« 2016年8月 | トップページ | 2016年10月 »

2016年9月

2016年9月30日 (金)

New Tech Tools Might Help Americans Choose a President

2016-09-30 from VOA
New Tech Tools Might Help Americans Choose a President

Six weeks remain until elections in the United States. Yet many Americans say they still do not know who they want as president.

Now, there are some new tech tools that might help them decide. Startup businesses are creating products that try to change behavior and increase political activity.

Brigade is one of those startups. The California-based company runs a social media site and mobile app. It did not even exist in 2012, when the U.S. held its last presidential election.

Brigade is a platform for debating and deciding political positions. Users can follow the political issues that interest them, such as gun rights, immigration or the environment.

Matt Mahan was a creator of Brigade and now serves as its chief executive officer. He says a few problems need to be solved to increase American civic involvement.

“We need to give people easy access to the information they need to make decisions, but we also need to embed that within their social lives, we need to make it part of the conversations they’re having with friends, and we need to create cultural norms around participating."

Brigade lets users debate issues and try to influence other people online. Users can also see how their opinions compare with other users as well as political candidates.

"I think that's kind of the point of democracy -- is to create this public square where people can discuss and debate their values, and their perspectives on issues and, ultimately, create trade-offs and come to a conclusion about what's the best way to move forward to kind of create the greatest good for the most people."

Crowdpac is another politically-minded technology company. It also did not exist at the time of the 2012 presidential election.

Gisel Kordestani is Crowdpac’s chief operations officer. The company is, in her words, “using technology to try to help the average citizen to connect and engage in politics.”

The Crowdpac website describes itself as the first crowdfunding site designed for politics. It provides information about individuals seeking public office. It also helps users find and support the candidates who share their opinions. And, it helps those running for office raise money. It does this through crowdfunding. Crowdfunding is the activity of raising money through small donations from a lot of people. Generally, crowdfunding takes place on the Internet.

Kordestani said technology companies are changing how Americans take part in politics by creating new ways for political participation. That is why, she thinks, politicians should look to Silicon Valley, America’s technology center.

“This region has just grown over the last four decades, has grown into not a powerhouse just in the U.S. but globally, in setting the technology, the platforms and the rules of engagement of society, for work, for the environment, globally.”

Kordestani said many tech companies in Silicon Valley also recognize the importance of working with politicians and the government to create positive changes.

I’m Caty Weaver.

Elizabeth Lee reported on this story for VOANews.com. George Grow adapted this story for Learning English. Caty Weaver was the editor.
_______________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

startup – n. a new business

mobile – adj. able to move from one place to another

access – n. a way of getting at or close to something or someone

embed – v. to set or place firmly in something else

conversation – n. a talk or discussion

participate – v. to be involved with others in doing something

crowdfunding – n. the act of seeking donations from a large number of people, especially on social media or through a website

globally – adj. of or related to the whole world

platform – n. a structure where people or machines do work

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月29日 (木)

David Titcomb: Transforming Classical Music at New York Orchestra

2016-09-29 from VOA
David Titcomb: Transforming Classical Music at New York Orchestra

That music is Symphony No. 2, known as the Resurrection Symphony. Austrian Gustav Mahler composed the piece in the late 1800s.

Classical musician David Titcomb feels strongly about the composer and his work.

“Mahler is just… It’s so evocative. It’s so emotional and maybe those are cheap thrills, but to me they are deep emotional works especially the Resurrection Symyphony.”

Music has filled Titcomb’s life from almost the start. An inspiring music teacher handed young David a trombone to play in elementary school. He could barely make a sound at that time. But, he stuck with it.

Titcomb studied music at the State University of New York, Purchase. He went on to receive a Master of Fine Arts degree at Yale University School of Music.

David Titcomb played the trombone professionally for more than thirty years. He says it was a difficult decision to stop playing and to do something else.

“When I had to decide to stop my career as a player and move on to just the organizing of an orchestra, it was my heart and soul to play in orchestras and after a 30 year career I think I had done my part and wanted to move aside, now I’m semi-retired I only play the trombone in my wife’s rock and roll band now, but for 30 years I was a member of the New York City Opera Orchestra and I also played very often with the Metropolitan Opera and various other freelance organizations and the New York City Ballet as well.”

Now, Titcomb is the Managing Director for the Philharmonia Orchestra of New York (PONY). The organization held its first performance last March. It hopes to bring new audiences to classical music. It aims to make performances higher tech and more affordable.

Titcomb praises the more than eighty orchestra musicians, describing them as among New York’s finest.

“The Philharmonia Orchestra of New York its comprised of many musicians who I have worked with over the last 30 years and many of them continue to work in the major companies at Lincoln Center including Metropolitan Opera, New York Philharmonic, New York City Ballet, New York City Opera and we came together shortly after the nuclear disaster and tsunami in Japan.”

Mahler Symphony No. 2 music is reflective of a project dear to David Titcomb’s heart.

David Titcomb has worked effortlessly along with PONY Principal Conductor Maestro Atsushi Yamada on bringing the Philharmonia Orchestra of New York and more than 100 choral students from Japan together to perform. The program is called Project Hand-in-Hand.

Project Hand in Hand aims to use performance to support disaster relief, cultural exchange, and education.

David Titcomb says it is a collaboration.

“With our good friend Atsushi Yamada whose our conductor who we worked with at New York City Opera back in the early 2000s and we started as the friends of Japan orchestra we played a concert actually it was Resurrection symphonies about a year after the disaster in northern Japan and we brought over 100 kids just to kind of show them that we were still paying attention and we wanted to give them some inspiration to continue to deal with their troubles and manage.”

The joint performance with the PONY musicians and Japanese high school choir also includes students from American universities.

Titcomb says the collaboration makes him happy.

“Bringing the kids over to play at Lincoln Center a lot of these kids have never been out of there prefecture let alone been on a jet into New York to perform at Lincoln Center. So seeing an orchestra of 90 players on the stage and making music together with a chorus of 200 that what makes me smile.”

Hand in Hand was created in response to the earthquake and tsumani in Japan. Earlier this year, Japan marked the 5th anniversary of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated the country in 2011. More than 18,000 people died or disappeared. The 9.0 magnitude quake struck offshore, creating a huge, powerful surge of water that rushed inland. Whole towns were destroyed in moments. And, the tsunami caused a major failure at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The result was the worst nuclear disaster the world had ever seen.

More than 150,000 people were forced to leave their homes. Many have not been able to return because of radiation danger.

David says just like the Resurrection Symphony No. 2 by Mahler the music starts dark and has feelings of loss and by the end of the symphony, it is a triumph resurrection and things are reborn. This is the hope David Titcomb and PONY have for the victims of the 2011 disaster in Japan.

I’m Marsha James.

Marsha James wrote this story for Learning English. Caty Weaver was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments section, and visit our Facebook page.

Try this video quiz to test your understanding of the story.
___________________________________________________

Words In This Story

evocative adj. bringing thoughts, memories or feelings into the mind

thrill – n. a feeling of great excitement or happiness

resurrection – n. the act of causing something that had ended or been forgotten or lost to exist again

symphony – n. a long piece of music that is usually in four large, separate sections and that is performed by an orchestra

semi-retired – adj. working only part time at a career or job because you have reached the age at which you no longer need to work full-time

freelance – adj. working for different companies at different times rather than being permanently employed by one company

comprise – v. to be made up of something

triumph – n. a great or important victory

reborn – adj. brought back to life

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月28日 (水)

American College Students Know Little of World Events

September 27, 2016 from VOA   
American College Students Know Little of World Events

Young people in the United States do not have a strong understanding of the world and their place in it.

Two U.S.-based groups, the Council on Foreign Relations and the National Geographic Society, commissioned an online survey earlier this year. They wanted to know what young people educated in American colleges knew about geography, U.S. foreign policy, recent international events, and economics.

In general, the results were not very good.

The bad news

The survey was given to over 1,200 Americans between the ages of 18 and 26 years. All of them currently attend, or formerly attended, a 2- or 4-year college or university.

The average test score, out of 75 total possible answers, was 55 percent.

The study identifies a few important questions that American students did not know about their own country.

For example, less than 30 percent knew that a treaty requires the United States to protect Japan if it is attacked. Only 30 percent knew that the only part of the U.S. government that can declare war is Congress.

The online survey produced findings that are similar to the findings of other recent studies.

The Internet

Part of the problem, say the organizers of the survey, is the Internet. They say it is becoming harder to get good information about what is happening in the world today.

Susan Goldberg is with the National Geographic Society. She says people never have to see anything that differs from their understanding of the world; many get their news from a newsfeed.

Forty-three percent of those questioned said they read about national and international news on Facebook.

Another problem is that classes do not require students to learn about international issues. That is the opinion of Richard Haass of the Council on Foreign Relations.

"The problem is schools do not require that students take these courses to graduate," he said. "There is a fundamental difference between offering a course and requiring it."

If such information is not required, Haass said, then the United States could have leaders like Gary Johnson. Johnson is the presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party. He did not know about the Syrian city of Aleppo when a reporter asked him about it.

The good news

The survey results were not all bad. The young people who were questioned demonstrated a good understanding of climate change and renewable energy.

Even if the young people failed to understand many of the questions, the majority of them said that international issues were becoming more important to them.

Only two percent said that knowledge of foreign or non-U.S. cultures was not important. One percent said knowledge of world events was not important.

Haass says these findings suggest the need to find ways to get good information to students, both in school and online. To help, the Council on Foreign Relations is creating a new program called CFR Campus, designed to help build knowledge about global issues.

I’m John Russell.

Kevin Enochs wrote this story for VOA News. John Russell adapted this story for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

We want to hear from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.

