠

Yet his administration’s measures for wiping out the ISIL have been one step behind. It is questionable that Obama has been deciding to increase U.S. airstrikes and inject special forces every time local situations deteriorate. Washington must build a solid strategy.
 だが、「イスラム国」掃討作戦では、対応は後手に回った。現地情勢が悪化するたびに、米軍の空爆拡大や特殊部隊の逐次投入を決めているのは疑問だ。確固とした戦略を構築する必要があろう。

Many countries in the Middle East have seen their turmoil deepen with civil war and sectarian struggles.
 中東の多くの国は、内戦や宗派対立で混迷を深めている。

In Syria, it is important to create an environment in which Syrian President Bashar Assad’s government and anti-regime groups reach a truce so the United States, Europe and Russia can concentrate on fighting against ISIL.
 シリアでは、アサド政権と反体制派が停戦し、米欧露が「イスラム国」との戦いに集中できる環境を作り出すことが肝要である。

The international agreement that established a road map for a truce and a transition of power should be steadily implemented.
停戦と政権移行の行程を定めた国際合意を着実に履行すべきだ。

ISIL is nothing but a terrorist organization that has borrowed the name of a religion. Decisive action must be taken against its propaganda war, which fans the flames of hatred against Western society through the Internet. ISIL cannot be eradicated without the support of moderate Muslims for the United States and Europe.
 「イスラム国」は、宗教に名を借りたテロ集団にほかならない。インターネットを通じて米欧社会への憎悪を煽あおる宣伝戦には断固とした対処が求められる。穏健なイスラム教徒が米欧に協力する構図にしなければ、撲滅できまい。

Iraq, Libya and Yemen share the same problem with Syria — the absence of a government that can control a whole country and unite various religious and ethnic groups allows the emergence of radicals. The international community must help change these situations with diplomatic arbitrations and financial support.
 イラクやリビア、イエメンも、シリアと同じ問題を抱える。全土を掌握し、多様な宗派と民族を束ねるような政権の不在が過激派の台頭を許している。国際社会は外交調停や資金支援によって後押しすることが欠かせない。

The United States and Europe will begin to lift economic sanctions against Iran as early as in January, based on their agreement with Tehran on its nuclear development. Iran has influence over Syria and other places, and should be involved in the process of stabilizing the Middle East. Countries concerned should also keep an eye on Iran so Tehran will not violate the nuclear accord.
 イランでは核開発問題に関する合意に伴い、今月にも米欧の経済制裁解除が始まる。シリア情勢などに影響力を持つイランを引き込み、中東の安定につなげたい。核合意が破られないよう、関係国が監視を続けることも大切である。

Russia is supporting the Assad government and heightening its military intervention in Syria. Russia is still at odds with Turkey, which shot down a Russian military plane.
 ロシアはアサド政権を支援し、シリアへの軍事介入を強めている。露軍機を撃墜したトルコと対立したままだ。

Moscow is increasingly making its annexation of Crimea a fait accompli, and the ceasefire agreement between Ukrainian forces and pro-Russia militants in the eastern part of Ukraine is not being observed.
 ロシアのクリミア併合は既成事実化が進む。ウクライナ東部の政府軍と親露派武装勢力の停戦合意も順守されていない。

Despite economic sanctions by the United States and Europe on Russia, President Vladimir Putin maintains his tough stance. He probably aims to challenge the U.S.-led international order. His attempt to change the status quo with military power should not be tolerated any longer.
 米欧の経済制裁にもかかわらず、プーチン大統領が強硬姿勢を貫くのは、米国が主導する国際秩序に挑戦する狙いがあるからではないか。軍事力による現状変更をこのまま許してはならない。

Measures for refugees
 ◆難民対応が重い課題だ

The European Union is facing a challenge. The number of refugees and immigrants flowing into that region from Africa and the Middle East has exceeded 1 million. Some of the perpetrators of the terrorist attacks in Paris have disguised themselves as refugees to enter Europe.
 欧州連合(EU)は試練に直面している。中東、アフリカなどから流入した難民と移民は、100万人を超えた。パリ同時テロでは犯行グループの一部が難民に紛れて入り込んでいた。

