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2016年8月20日 (土)

中国と南シナ海 行動規範を骨抜きにするな

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Beijing mustn’t undermine code of conduct for South China Sea
中国と南シナ海 行動規範を骨抜きにするな

To rein in backlash from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, China has agreed to hold negotiations on international rules. But it seems to be making a self-centered effort to render any agreement toothless.
 国際ルールの協議に応じることで、東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)の反発を抑え、内容を骨抜きにする。中国はそんな独善的な筋書きを描いているのではないか。

In a bid to work out a code of conduct to prevent any conflict in the South China Sea, China has agreed with ASEAN to hold formal negotiations among high-ranking officials with the aim of reaching a framework agreement by the middle of next year.
 南シナ海での紛争防止を図る「行動規範」の策定に向けて、中国とASEANが公式高官協議を開き、来年半ばまでに枠組み合意を目指すことで一致した。

China had been cautious about the establishment of such a code. But Beijing has likely changed its tack based on the belief that international criticism would be directed toward it during a meeting of Group of 20 major economies to be chaired by China early next month.
 中国は行動規範の策定に慎重だった。これ以上、期限を決めなければ、来月初めに中国が議長として開く主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議で国際社会の批判が自国に集中すると考えたのだろう。

However, it cannot be overlooked that China has expressed its intention of not taking up the South China Sea issue during the G-20 meeting. It has become all the more important for leaders of participating countries to discuss the matter.
 その中国が南シナ海問題を扱わない方針を示しているのは看過できない。各国首脳が緊張緩和について議論する重要性は、むしろ高まる一方である。

A code of conduct would legally restrict the actions of China, the Philippines and other countries involved in territorial disputes in the South China Sea. Such a code is supposed to incorporate respect for the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea and the establishment of a system to oversee the behaviour of the countries concerned.
 行動規範は、領有権を争う中国やフィリピンなど関係国の行動を法的に拘束するものだ。本来は、国連海洋法条約の尊重や各国の行動を監視する仕組みの創設などを盛り込むことを想定している。

But the administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping seems to have the intention of weakening the binding power of a code of conduct as much as possible in the process of forthcoming negotiations with ASEAN countries so that its moves to militarize man-made islands will not be restricted.
 だが、習近平政権は今後のASEANとの協議で、行動規範の拘束力をできる限り弱め、人工島の軍事拠点化の動きが制約されないようにする目論見もくろみではないか。

Intl pressure vital

China has not accepted an international court ruling in July that wholly denied China’s sovereignty claims in the South China Sea, dismissing the ruling as a “piece of wastepaper.” It is impossible to think that China, which disregards international law, can fulfill its responsibilities in working out international rules.
 中国は南シナ海を巡る主権の主張を全面否定した7月の仲裁裁判所の判決を「紙くず」と言い放ち、受け入れていない。国際法を蔑ないがしろにする中国が国際ルール作りに責任を果たすとは思えまい。

Japan and the United States, in cooperation with the likes of ASEAN member countries and Australia, must ramp up pressure on Beijing as much as possible to make the planned code of conduct practically effective.
 日米は、ASEAN各国、豪州などと連携して対中圧力を強め、実効性のある行動規範にしていかねばならない。

Problematic in this respect is that China has emphasized “the need to prevent outside intervention” in South China Sea affairs, thus clarifying its stance of excluding Japan and the United States.
 問題なのは、中国が南シナ海情勢について「外部の介入を防ぐ必要がある」と強調し、日米排除の姿勢を鮮明にしたことである。

China has recently been accelerating moves to strengthen its effective control in the Spratly Islands and elsewhere.
 中国は最近も、スプラトリー(南沙)諸島などで、実効支配強化の動きを加速させている。

Analysis released by a U.S. policy research institute this month says that China has been pushing ahead with the construction of hangars capable of accommodating such aircraft as fighter jets and airborne early warning and control systems (AWACS) planes on artificial islands it has built.
 米国の政策研究機関は今月、中国が造成した複数の人工島で、戦闘機や早期警戒管制機などを収容できる格納庫の建設が進んでいるとの分析を明らかにした。

The Chinese military has also been conducting patrol flights of its new bomber over areas near the Scarborough Shoal close to the Philippines.
 中国軍はフィリピンに近いスカボロー礁付近で、新型爆撃機などの巡視飛行も繰り返している。

These moves represent nothing but China’s expansionist attempt to bring under control by large military power almost all of the South China Sea, while turning its back on the principle of the rule of law.
 「法の支配」に背を向け、南シナ海のほぼ全域を強大な軍事力で支配しようとする中国の膨張主義の表れにほかならない。

To ensure stability in the South China Sea, it is indispensable that the United States continues seaborne and airborne surveillance activities to secure “freedom of navigation and flight,” as well as to establish a monitoring system with other countries concerned.
 南シナ海の安定には、米国が「航行と飛行の自由」を確保するための艦艇と航空機の巡視活動を続けるだけでなく、関係国と監視態勢を築くことが欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 19, 2016)

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