________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

survey – n. an activity in which many people are asked a question or a series of questions in order to gather information about what most people do or think about something

commission – v. to order or request (something) to be made or done

newsfeed – n. An electronic transmission of news, as from a broadcaster or an Internet newsgroup

online – adj. connected to a computer or the internet

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月27日 (火)

あなたはまだあのハードタイプのスーツケースですか?

あの堀江貴文さんが企画運営するイノベーション大学校でスーツケース革命です。
これまでスーツケースといえば、硬くて丈夫なハードタイプが主流でした。
堀江貴文さんの大学の一部である、物販グループが企画、 販売しているソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」が話題になっています。
軽くて持ち運びができるだけではありません。
その、中身に込められた、多機能性が、がぜん注目を集めています。
いまなぜ堀江貴文さんなのか、ユーチューブをみて、その人気が衰えない秘密を知ることができました。

ユーチューブダイジェストバージョン
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cjouMOIoQCk
ユーチューブロングバージョン
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xm_gIxw4da8


話題のソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」 誕生秘話が満載です。
純粋な若者たちにより、全く飾らない言葉で、素直に表現されているので、感動させられました。
これからは、ハードタイプのスーツケースよりも、ソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」が主流となるのではないでしょうか。
抜群のかっこよさです。



堀江貴文イノベーション大学校の物販グループが企画、 販売しているソフトスーツケース「Carryco with me」の製作秘話が公開!!



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

企業信用のよりどころであるPマーク取得は、まさに、先手必勝ということができます

アベノミクス景気によるものでしょうか、最近、株式市場をつぶさに観察していれば、あることに気がつかされます。
それは、市場に供給される、ありあまる資金を活用して、例えばIT産業、IT事業に乗り出す、若手新進起業家が後を絶たないという事実です。

IT事業で一番大切なのは、関連技術はもちろんですが、個人情報の管理体制ではないでしょうか。
企業の個人情報の管理体制を、第三者的な視点で、客観的に判断できるのはPマーク(プライバシーマーク)が一番です。
IT事業においては、もはや、プライバシーマークの認証取得は必要条件となってしまっています。
とくに、大手企業と取引する際には、絶対的な条件ともなり得ます。
それだけ、IT事業では、個人情報をしっかりと管理されることが、望まれているためです。

耳寄りなニュースをお届けいたしましょう。
助成金を活用し、プライバシーマークを、費用をかけずに取得するノウハウセミナーが開催されます。
開催地は名古屋・福岡・仙台の都市です。
IT事業を志す若者たち、必見のセミナーです。
Pマーク 取得は、まさに、先手必勝ということができます。



ユーピーエフ 「助成金を活用しプライバシーマークを費用をかけずに取得するノウハウセミナー」を開催 名古屋・福岡・仙台で



ドリームニュース・ブログメディア参加記事

| | コメント (0)

Health Experts Warn of Overuse of Antimicrobials

Health Experts Warn of Overuse of Antimicrobials

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

For today’s report, we talk about the dangers, not of an illness, but of medicines -- antimicrobial medicines. Health experts are more and more concerned about the overuse of antimicrobials. A growing number of bacteria and other disease-causing organisms are developing resistance to these drugs.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) says the growing resistance is a threat to people and animals alike.

The FAO recently noted an "increased use and abuse of antimicrobial medicines in both human and animal healthcare." It said their use and abuse has led to a growing number of disease-causing microbes that are resistant to traditional medicines.

FAO officials say this can be seen, for example, in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The problem is so serious that U.N. officials called a high-level meeting to consider the dangers of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance is also called AMR.

But just how widespread is antimicrobial use?

“We don't really know how much of the antimicrobials, including antibiotics, are being used in food and agriculture.”

Juan Lubroth is an expert on animal health. He serves as the Chief Veterinary Officer for the FAO. He says there are many unanswered questions about the manufacturing and marketing of antimicrobial drugs.

“In fact, we don't really know how much is being made. Who is buying? Who is selling? How much is the international traffic, either as drugs ready to be used or the active ingredient inside a drug that is then formulated someplace else?”

Doctor Lubroth says the overuse of antibiotics involves everything: humans, animals and agriculture get caught in what he calls a cycle of disease transmission.

“We can get sick. They can get sick. They can die. They need the antibiotics to be given in a proper way so they can recover. So, it's not only about food and agriculture. It's also about our dogs and cats, our mascots.”

Misuse of antimicrobials includes failing to follow directions and possibly taking someone else’s medicine. Lubroth admits that even he has misused antibiotics.

“Even I'm guilty. My physician may have given me antibiotics to take for the course of a week, seven days, and I stopped at day six. Well, that's bad. That's not good. That's a misuse of the antibiotics.”

Failure to follow directions when taking medicine is one way germs can develop a resistance to a drug.

The FAO says that antimicrobial medicines are critical in the treatment of farm animals and plants. "Their use," it says, "is essential to food security, human well-being and animal welfare."

Lubroth says the Food and Agriculture Organization has developed a four-part action plan for antimicrobial resistance.

“One is to create the awareness among the general public of the issue. Two would be to have the evidence. Have the surveillance in place that I can monitor when the antimicrobial resistance appears, and I report it in a timely fashion...”

The action plan calls for strengthening governmental agencies that deal with public health, food and agriculture. It also calls for sharing of information with each other and with medical experts.

Another part of the plan is to provide support for good practices in food and agricultural systems and the effective use of antimicrobials. Such drugs are often used in small amounts in animal feed to support growth. Once in farm animals, they become part of the food chain.

“I think that the consumers should be empowered to really push their governments or their food providers that they want safe food -- wholesome food. I think we can all agree on that. We may disagree on some of the specifics of how to get there, but I think that the consumer and the voice of the consumer has to be heard.”

Lubroth says "the long-term consequences of not being able to use an antimicrobials because of resistance” would be terrible. He adds that the medicines bring a "global public good to the planet."

I’m Anna Matteo.

Joe DeCapua wrote this report for VOANews.com. Anna Matteo adapted it for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.

___________________________________________________________

Words in This Story

mascot – n. a person, animal, or object used as a symbol to represent a group (such as a sports team) and to bring good luck

consequence – n. something that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions

food chain – n. a series of types of living things in which each one uses the next lower member of the series as a source of food

empowered – v. to give power to (someone)

veterinary – adj. relating to the medical care and treatment of animals

ingredient – n. one of the things that are used to make a food, product, etc.

formulate to create, invent, or produce (something) by careful thought and effort

cycle – n. a recurring series of events: as

transmission – n. the act or process by which something is spread or passed from one person or thing to another

awareness – n. the state of knowing that something (such as a situation, condition, or problem) exists

surveillance – medical n. close and continuous observation or testing

fashion – n. manner or way of doing something

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月26日 (月)

シリア危機 露には停戦実現の責任がある

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Russia responsible for prevailing on Syrian govt to honor ceasefire
シリア危機 露には停戦実現の責任がある

A ceasefire in the civil war between Syrian President Bashar Assad’s administration and rebel forces is on the brink of collapse just one week after the agreement, mediated by the United States and Russia, took effect. This is a serious situation.
 シリアのアサド政権と反体制派の内戦を巡り、米露が仲介した停戦合意が発効からわずか1週間で崩壊の危機に陥った。深刻な事態である。

The Assad administration, which is supported by Russia, unilaterally announced the end of the truce and resumed an offensive, claiming that its foes did not observe the agreement. The announcement was apparently prompted in part by suspicions that the United States had bombed Syrian government forces by mistake following the ceasefire.
 ロシアの支援を受けるアサド政権が、停戦終了を一方的に宣言した。「反体制派が合意に従わなかった」と主張し、攻撃を再開した。停戦発効後、米軍が政権軍を誤爆した疑いが浮上したことも、背景にあるのだろう。

We cannot turn a blind eye to the fact that a convoy carrying food and medicine was attacked from the air on the outskirts of Aleppo, northern Syria. The attack forced the United Nations to suspend aid shipments.
 看過できないのは、シリア北部アレッポ郊外で、食料や医薬品を運ぶ車列が空爆されたことである。国連は輸送活動の一時停止に追い込まれた。

Roads leading to some sections of Aleppo remain sealed off as government forces besiege them, and hundreds of thousands of residents are isolated and facing air raids and starvation. Didn’t the United States and Russia hurry to reach a ceasefire so as to deliver aid supplies safely and avert a humanitarian crisis?
 アレッポの一部地域は政権軍の包囲作戦により、道路が封鎖されている。住民数十万人が孤立し、爆撃と飢餓に苦しむ。米露が停戦を急いだのは、支援物資を安全に届ける手段を確保し、人道危機を回避するためではなかったか。

The United Nations and other parties concerned naturally condemned the airstrike, describing it as a “flagrant violation” of international law. The United States and Russia have engaged in a mud-slinging battle, with Washington claiming the attack was carried out by Russian or Syrian government aircraft and calling for the perpetrators to be held responsible, while Moscow denied culpability.
 国連などが「極めて悪質な国際法違反」として空爆を非難したのは当然だ。米国は「ロシアもしくは政権軍による攻撃」と断じ、責任を追及した。ロシア側は否定し、泥仕合が続いている。

The two countries also played a leading role in bringing about a truce in February, which lasted only a few months. The Assad administration and rebel groups were supposed to hold peace talks to establish a transitional government by August, but the plan fell through.
 米露は2月にも停戦合意を主導したが、数か月で破綻した。政権と反体制派が和平協議を進め、8月までに移行政権を樹立するという構想もすでに頓挫した。