Opposition to accepting refugees is spreading in East European and other countries. How can the EU strike a balance between its ideal of European integration and maintaining security? The refugee issue presents an enormous challenge to the EU.
 東欧を中心に、難民受け入れに対する反発が広がっている。欧州統合というEUの理念と治安維持をどう両立するか、重い課題が突きつけられたと言えよう。

The EU is discussing with other entities the creation of an organization to guard its borders with countries outside the EU. It is urgent for the EU to regain the public’s trust regarding security maintenance, with thorough enforcement of border controls with countries outside the region.
 EUが主体となって域外との国境を警備する組織の創設が検討されている。域外国との国境管理の徹底を通じて、治安への信頼を取り戻すことが急務だ。

A huge number of refugees is expected to flow into Europe this year as well, so the support of the international community in that regard is essential. Japan should keep making contributions such as humanitarian assistance to Europe.
 欧州には、今年も難民の大量流入が予想される。国際社会全体の支援が不可欠だ。日本も人道援助などで貢献を続けたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 3, 2016)

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2016年1月 3日 (日)

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中国大気汚染 環境改善を遅らせる強権統治

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Iron-fisted rule of Chinese govt causes delays in fighting air pollution
中国大気汚染 環境改善を遅らせる強権統治

China’s air pollution can be described as a due consequence of the nation’s efforts to achieve economic growth at any cost, combined with delays in improving the situation as a result of the Chinese Communist Party’s one-party dictatorship established to rule the country with an iron fist.
 成長至上主義のツケに加えて、中国共産党の一党独裁による強権統治が事態の改善を遅らせていると言えよう。

Many parts of China are experiencing serious air contamination. In December, Beijing’s municipal authorities issued red alerts twice, signaling the worst-level pollution in the city.
 中国各地が深刻な大気汚染に見舞われている。北京市当局は今月、2度にわたって、最悪レベルの汚染を示す「赤色警報」を発令した。

In some sections of Beijing, the density of fine particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less, known as PM2.5, topped 700 micrograms per cubic meter — 20 times greater than the level set in Japan’s environmental standards.
 北京の一部地域では、直径2・5マイクロ・メートル以下の微小粒子状物質(PM2・5)の濃度が1立方メートルあたり日本の環境基準の20倍に相当する700マイクロ・グラムを超えた。

The red alerts were kept in place for about seven days, during which emergency measures were enforced, including traffic restrictions aimed at nearly halving the passage of vehicles and a halt in the operation of factories. There also are concerns about the adverse effects incurred on the Japanese community in the city. The school for local Japanese students was temporarily closed, while Japanese corporations switched to work-at-home operations during the period.
 警報期間中の計約7日間、通行車両をほぼ半減させる交通規制や工場の稼働停止などの緊急措置をとった。日本人学校が休校し、日系企業が在宅勤務に切り替わるなど邦人社会への影響も心配だ。

Forcible traffic controls were also enforced during a summit meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum in the autumn of 2014 and a military parade in September.
 強引な交通規制などは、昨秋のアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議や今年9月の軍事パレードでも実施された。

We feel the restrictions may have been intended, first and foremost, to save face for Chinese President Xi Jinping’s administration during these important events. Just repeating such ad hoc measures will do little to fundamentally resolve the problem.
 重要行事の際に、習近平政権のメンツを保つのが最大の目的だったのではないか。こうした場当たりな対応を繰り返すだけでは、抜本的解決は図れまい。

The cause of China’s worsening air pollution is such pollutants as sooty smoke from combusted coal and exhaust from automobiles powered by low-quality gasoline. Long-term, persistent anti-pollution efforts are indispensable for rectifying the situation.
 大気汚染悪化の原因は、石炭を燃やす際に生じる煤煙ばいえんや低品質のガソリンを使った自動車の排ガスなどだ。改善には、長期的で粘り強い取り組みが欠かせない。

Words don’t match actions

The Chinese government has expressed its readiness to attach great importance to the fight against environmental problems, including a plan to enforce the revised air pollution prevention law early in the new year.
 政権は、改正大気汚染防止法を年明けに施行するなど環境対策を重視する姿勢は示している。

China has proclaimed it will stand by the rule of law, but the independence of the judiciary is nowhere to be seen in that country. The swift disclosure of information is indispensable in this respect, but provincial government bureaucrats, by and large, have little awareness of what should be done. They also have an extremely strong tendency to cover up inconvenient things.
 だが、中国では「法治」を掲げながら、「司法の独立」はない。迅速な情報公開が不可欠にもかかわらず、地方官僚の意識は概おおむね低く、隠蔽体質も甚だしい。

It may be difficult to reform the collusive relations between corporations and regional authorities, as priority is given to economic interests and consequently aggravates the spread of pollution.
 経済的な利益を優先し、汚染の蔓延まんえんを助長してきた地方当局と企業の癒着の構造にメスを入れるのは難しいだろう。

In the spring of 2015, steps were taken to make it impossible to watch an Internet video that had caused a stir by denouncing the authorities over the air pollution problem. It is important for nongovernmental organizations and the media to keep watch on corporations. However, the fact is that the Chinese government is increasing restrictions on NGOs and news organs.
 今春、大気汚染を巡って当局を告発し、大反響を呼んだインターネット動画は閲覧不能になった。民間活動団体(NGO)やメディアによる企業に対する監視が重要だが、政権はむしろNGOや報道への締め付けを強めている。

If the current situation goes unchecked, China’s pledge to curtail greenhouse gas emissions in the anti-global warming fight could be reduced to an empty slogan.
 このままでは、地球温暖化問題を巡って表明した温室効果ガス削減の公約すら、そらぞらしい。

The Xi administration has said it will pursue the goal of transforming the country, by the end of 2020, into a “society with breathing space,” in which people feel somewhat comfortably off. In trying to achieve this objective, there is a pressing need for China to make all-out environmental efforts, to say nothing of the need to improve the living standards of its people.
 習政権は2020年までに、いくらかゆとりのある「小康社会」の構築を目標に掲げている。実現には、国民の生活水準の向上は無論、環境対策の徹底が急務だ。

China’s air pollution cannot be treated as having nothing to do with Japan. PM2.5 and other pollutants come flying into our nation, carried by the prevailing westerlies. Japan must continue to promote environmental cooperation with China while at the same time urging that nation to become serious about addressing the problem.
 中国の大気汚染は日本にとってもひとごとではない。PM2・5などが偏西風に乗って飛来している。日本は環境協力を進める一方、中国が対応に本腰を入れるよう促し続けねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 31, 2015)

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2016年1月 1日 (金)

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世界の安定へ重い日本の責務

The Yomiuri Shimbun
2016: Japan must fulfill its duties to ensure world stability
世界の安定へ重い日本の責務

 ◆成長戦略を一層強力に進めたい

How do we restore stability to the international order? The world is now facing a critical challenge.
 国際秩序の安定をどう取り戻すか。世界は今、大きな試練に直面している。

The indiscriminate terrorist attacks in Paris by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group caused great distress to international community. In reaction to the wave of terrorism and the huge influx of refugees from the Middle East, exclusionary moves are gaining momentum in Europe and in the United States.
 過激派組織「イスラム国」によるパリでの無差別テロは、国際社会に大きな衝撃を与えた。テロの拡散と、中東からの難民の激増を受けて、欧州や米国で排他的な動きが強まっている。

Attempts to change the status quo by force are rampant as Russia’s annexation of Crimea continues and China continues to build military strongholds on artificial islands in the South China Sea.
 ロシアのクリミア併合は長期化し、中国が南シナ海で人工島の軍事拠点化を進めるなど、力による現状変更の試みもやまない。

The world looks as if it is going to fall apart as freedom, equality, rule of law and other values that should be deemed as common falter. If the international order collapses, Japan’s security also will be threatened. We need to be more aware of impending crises and confront the threats squarely.
 自由や平等、法の支配といった共通であるべき価値観が揺らぎ、世界は分断へと向かっているかのようだ。国際秩序が崩壊すれば日本の安全も脅かされる。危機感を強めて向き合わねばならない。