Don’t maintain status quo

The United States aims at ousting the Assad administration as quickly as possible and forming a new government. Ending the Syrian civil war, which has continued for five years, would allow the international community to focus on defeating the Islamic State of the Iraq and Levant (ISIL) militant group. It also would serve to help resolve the refugee crisis. We consider this a reasonable approach.
 米国は、アサド政権の早期退陣と新政権の発足を目指す。5年に及ぶ内戦を終結させれば、過激派組織「イスラム国」の打倒に国際社会が集中できる態勢が整う。難民問題を収拾する契機にもなる。妥当な考え方と言えよう。

However, Russia’s stance poses a problem.
 問題なのはロシアの姿勢だ。

It places top priority on maintaining the Assad administration, which has been said to have used chemical weapons, and seizing the initiative on the Syrian situation from the United States. Moscow intervened militarily in Syria a year ago on the pretext of eradicating ISIL, and it has carried out airstrikes and other attacks to help government forces come from behind and take the offensive.
 化学兵器使用も指摘されるアサド政権を温存し、シリア情勢の主導権を米国から奪うことを最優先目標としている。1年前に「イスラム国」掃討の名目で軍事介入し、劣勢だった政権軍の反転攻勢を空爆などで後押しした。

Russia has the responsibility and influence to press government forces to observe the ceasefire. It is not acceptable for Moscow to try to maintain the status quo by exploiting the fact that U.S. President Barack Obama has only four months left before leaving office.
 ロシアには、政権軍に停戦を守らせる責務と影響力がある。オバマ米大統領の任期が残り4か月しかないことにつけ込み、現状維持を図る工作は許されまい。

Syria faces an increasingly complex situation in its civil war. Neighboring Turkey has sent tanks across the common border in an effort to prevent the forces of the Kurdish minority, which Ankara regards as a foe, from expanding the areas it controls. An Iranian contingent, meanwhile, is also helping government forces in the civil war. These countries should exercise self-restraint.
 シリアの戦況は複雑さを増している。隣国トルコは、敵対する少数民族クルド人勢力の支配地域の拡大を抑えるため、戦車部隊を越境させた。イランからは、政権軍を支援する組織が参戦している。関係国の自制が求められよう。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that Japan would provide about $1.13 billion in aid for residents in Syria and its neighbors. We hope that Japan will continue its efforts to establish conditions to resolve the Syria crisis by making nonmilitary contributions.
 安倍首相は、シリアや周辺国の住民向けに約11・3億ドルの支援を表明した。日本は引き続き、非軍事面の貢献を通じ、危機を解決する環境の醸成に努めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 25, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月25日 (日)

難民と世界 もっと支援に本腰を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 23
EDITORIAL: Japan must step up commitment to assisting the world’s refugees
(社説)難民と世界 もっと支援に本腰を

Imagine that half of all Japanese were driven from their homes--that comparison could be one way to help envisage the sheer extent of the crisis.
 日本人の2人に1人が家を追われた。こう例えれば事態の規模がイメージできるだろうか。

The number of forcibly displaced people around the world has reached 65 million, a record high after World War II.
 世界の難民・避難民が6500万人に達し、第2次大戦以降で最大になった。

Apart from refugees fleeing from persecution and war, there is also a rapid spread in the flow of migrants moving to other countries in quest of better lives.
 迫害や戦火を逃れる難民だけではない。より良い暮らしを求めて他国へ渡る移民の流れも急速に広がっている。

A summit was held recently at the United Nations to seek international cooperation on measures to deal with this urgent issue.
 この喫緊の問題にどう取り組むべきか。その国際協調を探るサミットが国連で開かれた。

The outflow of refugees from Syria, Afghanistan and other countries, which are embroiled in civil wars with no end in sight, is particularly serious. The global community must strengthen their efforts to achieve cease-fires and, at the same time, turn their attention before anything else to nations adjacent to those countries, which are suffering under the burden of hosting the refugees.
 とりわけ内戦の出口が見えないシリア、アフガニスタンなどから逃れる難民の流出は深刻だ。国際社会は停戦への努力を強めるとともに、難民受け入れの負担に苦しむ周辺国に、まず目を向ける必要があろう。

Lebanon has accepted more than 1 million Syrian refugees, whereas 2.5 million people have taken shelter in Turkey. These and other countries are giving out silent screams saying that they cannot sustain more.
 100万人超のシリア難民を受け入れたレバノンや、250万人が避難したトルコなどからは「限界だ」との声が漏れる。

It stands to reason that a declaration, which was unanimously adopted at the summit, referred explicitly to a “more equitable sharing of the burden and responsibility.” In this age, wherein people migrate on a global scale, the issue of refugees and migrants has direct consequences for politics and the economy of the world. The burden should be shared by the entire international community, irrespective of the distance from conflict zones.
 全会一致で採択された宣言に「責任の公平な分担」が明記されたのは当然だ。地球規模で人が移動する時代であり、難民・移民問題は世界の政治・経済に直結する。紛争地からの距離にとらわれず、国際社会全体で負担を分かち合うべきだ。

How, then, should respective countries share it? The fact that no specific figures or deadlines were included in the declaration has left a major task unfinished.
 では、各国がどう分担するのか。具体的な数字や期限が宣言に盛り込まれなかったことは、大きな課題として残った。

In the backdrop of the indecisive attitude is a rise in exclusionary sentiment, which is derived from a fear of terrorism and anxiety about jobs being snatched away. Politicians and political parties that make similar arguments are gaining momentum in recent years in Western countries.
 腰が引ける背景には、テロの恐怖や、「仕事を奪われる」との不安による排斥感情の高まりがある。欧米では近年、そうした主張をする政治家や政党が勢いを増している。

But that sort of exclusionist reproach is often an act of shifting the blame on others by exploiting the anger of the public toward a broad array of social problems, including wealth disparity. In the long run, refugees and migrants have brought no small benefit and vitality to their host countries.
 しかし、こうした排他的な非難は、貧富の格差など広範な社会問題への国民の怒りを利用した責任転嫁であることも多い。長い目で見れば、難民や移民は受け入れ国に、利益や活力を少なからずもたらしてきた。

Representatives of managers’ and workers’ groups said during the summit conference that accepting migrants and refugees in an orderly manner invigorates the economy. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has also pointed out that doing so has a positive long-term impact on the economy. National governments should properly explain to their respective public about that positive aspect of accepting refugees and migrants.
 サミットの会合で、経営者や労働者の団体は「秩序ある移民や難民の受け入れは経済を活性化させる」と述べた。経済協力開発機構(OECD)も、長期的に経済的にプラスになると指摘する。各国政府は、そうした受け入れのメリットについて国民にきちんと説明すべきだ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said during the summit that Japan will provide about 280 billion yen ($2.8 billion) in a package to assist host countries and accept 150 Syrian students.
 安倍首相は受け入れ国支援のための約2800億円の拠出や、シリア人留学生150人の受け入れなどを表明した。

But there is no change in the fact that Japan is accepting significantly fewer refugees than many other countries, a reality that is drawing international criticism.
 だが、多くの国と比べて難民の受け入れが極端に少ない現実は変わっておらず、国際的に批判の的となっている。

A growing number of businesses are hiring refugees, and an increasing number of individuals are making donations to groups assisting refugees, in Japan in recent years.
 近年は日本でも難民の雇用に取り組む企業や、支援団体に寄付する人が増えている。

The government of Japan should also broaden its range of actions and open its doors more boldly to the rest of the world in aspiring to be a country that sufficiently fulfills its responsibilities.
政府も行動の幅を広げ、もっと世界に門戸を開き、十分な責任を果たす国の姿をめざすべきだ。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月24日 (土)

日米国連演説 連携して対北制裁を強化せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, U.S. must join forces to slap tougher sanctions on North Korea
日米国連演説 連携して対北制裁を強化せよ

What should be done about the North Korean threat, which has entered a new phase? Japan and the United States should cooperate closely and utilize the United Nations effectively.
 新たな段階に入った北朝鮮の脅威に、どう対処するか。日米両国は、緊密に連携し、国連を効果的に活用すべきだ。

Addressing a U.N. General Assembly session, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe denounced North Korea’s nuclear and missile development, saying: “The threat has now reached a dimension altogether different from what has transpired until now. We must thwart North Korea’s plans.”
 安倍首相が国連総会で演説し、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル開発について「これまでと異なる次元に達した。計画をくじかなくてはならない」と非難した。

North Korea has carried out two nuclear tests and launched more than 20 ballistic missiles so far this year. Some of them landed in Japan’s exclusive economic zone.
 北朝鮮は今年、核実験を2回強行した。20発以上の弾道ミサイルを発射し、日本の排他的経済水域(EEZ)にも着弾させた。

“It is purely a matter of good fortune that no commercial aircraft or ships suffered any damage during this incident,” Abe said. This comment is right on the money.
 首相が「航空機や船舶に被害がなかったのは全くの偶然に過ぎない」と指摘したのは当然だ。

Pyongyang has repeatedly disregarded the sanctions resolutions adopted against it by the U.N. Security Council. Abe stressed, “The raison d’etre of the United Nations is now truly being tested.” To force North Korea to abandon its ambition of possessing nuclear weapons, imposing tougher sanctions is indispensable.
 北朝鮮は国連安全保障理事会の再三の制裁決議を無視している。首相は「国連の存在意義が問われている」と力説した。核保有の野心を断念させるには、更なる制裁強化が不可欠である。

Abe exchanged views with U.S. President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister Theresa May — leaders of two of the five permanent members of the Security Council — among others. It is of no small significance that Abe has won the cooperation of leaders of these countries to work toward adopting a new resolution on sanctions against North Korea.
 首相は、安保理常任理事国である米国のオバマ大統領、英国のメイ首相らと意見交換した。新たな制裁決議の採択に向けて、協力を確認した意義は小さくない。