A presidential election will be held in the United States this year. The country’s leadership will be on the wane. Japan, under such circumstances, will host the Group of Seven summit (Ise-Shima summit) and also become a nonpermanent member of the U.N. Security Council. Responsibilities heavier than ever before will be thrust upon Japan to help unite international community and coordinate varying interests.
 米国が大統領選を迎え、指導力が低下する今年、日本は主要国首脳会議(伊勢志摩サミット)を主催し、国連安全保障理事会の非常任理事国に就任する。国際社会の結束や利害調整に、これまでにない重い責務が課される。

Domestically, it has the urgent task of boosting economic growth as the population dwindles. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s administration, along with its initiative to promote “a society that enables the dynamic engagement of all citizens,” will face the judgment of voters in the House of Councillors election in summer. A plan to further ensure economic recovery should be initiated.
 国内では、人口減少が進む中で成長力の底上げが急務だ。「1億総活躍社会」を掲げる安倍政権は、今夏、参院選で有権者の審判を受ける。経済再生をより確かにする道筋を示す必要がある。

To brighten the future of Japan in a tumultuous world, we hope this will be a year of progress.
 鳴動する世界の中で、日本の未来を明るいものにするため、歩を進める年にしたい。

‘Antiterrorism’ unity urgent
 ◆「対テロ」連携が急務だ

Young people and others who sympathize with the extremist ideas of ISIL are wounding and killing defenseless people around them. Terrorist acts have spread around the world. Fear is inducing actions to eliminate anything that is foreign.
 「イスラム国」の過激思想に同調した若者らが、周囲の無防備な市民を殺傷するテロが世界に広がった。恐怖が、異質なものを排除する動きにつながっている。

Within the boundaries of the European Union, border inspections are being reinstalled one after another — contrary to the Schengen Agreement, which in principle states that such inspections are unnecessary. The idea of free movement of persons, a cornerstone of European integration, is wavering.
 欧州連合(EU)では、国境検査を不要とするシェンゲン協定の原則に反し、検査を復活する動きが相次ぐ。統合理念である「人の移動の自由」が揺らいでいる。

Even in the United States, a nation of immigrants, an undercurrent of refusing the entry of refugees and Muslims has gained strength.
 移民国家である米国でも、難民やイスラム教徒の受け入れを拒絶する空気が勢いを増した。

If the movement of people, goods and capital across borders is threatened, this could indeed become a destabilizing factor for the world economy.
 人、モノ、資金の国境を越えた移動が脅かされれば、世界経済の不安定要因ともなる。

The world does not have a future unless we are victorious in the “war on terror” to eliminate the threat posed by ISIL and contain acts of violence.
 「イスラム国」の脅威を除去し、暴力行為を封じ込める「テロとの戦い」に勝利しなければ、世界の未来はない。

The Syrian civil war is the epicenter of all this. The United States, European nations, Russia, Turkey and other countries involved should coordinate efforts swiftly with regard to military operations and transition of power.
 震源地であるシリアの内戦終結へ、米欧露、トルコなど関係国は、軍事作戦と体制移行をめぐる協調を急ぐべきだ。

ISIL has declared that Japan is also a terrorism target.
 「イスラム国」は日本もテロの標的だと明言している。

With the upcoming summit in mind, antiterrorist measures within Japan’s boundaries are inadequate. If information-gathering on extremist groups and steps taken to prevent terrorism based on such information are inadequate, Japan will end up as the weakest link in international efforts to fight terrorism.
 サミットを控えた国内テロ対策には不安が残る。過激組織の情報収集や、集めた情報に基づいてテロを未然に防ぐ手だてが不十分では、日本が対テロの国際的連携の空白地帯になってしまう。

The legal system should be inspected for any flaws and revamped to fulfill Japan’s political responsibilities.
 法制度に不備がないか点検し、改善するのが政治の責務だ。

China’s maritime territorial claims in the South China Sea are baseless under international law. However, they are aiming to make these claims a fait accompli. Actions that threaten the safety of the sea line of communication are contrary to the interests of international community.
 中国は南シナ海で、国際法上の根拠のない領海主張の既成事実化を図っている。海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全を脅かす行為は国際社会の利益に反する。