The key to adopting a new resolution and ensuring the effectiveness of sanctions is how China, which is passive about additional sanctions, will respond. It is important for Japan, together with the United States and other countries, to press Beijing to join the effort to constrain North Korea.
 新決議の採択と、制裁の実効性確保のカギは、追加制裁に消極的な中国の対応である。米国などとともに、中国に北朝鮮包囲網に加わるよう促すことが重要だ。

Pressure on China key

The 60th anniversary of Japan’s U.N. membership is in December. Japan is currently serving as a nonpermanent member of the Security Council for the 11th time, more than any other U.N. member. Japan’s financial contributions to the United Nations exceed $20 billion.
 今年12月、日本は国連加盟60年を迎える。安保理の非常任理事国を加盟国で最多の11回務めている。支払った国連分担金などの累計は200億ドルを上回る。

Japan must fulfill its role in tackling the latest North Korean action also from the viewpoint of realizing Security Council reforms and becoming, along with others, a permanent member of that body.
 日本は、安保理改革を実現し、常任理事国入りを目指すうえでも、今回の北朝鮮問題できちんと役割を果たしたい。

In his final U.N. address as U.S. president, Obama also emphasized the need for applying pressure on Pyongyang, saying: “When North Korea tests a bomb that endangers all of us.”
 オバマ氏も任期最後の国連演説で、核実験は「我々すべてを危険にさらす」と述べ、北朝鮮への圧力を強める必要性を強調した。

We cannot overlook the fact that four of five North Korean nuclear tests were conducted while Obama was president of the United States. It is painfully regrettable that his administration failed to apply sufficient pressure on Beijing to rigorously impose sanctions. This eventually led to North Korea making progress in its nuclear and missile development program.
 見過ごせないのは、北朝鮮の5回の核実験のうち、4回がオバマ政権下で実施されたことだ。中国に制裁履行を徹底させられず、核・ミサイル開発の進行を結果的に許したのは痛恨である。

With China’s self-serving expansion of its maritime activities and Russia’s intervention into the affairs of Ukraine in mind, Obama expressed a sense of alarm, saying: “Powerful nations contest the constraints placed on them by international law.”
 オバマ氏は、中国の独善的な海洋進出やロシアのウクライナ介入を念頭に、「強国が国際法に挑んでいる」との危機感も示した。

Reflecting on the war in Iraq waged by the previous Bush administration, Obama’s diplomacy has attached more importance to international collaboration. The Obama administration has achieved results by reinforcing its alliance with two Asian allies — Japan and South Korea. But its influence in the Middle East and vis-a-vis China and Russia has undeniably declined.
 ブッシュ前政権によるイラク戦争の反省から、オバマ外交は国際協調を重視した。日韓との同盟強化で成果を上げたが、中東や対中露での影響力低下は否めない。

While the United States has given up its conventional role as the “world’s policeman,” in which it actively intervened in international disputes, moves to change the status quo by force have intensified. This, in one respect, has led to the emergence of extremist groups, including the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Doesn’t Obama feel regret about such a development?
 「世界の警察官」として紛争に積極介入する役割を米国が回避した隙に、「力による現状変更」の動きが強まり、「イスラム国」などの過激派組織が台頭した側面もある。オバマ氏にも、忸怩じくじたる思いがあるのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 23, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月23日 (金)

黒田日銀の転換 あの約束は何だったか

September 22, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: BOJ' new policy phase highlights failure of monetary easing experiment
黒田日銀の転換 あの約束は何だったか

The Bank of Japan (BOJ) comprehensively reviewed its large-scale monetary easing policy, which it carried out under the leadership of Gov. Haruhiko Kuroda, and announced a new framework for its bond-buying program to keep the yield of the bellwether 10-year Japanese government debt at around zero percent.
 無謀な実験は失敗に終わったということだ。
 日銀が、黒田東彦総裁のもとで進めてきた大規模金融緩和策の「総括的な検証」を行い、併せて「新しい枠組み」を発表した。

Roughly 3 1/2 years have passed since the BOJ began quantitative and qualitative easing of its monetary grip as the "first arrow" of the Abenomics economic policy mix promoted by the government of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. However, the fact that the BOJ has been forced to review the policy and change its framework clearly demonstrates that the policy has reached a deadlock.
アベノミクス第一の矢として注目を集めた「量的・質的金融緩和」が始まり約3年半になるが、こうした検証や枠組みの変更が必要になったこと自体、行き詰まりを如実に示している。

At a news conference, the BOJ would not admit that its policy has failed. Gov. Kuroda categorically denied that the central bank had been forced to change the policy framework due to limits of its monetary policy.
 日銀自身は、誤りを認めようとしない。黒田総裁は、政策の限界が枠組みの変更をもたらしたとの見方を、記者会見で強く否定した。

幻の「2年で2%」

The BOJ even praised the achievements it has made through its monetary easing policy saying, "Over that period (when the policy was implemented), the situation surrounding Japan's economy and consumer prices greatly improved, and Japan has overcome deflation in that consumer prices no longer keep declining."
 それどころか日銀は、「この間に、わが国の経済・物価は大きく好転し、物価が持続的に下落するという意味でのデフレではなくなった」と自賛してみせた。

The central bank claimed that Japan's failure to achieve its target of an annual inflation rate of 2 percent over the space of about two years is attributable to a sharp drop in crude oil prices, a consumption tax increase from 5 percent to 8 percent in April 2014, the slowdown of emerging countries' economies, and Japanese people's unique views on consumer prices. The BOJ thus denied that the failure was a result of problems involving the central bank's ultra-easy money policy.
 肝心の年2%の物価上昇目標は達成していないが、日銀の政策に問題があったからではなく、原油価格の大幅下落、消費税の引き上げ、新興国経済の減速、さらに日本人の物価観の特殊性のせいだと分析した。

When the BOJ announced at a news conference on April 4, 2013 that it would launch an ultra-easy money policy, Gov. Kuroda showed off panels bearing "2 percent," and "2 years," and appeared confident of the credit easing policy it had just approved.  時計の針を2013年4月4日に戻してみよう。
 「2%、2年……」−−。記者会見に臨んだ黒田総裁は、大きく記した「2」が並ぶパネルを自ら手にし、決定したての金融緩和策に自信満々だった。

Kuroda emphasized that the central bank's new policy was different from its past policies on three points. Firstly, the BOJ stated a target year for achieving 2 percent inflation. Secondly, the central bank not only verbally promised to achieve the goal but also took unprecedented action to purchase a massive amount of government bonds in an attempt to convince the public that consumer prices would rise. Thirdly, the BOJ pledged to avoid implementing small-scale additional measures bit by bit.
 従来の日銀との違いとして強調したポイントは主に三つだ。2%の目標達成まで「2年程度」と期限を切って結果を約束したこと。口約束でなく、国債の大量購入という異例の行動を伴わせ、人々に物価上昇を信じ込ませようとしたこと。そして従来のような小出しの追加策を重ねたりしないと言い切ったことだ。

The central bank governor declared at the time, "We've adopted all measures that are necessary now to achieve the goal of a 2 percent annual inflation within two years."
 「2年で2%の物価安定目標を達成するために、現時点で必要な措置は全て決定した」と総裁は胸を張った。

Deputy Gov. Kikuo Iwata, who joined the central bank simultaneously with Kuroda, even stated that he would step down if the central bank failed to achieve the inflation target within two years. He later retracted his statement saying, "I meant that I must place priority on fulfilling my accountability."
同じ時期に日銀入りした岩田規久男副総裁は、2年で2%を達成できない場合、辞任するとまで宣言していた。後に「説明責任を果たすことが先決というのが真意だった」と撤回したが、

The BOJ had initially stated that the 2 percent target could be achieved if the central bank drastically increased the volume of money it supplied to the market. Yet the target has not been reached.
日銀がお金の量を本気で増やしさえすれば、2%の目標は達成できるというのが、当時の約束だった。
 結果はそうならなかった。

The BOJ postponed the target date for achieving an inflation rate of 2 percent whenever it announced its outlook for consumer prices in each quarter. In October 2014, the central bank drastically increased the amount of money it supplied, but remained far from being able to achieve the inflation target.
 日銀は四半期に1度の物価見通し発表のたびに、2%の達成時期を先送りした。14年10月には、お金の量の増やし方を拡大したが、それでも約2年で2%は遠く及ばなかった。

In reviewing its policy, the BOJ cited the effects of the consumption tax increase in 2014 and the slowdown of other countries' economies as the reasons why the target had not been achieved. But BOJ executives are experts in monetary policy. They cannot make excuses by saying these factors were beyond the scope of their assumptions.
 日銀は検証の中で、14年の消費税引き上げの影響や海外の景気の鈍化を挙げているが、政策のプロなら、想定外とは言い訳できないだろう。

True, crude oil prices plummeted more sharply than had been widely predicted. In reviewing its policy, the BOJ said that Japanese people's predictions of future consumer prices are largely affected by the actual fluctuation in consumer prices that is going on. The central bank pointed out that prolonged deflation as well as labor-management negotiations on pay raises during the so-called spring labor offensive, which are unique to Japan, have made the Japanese economy more susceptible to short-term consumer price declines. However, these are nothing but excuses and attempts to shift the blame.
 確かに原油価格の激しい下落は、予想の域を超えたものだった。これについて日銀の検証は、米国などに比べ、日本人の将来の物価予想が、現実の物価動向に左右されやすいためだとした。長引いたデフレや、春闘という日本特有の賃上げ交渉が、短期的な物価下落の影響を受けやすくしていると説くが、明らかな言い訳、責任転嫁である。

The BOJ's new framework and its dumping of the two-year deadline for achieving its target represents a great transformation in its policies, from one placing emphasis on the amount of money supplied to the market to one that places more importance on interest rates.
 「2年で達成」をあっさりと葬り新たに導入した枠組みは、異次元緩和を支える、お金の量に主軸を置いた政策から金利重視の政策への大転換だ。