To rein in such moves, the United States has sent warships to areas surrounding the artificial islands and engaged in other operations.
 米国は人工島周辺の艦艇航行などによる牽制けんせいに踏み出した。

It is necessary for Japan, Australia, India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to further strengthen cooperation and use every opportunity including international forums to demand that China restrain itself.
日豪印や東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)も連帯を強め、国際会議などあらゆる場面で中国に自制を求める行動を続ける必要がある。

In order to counter Chinese pressure in areas surrounding the Senkaku Islands, the security-related laws must be implemented properly to enhance the deterrent powers of the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 尖閣諸島周辺などでの中国の圧力に抗するには、安全保障関連法を適切に運用し、日米同盟の抑止力を高めねばならない。

Make good use of security laws
 ◆安保法制の有効運用を

China, the world’s second-largest economic power, is currently experiencing a worsening business slowdown.
 世界2位の経済大国でもある中国の景気は減速を強めている。

The state of affairs could disturb the world due to such factors as a drop in resource prices. Developed nations — including Britain and Germany, both of which are becoming closer to China in economic terms — should make concerted efforts to cope with the situation. In pursuit of that goal, these countries should urge China to trim excessive production capacity and promote other structural reforms.
 資源価格の下落などを通じて世界を混乱させかねない。中国経済への接近を強める英独も含め、先進国が足並みをそろえて、過剰な生産能力の解消など、構造改革を中国に促していくべきだ。

In addressing issues such as those related to North Korea’s nuclear weapons and missiles and the Ukraine situation, Japan should also strive to form a consensus among pertinent nations at the summit meeting and U.N. conferences.
 北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題、ウクライナ情勢などをめぐっても、日本はサミットや国連の場で、関係国の合意形成に努めたい。

Three years have passed since the inauguration of the second administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. Despite corporations’ improved business performance and higher stock prices, the sentiment that the economy has improved has not prevailed. As circumstances stand now, little headway is being made in efforts to achieve economic revitalization through the Abenomics economic policy.
 第2次安倍政権の発足から3年がたった。企業業績や株価は上昇したが、景気回復の実感は広がらない。「アベノミクス」による経済再生は足踏み状態にある。

The root of this situation is clear. The government’s growth strategy has not yet fully worked to fight a decline in the nation’s potential growth rate due to a population decrease.
 原因は、はっきりしている。人口減少に伴う潜在成長率の低下に対抗する成長戦略が、まだ十分に効果を発揮していないためだ。

The prime minister has unveiled a fresh set of policy targets dubbed the “new three arrows,” the first of which will seek to raise our nation’s gross domestic product to ¥600 trillion in nominal terms. Reinforcing the growth policy is the only way to achieve that goal.
 安倍首相は新政策目標「新3本の矢」を打ち出し、1本目に「名目GDP(国内総生産)600兆円」を掲げた。実現には成長政策を一段と強めるしか道はない。

Required measures include promoting deregulation in the fields of medical and nursing care services, agriculture and others. Efforts should be made to ensure that technological advancement in such fields as information technology and robotics lead to further industrial development. It is also necessary to make the most of a broad agreement reached in multilateral talks over the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact last year.
 医療・介護、農業などの分野で規制緩和を進める。IT、ロボットなどの技術進歩を産業振興につなげる。昨年、大筋合意に達した環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)を最大限に活用する。

The measures hammered out up to now should be reinforced to ensure that their purposes are better served.
 今までに打ち出された施策を深化させ、実効性を高めたい。

Another case in point is how to make efficient use of such resources as household financial assets totaling a hefty ¥1.7 quadrillion and internal reserves worth ¥350 trillion kept at corporations. The question is whether there are any ways to better use these resources for the pursuit of growth. It is necessary to exercise wisdom in devising bold new policy measures.
 さらに、約1700兆円に上る家計の金融資産や、350兆円に達した企業の内部留保などを、もっと成長に生かすための手段はないか。大胆で新しい政策に知恵を絞ることも重要だ。