The BOJ has also been forced to modify its negative interest policy, which it introduced in February this year, because critics have pointed out numerous problems, such as a decrease in financial institutions' profits, and difficulties that public pension funds and others face in investing money over the long term to gain stable yields.
しかも、今年2月に導入したばかりのマイナス金利政策も、金融機関の収益を圧迫したり、年金など長期の運用を一段と困難なものにしたりと弊害が多く指摘されたため、修正を余儀なくされた。

市場をゆがめた責任

Under the previous framework, market players expected the BOJ to further relax its monetary grip whenever it became certain the central bank would postpone the target year for achieving a 2 percent inflation rate. The central bank's monetary policy thus became a major matter of concern for market players. The framework change will likely rectify the situation.
 従来の枠組みでは、物価上昇率2%の達成時期が先送りされそうになるたびに市場から追加緩和期待が出ていた。自らまいた種ではあるが、日銀の政策があまりにも市場の主要関心事になり過ぎた。それが改善されるメリットはあるだろう。

Still, questions remain as to whether the BOJ can control not only short-term interest rates but also long-term interest rates governing yields on 10-year government bonds to attain levels which the central bank regards as desirable. Long-term interest rates should be determined by the market. The rates can sound an alarm over the government's irresponsible use of taxpayers' money. Monetary policy that restricts such a function of long-term interest rates deserves criticism as excessive market intervention by the central bank.
 しかし、短期金利だけでなく長期金利(10年物国債の利回り)まで日銀が望ましいと思う水準に管理することが可能かという疑念は残る。さらに、長期金利は本来、市場が決めるものだ。例えば無責任な財政支出に対して、警告のシグナルを送る。その機能を縛る政策は過剰な市場介入ではないか。

Needless to say, what now must be brought up is the question of responsibility for failure of the experiment, which the BOJ began on its promise to achieve a 2 percent inflation rate within about two years.
 当然、問われるべきは、「2年を念頭に達成」との約束で始めた実験の失敗の責任である。

The BOJ has amassed over 450 trillion yen worth of assets. This includes government bonds whose prices could plummet in the future and investment trust funds. And the amount is expected to increase. It is a matter that could affect the credibility of the yen.
 日銀のもとには、将来値下がりの恐れがある国債や投資信託といった資産が450兆円以上も積み上がった。今後も当分の間、増加を続けるだろう。円という通貨の信用にかかわる問題だ。

How to normalize the bond market, which has been distorted because it has relied on the BOJ's massive purchase of government bonds, will pose a serious challenge. If the annual inflation rate is stabilized at over 2 percent, the BOJ will need to decrease the amount of government bonds it buys on a step-by-step basis.
 日銀による大量購入に依存し、ゆがみきった国債市場を、将来どうやって正常化するかという難題も待ち受ける。物価の上昇率が持続して2%を超えるようになれば、日銀は段階的に国債の購入額を減らしていかねばならない。

However, if the BOJ hints at its intention to withdraw from the bond market as a major buyer, it could cause market prices of government bonds to sharply decrease and long-term interest rates to spike.
 だが、日銀という巨大な買い手が市場から手を引こうとした途端、価格が急落し、長期金利は急上昇しかねない。

To prevent such a situation, the central bank would have to keep buying government bonds, even though this could generate an economic bubble or cause the economy to overheat.
それを回避しようとすれば、国債購入をいつまでも止められず、バブルや景気の過熱を招く恐れがある。

As such, the central bank will face difficulty in seeking a way out of the policy of buying a massive volume of government bonds.
極めて難易度の高い出口戦略を求められよう。

The BOJ is not solely to blame for the ultra-easy money policy that has left serious problems for Japan's future.
 将来に重大な問題を残した異次元緩和策の責任は、日銀だけにあるのではない。

The responsibility of the government, which relied on the "first arrow" of Abenomics, should also be called into question.
アベノミクスの第一の矢に頼った政府の責任も問われる。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月22日 (木)

温暖化対策 取り組みを加速せよ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 20
EDITORIAL: Japan should speed efforts to join fight against global warming
(社説)温暖化対策 取り組みを加速せよ

The world’s fight against global warming is picking up steam.
 地球温暖化に立ち向かう世界の潮流は勢いを増している。

Japan should respond and ramp up its own efforts in both the public and private sectors to help tackle the challenge.
それを見誤ることなく、官民の取り組みを加速させるべきだ。

First of all, Japan should ratify the Paris Agreement, a landmark international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions starting in 2020.
 まずは、2020年以降の地球温暖化対策を決めた新たな国際的枠組み「パリ協定」の批准を急ぎたい。

The new climate accord is now on track to become operational as early as by the end of the year.
 パリ協定は年内にも発効する見通しになった。

Early this month, the United States and China, the world’s two biggest emitters of greenhouse gases, announced they will ratify the Paris Agreement. Their actions have greatly improved the prospect of the agreement taking effect quickly.
二酸化炭素など温室効果ガスの排出で世界1、2位の中国と米国が今月初め、足並みをそろえて協定締結を発表し、発効に必要な条件に大きく近づいたからだ。

Even after the new climate deal was adopted during the United Nations conference on climate change in December, the Japanese government has shown little enthusiasm for revitalizing its faltering efforts to stem climate change.
 パリ協定が昨年末の国連気候変動会議(COP〈コップ〉21)で採択された後も、日本政府の動きは鈍かった。

Betting that the pact would take effect around 2018, the government apparently opted to wait and see the moves of big emitters before deciding on its response.
「発効は18年ごろ。対応は大排出国の動向を見極めてからでいい」との姿勢だった。

The Kyoto Protocol, an agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions negotiated in 1997 with Japan playing a pivotal role, required only industrialized nations to achieve their emissions targets and put no limits on the amount of gas that China, a developing country, can spew into the atmosphere. The United States later withdrew from the agreement.
 日本が尽力して1997年に採択された京都議定書では、中国が途上国として削減義務を負わず、米国は途中で離脱。

The Japanese business community criticized the Kyoto Protocol as unfair. The March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami has further blunted public interest in measures to stem global warming in Japan.
不公平だと訴える声が経済界などに広がった。東日本大震災もあって、温暖化への関心自体が薄れていた。

However, the international community has become increasingly concerned about the expected consequences of rising global temperatures. This is clearly evidenced by the fact that the United States and China have abandoned their previous reluctance and made a solid commitment to tackling the challenge.
 だが、消極姿勢を一変させた米中に代表される通り、国際社会は危機感を強めている。

That’s because it has become even clearer that human activities are the principal causes of the warming of this planet, which is believed by many scientists to be causing an increasing number of extreme weather events such as severe heat waves and destructive torrential rains.
人類の活動が温暖化を招いていることが一層確実になり、温暖化との関連性が濃厚な熱波や豪雨なども頻発しているからだ。

Japan has submitted to the United Nations its own emissions target in relation to the Paris Agreement. It has pledged to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26 percent from fiscal 2013 levels by fiscal 2030.
 パリ協定に関して、日本は温室効果ガスの排出量を「30年度に13年度比26%減らす」との目標を国連に提出済みだ。

In the Ise-Shima Group of Seven summit held in May in Japan, the leaders of the seven major countries committed themselves to developing before 2020 long-term strategies for achieving economic growth while curbing greenhouse gas emissions.
さらに5月の伊勢志摩サミットでは、ガスの排出を抑えつつ発展していく長期戦略を20年を待たずにつくることを申し合わせた。

But debate on such a strategy has just started at a government council.
 ただ、戦略的な議論は政府の審議会でようやく始まったところだ。

The panel needs to consider a range of new ideas and proposals that would significantly affect society and industry. They include carbon pricing, which means charging for carbon emissions by businesses offering products and services so that the costs of dealing with the problem are reflected in the price tags.
Another potentially effective approach is using land under plans integrating environmental, economic and local development factors.
製品やサービスの提供に伴うガス排出量を価格に反映させる「カーボンプライシング」や、環境と経済、街づくりを一体に考える土地利用など、社会や産業のあり方にかかわる新たな発想や試みも課題になろう。

Nuclear power generation, which emits less greenhouse gases during operations than thermal power production burning fossil fuels, is often cited as an effective means to cut emissions.
 運転時のガス排出が少ない原子力発電の活用もしばしば議論にのぼる。

However, given the enormous cost and difficulty of disposing of radioactive waste and the vast damage caused by the Fukushima nuclear disaster, relying on nuclear power generation should not be an option.
だが、廃棄物処理の費用と難しさ、福島第一原発事故が示した被害の大きさを考えると、原発頼みは許されない。

To reduce its carbon footprint, Japan needs to expand the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power and geothermal energy, while making all-out efforts to curb energy consumption. It will also help to use the heat generated from plants and buildings for supplying air conditioning and hot water in the local communities.
 省エネを徹底しつつ、太陽光や風力、地熱など再生可能エネルギーをさらに導入する。工場やビルの廃熱を地域の冷暖房や給湯に生かす。

Such efforts toward higher energy self-efficiency and energy recycling will also contribute to the nation’s security, promote technological innovations and suit urban development projects.
エネルギーの自給自足や循環を意識した取り組みは、安全保障の観点からも望ましく、技術革新を促し、街づくりとも相性がいい。

The challenge facing the government is to map out an innovative strategy to ensure the implementation of effective policy measures to combat global warming while encouraging businesses, local governments and citizens to make long-term efforts to secure the health of the planet.
 温暖化対策を大きな軸に、企業や自治体、市民による多様で息の長い挑戦を促す。そんな構想力が政府に求められている。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月21日 (水)