It has been about 25 years since the collapse of the bubble economy. Under protracted deflation, households and corporations became strongly negative about spending money, a state of mind that is firmly entrenched among them. Few households are willing to increase consumption, despite expanded employment and higher wages. Meanwhile, corporations remain cautious about investment, notwithstanding their success in generating profits at record high levels.
 バブル経済の崩壊から約25年。長いデフレ下で家計や企業に染みついた後ろ向きの心理状態は、なお根深いものがある。雇用や賃金が増えても、家計は消費を増やさない。企業は過去最高水準の利益を上げても投資に慎重だ。

Dispel fear of spending
 ◆家計と企業の不安除け

To lay such a deflationary mind-set to rest and elicit positive behavior, it is necessary to implement measures aimed at dispelling the anxieties felt by households and corporations.
 そんなデフレマインドを払拭し、前向きな行動を呼び起こすには、家計、企業それぞれの不安を取り除く政策が必要だ。

Nonregular employees account for a considerable 40 percent of the total labor force. Lower wages and unstable employment status leave such workers apprehensive about their future. Therefore, nonregular employees are reluctant to increase consumption despite hikes in their wages.
 雇用者に占める非正規雇用の割合は4割に達する。低賃金で身分が安定しない非正規雇用では、将来に不安が残り、賃金が増えても消費を増やす気にならない。

The second arrow to be released as part of Abe’s new policy package is to achieve the hopeful fertility rate target of 1.8 — a numerical goal that would be accomplished if women had babies as they wished. The third one is to attain the goal of making sure no one must quit his or her job to provide nursing care for relatives.
 新3本の矢の2、3本目の目標は「希望出生率1・8」と「介護離職ゼロ」の実現だ。

We believe the government is on the right track as it seeks to dispel the anxiety felt by people about raising their children and nursing their relatives, combined with efforts to increase the workforce, including women. However, such efforts alone will not be enough to achieve the intended goals.
子育てや介護の不安を解消し、女性を含む労働力の増加を目指す方向は正しいが、それだけでは足りない。

Further efforts are needed to help nonregular workers, who tend to be younger employees, to become regular workers. Companies should reform work methods, such as by reducing long working hours and helping employees develop their skills and abilities, to give people in the workforce a brighter future.
 若年層を中心に非正規から正規雇用への転換を進めねばならない。職業能力開発や長時間労働の改善などの働き方改革で、働く人に明るい未来を提示すべきだ。

Corporate anxiety originates from the view that Japan’s shrinking population will cause domestic markets to shrink, which will make turning a profit impossible even if a company makes investments. It is important to push ahead with ongoing efforts to widely lift the aspirations of businesses, such as by easing regulations in an effort to create new markets.
 企業の不安は、人口減で国内市場が縮小し、投資しても利益が得られないとの見方に起因する。新市場創出を狙う規制緩和などは、企業の要望を広く吸い上げつつ進めることが大事だ。

Discussions between the public and private sectors, namely between the government and the Japan Business Federation (Keidanren) and other entities, resulted in the effective corporate tax rate being trimmed ahead of schedule. We hope both sides will continue to productively use forums in which they can exchange opinions.
 政府と経団連などとの官民対話で、法人実効税率引き下げの前倒しが実現した。今後も意見交換の場として有効活用したい。

In industrial circles, there are demands for a reduction in electricity charges, which have remained at a high level, to help cut operating costs. To achieve this, it will be necessary to restart nuclear power plants that have been confirmed safe to operate, and to steadily construct new plants.
 産業界は、経営コスト低減のため、高止まりした電力料金の引き下げを求めている。安全が確認された原子力発電所の再稼働や新増設を着実に進める必要がある。

To eliminate people’s unease about the future, it will be essential to restore the health of the central government’s finances, which are in a critical state, and to maintain a stable social security system.
 国民の将来不安の解消には、危機的状況にある国の財政の健全化を図り、安定した社会保障制度を維持することも欠かせない。

The government has set a target of achieving a surplus in the primary balance in fiscal 2020. To reach this goal, the government should continue to seek ways to spend its money more efficiently, and not rely too much on recent efforts to increase tax revenue.
 政府は、2020年度に基礎的財政収支を黒字化する目標の実現へ、最近の税収増に気を緩めず、歳出効率化を進めるべきだ。