尖閣諸島警備 海保の増強で中国の侵入防げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Beef up JCG to deter China’s entry into waters around Senkaku Islands
尖閣諸島警備 海保の増強で中国の侵入防げ

China’s self-serving maritime expansion should not become a fait accompli. It is imperative to strategically reinforce the Japan Coast Guard’s surveillance posture.
 中国の独善的な海洋進出を既成事実化させてはなるまい。海上保安庁の警備態勢を戦略的に増強することが重要だ。

Intrusions by China Coast Guard vessels into Japanese territorial waters and the contiguous zone around the Senkaku Islands have continued. Despite Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s call for self-restraint during a Sept. 5 bilateral meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping, four Chinese government vessels entered Japanese territorial waters on Sept. 11.
 尖閣諸島周辺で、中国海警局の公船による領海侵入と接続水域進入が続いている。安倍首相が5日の日中首脳会談で自制を求めたのにもかかわらず、11日には公船4隻が領海に入った。

This is regarded by some people as a spiteful response to Japan’s demand that Beijing abide by international law in resolving territorial disputes in the South China Sea. If this is the case, China’s actions must be regarded as totally misdirected and cannot be ignored.
 南シナ海の領有権問題で、日本が国際法の順守を中国に要求していることへの意趣返しとの見方もある。そうだとすれば、全くの筋違いであり、看過できない。

Navigation by Chinese government vessels through the contiguous zone has become routine since Japan’s nationalization of the Senkakus in September 2012. In August this year, up to 15 government vessels and 200 to 300 fishing boats appeared in the zone at one time. Since December last year, the number of vessels equipped with what appeared to be machine guns has increased.
 中国公船の接続水域航行は、2012年9月の尖閣諸島の国有化以降、常態化している。今年8月には、最大15隻の公船と200~300隻の漁船が集結した。昨年12月からは、機関砲のようなものを搭載した公船も増えている。

Crew members from Chinese government vessels have repeatedly been confirmed to have boarded Chinese fishing boats in Japan’s exclusive economic zone. This indicates that on-the-spot inspections of the fishing boats, among other activities, were carried out by the Chinese authorities based on Chinese law.
 日本の排他的経済水域(EEZ)内で、中国公船の乗員が中国漁船に乗り込むケースが再三、確認された。中国の法律に基づく立ち入り検査などの可能性がある。

Chinese fishing boats are permitted to operate in Japan’s EEZ under the Japan-China fishery agreement. But the Chinese government is not empowered under international law to exercise its jurisdiction in regard to fishing in this zone.
 EEZ内では、漁船操業は日中漁業協定で可能だが、中国政府が漁業に関する管轄権を行使することは国際法上、できない。

Constant vigilance vital

To prevent such actions from becoming faits accomplis, JCG patrol boats must monitor the moves of Chinese government vessels constantly and issue immediate and adequate warnings.
 こうした行為の既成事実化を防ぐため、海保の巡視船は常時、中国公船の動向を監視し、迅速かつ適切に警告せねばならない。

To prevent accidental clashes and illegal landings by fishermen and other Chinese, it is essential that the JCG ensures numerical superiority in the number of its patrol boats compared to its Chinese counterpart.
 偶発的な衝突や漁民らの不法上陸を防ぐには、相手の船より数的優位を確保することが肝要だ。

As things stand now, the JCG’s capabilities are not necessarily sufficient.
 しかし、海保の現状は、必ずしも十分とは言えない。

This spring, the JCG established a full-time surveillance system involving 12 patrol boats to safeguard the waters around the Senkakus. This was based on the assumption that they would only have to keep an eye on about five Chinese government vessels. In the event that there are more Chinese government vessels, the JCG receives help from patrol boats dispatched from around Japan.
 海保は今春、尖閣諸島周辺を警備するため、巡視船12隻の専従体制を整えた。中国公船5隻程度を想定したものだ。より多数の公船が来た際は、全国から巡視船の応援派遣を受け、対応している。

The China Coast Guard has tripled the number of its large patrol boats to 120 in the past three years. The number will be reached to 135 in 2019.
 中国海警局はこの3年で、大型船を3倍増の120隻にした。19年には135隻に増やす。

The number of large JCG patrol boats totals only 62. The government appropriated ¥39 billion in the second supplementary budget for fiscal 2016 to build three new patrol boats. This number needs to be increased systematically.
 海保が保有する大型巡視船は62隻にとどまる。16年度第2次補正予算案に3隻の新造費390億円を計上した。今後も、計画的に増強することが求められよう。

It is essential to increase JCG personnel. At present it has a workforce of 13,500, an increase of about 800 since the nationalization of the Senkakus. Reemployment of former JCG personnel has made progress. It takes several years to train coast guard crew members. Necessary steps must be taken as soon as possible to improve the situation in the future.
 要員の確保も急務である。
 海保の定員は約1万3500人で、尖閣諸島国有化前より約800人増員した。元海上保安官の再雇用も進めている。保安官の養成には数年を要する。将来を見据えて早めに手を打つ必要がある。

To avert an emergency, it is also important to establish a communication channel with the Chinese authorities concerned.
 不測の事態を避けるため、中国当局とのパイプ作りも大切だ。

Last year, the JCG and its Chinese counterpart established a contact point in each other’s organization, but this function is not being used. It is necessary to hold talks between the two organizations tenaciously.
 海保と中国海警局は昨年、双方に連絡窓口を設けたが、あまり機能していない。粘り強く意見交換を重ねたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 20, 2016)Speech

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月20日 (火)

香山リカのココロの万華鏡 「親のせい」で片付かない /東京

September 4, 2016 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The sins of the son are not the sins of the mom
香山リカのココロの万華鏡  「親のせい」で片付かない /東京

Recently, a 22-year-old actor was arrested on suspicion of rape. The victim was apparently badly injured in the assault. This incident is, in a word, unforgiveable.
 22歳の俳優が強姦(ごうかん)致傷容疑で逮捕された。被害者の女性はいかに傷ついたことだろう。許されない行為だ。

This young actor has a famous actress for a mother, who appears frequently in drama series and on variety shows. The suspected rapist was often referred to as "that actress' son" in his professional life. In that way, you could say that he was not entirely separate from his mother, and so perhaps it's unavoidable that some people would wonder what she would do after her son's arrest for such a terrible crime.
 その俳優には、有名女優の母親がいた。ドラマにバラエティー番組にと大活躍している人だ。容疑者である俳優も、これまで「あの母親の息子」といわれることが多かった。そういう意味では、その親子を完全に切り離して考えるのはむずかしい。誰もが「息子の逮捕を受けて母親の女優はどうするのか」と関心を持つのは仕方のないことかもしれない。

What she did was hold a news conference, bow very, very low before the assembled reporters, and apologize.
 そして記者会見が開かれ、母親である女優は大勢のメディア関係者の前で深々と頭を下げて謝罪した。

Obviously shocked and despairing, she appeared thin and haggard as she faced the glare of the cameras. It was painful to watch. And then came the questions, quick and sharp as arrows, demanding to know about how she had raised her son.
突然の逮捕に驚き、憔悴(しょうすい)した姿が痛々しかった。記者からは子育てに関しても質問が飛び、

"I intended to do the very best that I could in my own way, but I think now that the way I raised him didn't go well," she said. I suspect that a lot of people saw this and wondered how far a parent's responsibility extends when it comes to the problems of their children.
女優は「自分なりに精いっぱいやったつもりですが、私の育て方がいけなかったと思っている」と語った。
 その姿に、子どもの問題に親はどこまで責任を持たなければならないのだろう、と考え込んでしまった人も多いのではないか。

Parents naturally have an idea of what kind of people they want their children to be, and convey to them the ideas and rules of the household. However, no matter how much a parent thinks of their daughter or son as "my child," they are in fact separate human beings. It's impossible for any parent to completely control the thoughts and emotions of their child. It's also not something a parent should try to do. What's more, it's impossible for parents to police their kids' actions at every moment.
 子育てで、親は子どもに「こういう人になってほしい」と期待したり、その家庭の方針を伝えたりするのはあたりまえのことだ。しかし、わが子とはいえ親とは別の人間。その人格や心を親が完全にコントロールすることはできないし、またそうすべきでもない。ましてや、その行動を親が常に監視し規制することは不可能だ。

Occasionally, parents with children who have developed serious problems come to my practice for help. In cases where the child is still quite young, up to about junior high school age, I often counsel that aspects of children's behavior change depending on how parents deal with them, and help the parents with that. For parents of kids in high school or beyond, however, I tell them, "It's difficult to help unless your child comes here in person." Behind this insistence is my belief that once a child reaches the latter half of their teens, their individual character, ideas and opinions should be respected.
 診察室でも、ときどき問題のある子どもにかわって、親が受診に来る場合がある。子どもが中学生くらいまでの場合は「親の接し方で変わる面もあるだろうから」と相談に乗るが、高校生より上になると「本人が来てくれないとむずかしい」と伝える。そこには「10代後半になったら、独立した人格として子どもの意見や考えも尊重したい」という私の思いも込められている。

Of course, parents and children will always be family, so it's not out of the question for a mother to stand before the public and apologize for the alleged deeds of a son who is now detained and incapable of doing so himself. However, I think it is wrong to demand she admit responsibility, based in the way she raised and supervised her now adult child.
 もちろん、そうはいっても家族なのだから、いまは勾留されて謝罪できない息子にかわり、親が被害者や関係者におわびすることはあってもよい。ただ、親に育て方や監督の責任を求めるのは正しいこととは思えない。