In April 2017, the consumption tax rate will be hiked to 10 percent. This tax is a source of funds for social security. The rate increase must be implemented smoothly, alongside the introduction of a reduced tax rate.
 社会保障財源である消費税の税率は17年4月に10%へ引き上げられる。軽減税率導入を含め、混乱なく実施しなければならない。

Political stability is crucial for dealing with the pile of domestic and international problems facing Japan. A long-term administration that can smoothly communicate with leaders of other nations has major advantages when it comes to enabling Japan to play its role, especially on the international political stage.
 内外に山積する課題をこなしていくには、政治の安定が不可欠だ。とくに国際政治の舞台で日本が役割を果たすには、各国首脳との意思疎通が円滑になる長期政権のメリットは大きい。

Abe govt’s footing depends on poll
 ◆政権安定度占う参院選

This summer’s upper house election will portend whether Abe can maintain a stable administration for an even longer period.
 参院選は、安倍首相がより長期で安定した政権を維持できるかどうかを占うものとなる。

If the LDP wins a majority in the upper house on its own, it would be the first time in 27 years. However, the LDP’s recovery in recent years has been strongly supported by the cooperation of its coalition partner, Komeito, in elections. Even if the LDP emerges victorious in this election, it will not be in a position to be completely optimistic about the future.
 自民党が単独過半数を占めれば27年ぶりだ。しかし、近年の自民党の復調は、連立を組む公明党との選挙協力に支えられている面が強い。勝利しても決して楽観できる情勢ではない。

A major focus of this election will be whether forces positive about revising the Constitution — including the LDP, Komeito, Osaka Ishin no Kai and the Party for Japanese Kokoro — will be able to gain more than two-thirds of the seats.
 参院選では、自民、公明の与党に、おおさか維新の会、日本のこころを大切にする党なども含めた憲法改正に積極的な勢力で、3分の2を上回るかも焦点になる。

Opinion is widely split over whether the Constitution should be revised. Before getting into a confrontation over the merits or otherwise of revising the top law, precisely what the nation wants from the Constitution needs to be debated in detail. Serious consideration should be given to including an emergency-related article that defines preparations to be made to better cope with major disasters.
 憲法改正をめぐっては、賛否が大きく分かれる。だが、改正の是非で対立する以前に、憲法に今、何が求められるのかを具体的に議論する必要がある。大災害が発生した場合に備える緊急事態条項などは、真剣に検討すべきだ。

The planned transfer of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station to Henoko, Okinawa Prefecture, has been dragged into the courts as a case between the prefectural and central governments. We think shifting the base from its current location in Ginowan in the prefecture to Henoko is the most realistic option for maintaining the deterrent of U.S. forces stationed in Japan while simultaneously easing Okinawa’s burden of hosting U.S. military bases.
 米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古への移設は、沖縄県と政府の法廷闘争に持ち込まれた。在日米軍の抑止力維持と、沖縄の基地負担軽減を両立させるには、辺野古移設が最も現実的な選択肢だ。

The central government needs to steadily move ahead with this plan while continuing efforts to win the understanding of Okinawa residents and authorities.
 地元の理解を得る努力を続け、着実に前進させる必要がある。

Opposition parties and other groups have reacted angrily to the base transfer to Henoko and to last year’s passage of security-related bills. It is vital to debate the specifics of where the problems reside and attempt to form a consensus. This is especially so for issues requiring a long-term perspective, such as constitutional revision.
 辺野古移設や安全保障関連法をめぐっては、野党などの反発も強い。憲法改正もそうだが、長期的視野が必要な問題では特に、具体的に問題の所在を議論し、合意形成を図っていかねばならない。

During last year’s deliberations on the security bills, opposition parties constantly resorted to emotional objections. Using such tactics again would be troublesome. The public demands fruitful policy debates conducted with a sense of urgency.
 野党も、昨年の安全保障法制の審議のように、情緒的な反対論ばかりでは困る。緊張感を持った実のある政策論議が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 1, 2016)

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