It's a beautiful thing to see parents and children pooling their efforts and helping each other out. However, for people to immediately point the finger at parents and say "It's their fault" as soon as someone causes a problem is good for no one, parent or child. In this recent case, too, I would like to see the man who committed the crime be judged and punished severely. And I'd like to see his mother continue her acting career in much the same way it was before all this happened.
 親子が一体となって努力したり、助け合ったりする姿はほほえましく美しい。しかし、誰かが問題を起こしたときにすぐに「親のせい」と言われるのは、親にとっても子どもにとってもプラスにならないのではないか。今回のケースでも、罪を犯した男性はしっかり裁かれて償ってほしいし、できれば母である女優にはこれまで通り活動を続けてほしいと思っている。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist) (精神科医)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月19日 (月)

辺野古判決 それでも対話しかない

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 17
EDITORIAL: Tokyo’s hollow court victory will not end base issue in Okinawa
(社説)辺野古判決 それでも対話しかない
 
The high court ruling in a lawsuit over land reclamation work to relocate a U.S. military base in Okinawa Prefecture was a total victory for the central government’s argument.
 国の主張が全面的に認められた判決だ。

Even so, the government must make determined efforts to win back the trust of Okinawa or it will never be able to find a real solution to the problem.
だからといって、政府が沖縄の不信を解く努力を怠れば、問題解決には決してつながらない。

The Naha branch of the Fukuoka High Court issued its ruling Sept. 16 on Tokyo’s dispute with the southernmost prefecture over a plan to relocate the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma from the crowded city of Ginowan to the Henoko district of Nago.
 米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設をめぐり、国と県が争った裁判で、福岡高裁那覇支部は国側勝訴の判決を言い渡した。

The ruling contended that a replacement base in Henoko is the only way to remove the damage caused by the Futenma air base. This is a highly questionable assertion.
 「普天間の被害を除去するには辺野古に基地を建設する以外にない」と言い切ったことに、大きな疑問を感じる。

This is a delicate and complicated issue that has a long history of controversy. Experts at home and abroad are widely divided over how the problem should be resolved.
 長い議論の歴史があり、国内外の専門家の間でも見解が分かれる、微妙で複雑な問題だ。

But Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga was the only witness the court permitted to testify on behalf of the prefecture. The court rejected the prefectural government’s requests to call witnesses and concluded the trial after only two sessions.
だが、この訴訟で裁判所が直接話を聞いたのは翁長雄志知事ひとりだけ。それ以外の証人申請をことごとく退け、法廷を2回開いただけで打ち切った。

How could the court reach its surprisingly clear and decisive conclusion on this complex question through such a perfunctory trial? Or why did it have to, in the first place? Setting aside the question of whether the ruling is reasonable or not, the manner in which the court handled the case will undoubtedly provoke controversy.
 そんな審理で、なぜここまで踏みこんだ判断ができるのか。しなければならないのか。結論の当否はともかく、裁判のあり方は議論を呼ぶだろう。

Since this spring, the central and prefectural governments held a series of talks over the Futenma relocation issue. But no substantial discussions on key topics had taken place in the talks when the central government, immediately after the July Upper House election, filed the suit against Onaga.
 国と県はこの春以降、話しあいの期間をもった。だが実質的な中身に入らないまま、参院選が終わるやいなや、国はこの裁判を起こした。

The ruling stressed the importance of “the spirit of mutual concessions” and pointed out that there should be “a relationship of equality and cooperation” between the central and prefectural governments.
Nevertheless, it effectively supported the central government’s hard-line, high-handed approach toward the Futenma issue.
 判決は「互譲の精神」の大切さを説き、「国と県は本来、対等・協力の関係」と指摘しながらも、結果として国の強硬姿勢を支持したことになる。

In a series of recent elections, people in Okinawa have made clear their opposition to the relocation plan.
 辺野古移設にNOという沖縄の民意は、たび重なる選挙結果で示されている。

During a news conference after the ruling was handed down, Onaga said he will appeal the decision to the Supreme Court. He pledged to accept whatever decision is handed down by the top court.
The governor, however, said, “I myself will continue the fight to block the construction of a new base in Henoko with a firm determination.”
 翁長知事は判決後の会見で、最高裁の確定判決が出れば従う姿勢を明確にする一方、「私自身は辺野古新基地を絶対に造らせないという思いをもってこれからも頑張りたい」と語った。

Onaga intends to use his various powers as governor to block implementation of the relocation project. He has the power to refuse the central government’s requests for permission for changes in land reclamation plans.
 国が埋め立て計画の変更申請を出した際など、様々な知事権限を使って抵抗する考えだ。

Both sides apparently share the desire to remove the danger posed by the Futenma base, located in the middle of a densely populated area, as soon as possible.
 一日も早く普天間の危険をなくしたい。その願いは政府も県も同じはずだ。

The quickest way to resolve the problem is to make continuous efforts to reach an agreement through dialogue instead of fighting a head-on battle.
対立ではなく、対話のなかで合意点を見いだす努力を重ねることこそ、問題解決の近道である。

However, the series of strong-arm measures the central government has taken against Okinawa since the Upper House election have made people in the prefecture even more distrustful of the government.
 だが参院選後、政府による沖縄への一連の強腰の姿勢に、県民の不信は募っている。

The government has resumed work to build helipads for the U.S. military around the Takae district of Higashi in northern Okinawa, while deploying a massive squad of riot police to block protesters. The administration has also deployed Self-Defense Forces helicopters to transport construction vehicles to the site.
 大量の機動隊員に守らせて東村高江の米軍ヘリパッド移設工事に着手し、工事車両を運ぶため自衛隊ヘリを投入した。

Commenting on budget requests for next fiscal year, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga and other government officials indicated that government expenditures to promote the local economy in Okinawa are linked to the base issue.
来年度予算案の概算要求では、菅官房長官らが基地問題と沖縄振興のリンク論を持ち出した。

The reality the government should confront is that it is difficult to push through the Futenma relocation plan without winning support from the people in Okinawa. The lack of support from the local communities will also make it impossible to ensure stable operations of military bases in the prefecture.
 政府が直視すべきは、県民の理解がなければ辺野古移設は困難だし、基地の安定的な運用は望み得ないという現実だ。

If the central government maintains its recalcitrant attitude toward this challenge without making serious efforts to respond sincerely to the voices of local residents, the prospects for a solution will only become even bleaker.
 県民の思いと真摯(しんし)に向き合う努力を欠いたまま、かたくなな姿勢を続けるようなら、打開の道はますます遠のく。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月18日 (日)

日米防衛相会談 北の脅威に共同対処を強めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Bolster Japan-U.S. joint actions to cope with North Korean threats
日米防衛相会談 北の脅威に共同対処を強めよ

It is essential for Tokyo and Washington to establish a closer cooperation system for conducting joint operations flexibly and expeditiously amid the increasingly severe security environment around Japan.
 我が国の安全保障環境が厳しさを増す中、日米両政府がより緊密に連携し、機動的な共同対処を行う体制を構築することが重要である。

Defense Minister Tomomi Inada met with her U.S. counterpart Ashton Carter in Washington to discuss security issues. Regarding North Korea’s repeated nuclear tests and ballistic missile launches, Inada and Carter agreed they pose “grave threats to the national security of both Japan and the United States.”
 稲田防衛相が訪米し、カーター米国防長官と会談した。北朝鮮の相次ぐ核実験や弾道ミサイル発射について、「日米両国に対する安全保障上の重大な脅威である」との認識で一致した。

North Korea has been pushing its nuclear weapons program with the aim of completing and deploying missiles equipped with nuclear warheads. It is necessary to seriously recognize that North Korea’s nuclear miniaturization technology and missile firing accuracy have improved considerably after the repeated tests and launches.
 北朝鮮は、核弾頭を搭載したミサイルの完成、配備を目指し、突き進んでいる。度重なる実験と発射により、核の小型化技術やミサイルの精度は相当程度、向上したと覚悟せねばなるまい。

Carter reaffirmed the United States’ nuclear deterrence for the defense of Japan. This can be regarded as enhancing the deterrence against Pyongyang’s provocations.
 カーター氏は、日本防衛目的の米国の核抑止力を再確認した。北朝鮮の挑発への抑止力を高めるものと評価できる。

It is imperative for the Self-Defense Forces and the U.S. military to steadily expand their range of information sharing and joint warning and surveillance activities. We suggest the encirclement around North Korea be strengthened by making greater efforts to conduct multilateral military exercises and promote defense cooperation with countries including South Korea, Australia and India, in addition to Japan and the United States.
 自衛隊と米軍の情報共有や共同の警戒監視活動を着実に拡大することが大切だ。日米に、韓国、豪州、インドなどを加えた多国間の訓練や防衛協力にも力を入れ、北朝鮮包囲網の強化を図りたい。

With regard to the frequent intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japanese territorial waters around the Senkaku Islands, Inada said it amounted to an “infringement of Japan’s sovereignty,” so “is absolutely intolerable.”
 尖閣諸島周辺での中国公船の頻繁な領海侵入に関して、稲田氏は「日本の主権侵害であり、断固受け入れられない」と強調した。

Carter reaffirmed that the Senkakus fall under Article 5 of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty and expressed opposition to China’s unilateral action. This is very significant.
 カーター氏は、尖閣諸島を日米安保条約5条の適用対象と認め、中国の一方的な行動への反対を明言した。その意義は大きい。

Strengthen encirclement

Regarding China’s militarization of man-made islands in the South China Sea, Inada and Carter shared the view that it amounts to an act that heightens regional tensions and is a matter of concern for the international community.
 南シナ海での中国の軍事拠点化について、両氏は、「地域の緊張を高める行動で、国際社会の懸念事項だ」との認識を共有した。

Beijing has not changed its stance of disregarding an arbitration court ruling in July that invalidated Chinese sovereignty claims in the South China Sea. Any attempt to change the status quo by force and to make it a fait accompli cannot be allowed. Both Japan and the United States should continue assisting coastal nations of the South China Sea to enhance their maritime security capabilities through the provision of patrol boats and fostering personnel.
 中国は、7月の仲裁裁判所判決を無視する構えを崩していない。力による現状変更の既成事実化は許されない。日米両国は、巡視船の供与や人材育成を通じて、南シナ海沿岸国の海上保安能力の向上を引き続き支援するべきだ。

At a lecture in Washington, Inada strongly endorsed the patrol activities of U.S. military vessels around the artificial islands built by China in the South China Sea. She also mentioned a plan for Japan to increase its engagement there, including through joint naval exercises with the U.S. military.
 稲田氏は、ワシントンでの講演で、中国の人工島周辺における米軍艦船の巡視活動を強く支持した。日本が、米軍との共同巡航訓練などを通じて、南シナ海への関与を強める方針も表明した。

To prompt China to exercise self-restraint in expanding its maritime advances backed by military force, it is imperative for not only the United States but also Japan and other relevant countries to work together actively and apply pressure on China.
 軍事力を背景とした中国の海洋進出に自制を促すには、米国だけでなく、日本や関係国が積極的に協調行動を取り、中国に圧力をかけることが欠かせない。

Concerning the issue of relocating the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station, Inada reassured Carter the Japanese government’s position that “the relocation to the Henoko district is the only solution” is unchanged. She called for U.S. cooperation in tackling the issue of moving Osprey transport aircraft training sites outside Okinawa Prefecture. Carter took a forward-looking stance toward her request.
 米軍普天間飛行場の移設問題に関し、稲田氏は会談で、辺野古移設が「唯一の解決策との立場は不変である」と強調した。米軍輸送機オスプレイの訓練の沖縄県外移転について協力要請し、カーター氏も前向きな考えを示した。

To ensure the continued and smooth stationing of U.S. troops in Japan — the bedrock of the bilateral alliance — the two countries must make greater efforts to reduce the burden on Okinawa.
 日米同盟の根幹である米軍の駐留を円滑に続けるため、両国は沖縄の負担軽減に一層努めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 17, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月17日 (土)

(社説)もんじゅ 政府は廃炉を決断せよ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 15
EDITORIAL: Monju has run its course and should now be scrapped
(社説)もんじゅ 政府は廃炉を決断せよ
 
The government is assessing what to do about the Monju prototype fast-breeder nuclear reactor, with one option being to decommission the trouble-prone facility.
 高速増殖原型炉「もんじゅ」(福井県)について、政府が廃炉も含めた検討に入った。

It should decide swiftly to scrap the experimental reactor in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture.
 速やかに廃炉を決断すべきだ。

Monju has remained mostly idle for the past two decades or so. Restarting it would be hugely expensive. Putting the necessary safety measures in place would require an outlay of hundreds of billions of yen. The obvious solution is staring the government in the face.
もんじゅはこの20年余り、ほとんど運転できていない。安全対策には数千億円が必要とされ、仮に運転にこぎつけても高くつく。おのずと結論は出るはずだ。

Monju was designed to underpin a nuclear fuel recycling program in which plutonium extracted from reprocessed spent nuclear fuel is burned in a fast-breeder reactor. The ability to generate more fissile material than is consumed was regarded as “dream” technology.
 使用済みの核燃料を再処理してプルトニウムを取り出し、それを燃やすのが核燃料サイクルだ。その中核に位置づけられ、使った以上のプルトニウムを得られる高速増殖炉は「夢の原子炉」とも呼ばれた。

But Monju has been mostly offline since a sodium coolant leak accident in 1995.
 だが、もんじゅは1995年に冷却材のナトリウムが漏れる事故を起こし、その後はほぼ止まったままだ。

In 2012, it was revealed that safety maintenance checks had missed about 10,000 pieces of equipment. In response, the Nuclear Regulation Authority halted preparations to bring the reactor back online. It urged the science and technology minister last November to find a new operator for the reactor in place of the government-backed Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
2012年には約1万点もの機器の点検漏れが発覚。原子力規制委員会は運転再開準備を禁じ、昨年11月、現在の日本原子力研究開発機構に代わる運営主体を探すよう、所管の文部科学相に勧告した。

The science and technology ministry has apparently been weighing plans to separate the Monju-related section from the agency and put the unit in charge of maintenance and management of the reactor.
But that would do nothing but change the name of the operator. No wonder this idea has been met with skepticism and criticism within the government.
 文科省は、機構からもんじゅに関わる部門を分離して保守・管理を担わせる案を探ってきたようだが、そんな看板の掛け替えは許されない。政府内で疑問や批判が出たのは当然だ。

No one in the electric power industry, which would be the primary beneficiary of the fast-breeder reactor if it ever went into practical use, is calling for early development of the technology.
 高速増殖炉については、実用化後の利用者と目される電力業界に開発を急ぐ声は聞かれない。

That’s not surprising, given that producing the necessary fuel and developing the technology to use sodium would require a huge investment in time and money.
燃料製造に手間がかかり、ナトリウムを使う技術の確立も必要で、コストがかかる。

The power industry, meanwhile, has been pushing to restart ordinary nuclear reactors, partly because uranium is now easily available and cheap.
一方、電力業界が再稼働を急ぐ通常の原発は、燃料のウランの需給が緩んでおり、価格は安い。

With liberalization of the power market making their business environment much harsher, the private-sector companies have every reason to be reluctant to cheer for the Monju program.
 電力自由化で経営環境が厳しさを増すなか、民間企業が拒否反応を示すのは自然な流れだ。

The ministry appears to be trying to persuade the electric utilities and related manufacturers to become part of the new Monju operator. But it has been a hard sell.
文科省は新たな運営主体に電力業界や関連メーカーを引き込みたいようだが、難航している。

More than 1 trillion yen ($9.7 billion) has been poured into the development and operation of Monju.
 もんじゅにはこれまで、1兆円以上の事業費が投じられてきた。

The power industry and other private-sector players provided around 140 billion yen to cover a portion of the construction costs. But the rest of the funding for the beleaguered program has come from the pockets of taxpayers.
建設費の一部、約1400億円は電力業界など民間からの拠出金だが、残りは税金だ。

The fast-breeder reactor requires 20 billion yen in annual maintenance costs. The government can hardly expect to win public support for such a massive drain in taxpayer money when there is little prospect of the technology coming into practical use.
 今も毎年約200億円の維持費がかかっている。実用化とその後の利用のめどが立たないまま、巨額の税金を使い続けることに国民の支持は得られまい。

Research on fast reactor technology and radioactive waste can be accomplished--as long as safety is ensured--by using other existing facilities like the Joyo experimental fast reactor in Ibaraki Prefecture.
 高速炉や放射性廃棄物の研究なら、安全確保を前提に実験炉「常陽」(茨城県)などですればよい。

It is difficult to secure sufficient human resources for a plan that doesn’t seem to have a viable future. There are also concerns about technology and information management and accident prevention efforts for Monju.
将来の見通しを欠く計画に人材を確保することは難しく、技術や情報の管理、事故防止にも不安がつきまとう。

The troubled history of Monju clearly argues against keeping the program alive.
もんじゅのこれまでの歩みがそれを示していないか。

The establishment of a nuclear fuel recycling program itself is becoming a dead letter, and the government needs to reconsider this policy goal from scratch.
 核燃料サイクル自体が時代遅れの夢になりつつあり、白紙からの再検討を迫られている。

As for Monju, there is no doubt that decommissioning the reactor is the only rational choice.
もんじゅについては、廃炉が唯一の合理的な選択肢である。

| | コメント (0)

もんじゅ 政府は廃炉を決断せよ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 15
EDITORIAL: Monju has run its course and should now be scrapped
(社説)もんじゅ 政府は廃炉を決断せよ
 
The government is assessing what to do about the Monju prototype fast-breeder nuclear reactor, with one option being to decommission the trouble-prone facility.
 高速増殖原型炉「もんじゅ」(福井県)について、政府が廃炉も含めた検討に入った。

It should decide swiftly to scrap the experimental reactor in Tsuruga, Fukui Prefecture.
 速やかに廃炉を決断すべきだ。

Monju has remained mostly idle for the past two decades or so. Restarting it would be hugely expensive. Putting the necessary safety measures in place would require an outlay of hundreds of billions of yen. The obvious solution is staring the government in the face.
もんじゅはこの20年余り、ほとんど運転できていない。安全対策には数千億円が必要とされ、仮に運転にこぎつけても高くつく。おのずと結論は出るはずだ。

Monju was designed to underpin a nuclear fuel recycling program in which plutonium extracted from reprocessed spent nuclear fuel is burned in a fast-breeder reactor. The ability to generate more fissile material than is consumed was regarded as “dream” technology.
 使用済みの核燃料を再処理してプルトニウムを取り出し、それを燃やすのが核燃料サイクルだ。その中核に位置づけられ、使った以上のプルトニウムを得られる高速増殖炉は「夢の原子炉」とも呼ばれた。

But Monju has been mostly offline since a sodium coolant leak accident in 1995.
 だが、もんじゅは1995年に冷却材のナトリウムが漏れる事故を起こし、その後はほぼ止まったままだ。

In 2012, it was revealed that safety maintenance checks had missed about 10,000 pieces of equipment. In response, the Nuclear Regulation Authority halted preparations to bring the reactor back online. It urged the science and technology minister last November to find a new operator for the reactor in place of the government-backed Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
2012年には約1万点もの機器の点検漏れが発覚。原子力規制委員会は運転再開準備を禁じ、昨年11月、現在の日本原子力研究開発機構に代わる運営主体を探すよう、所管の文部科学相に勧告した。

The science and technology ministry has apparently been weighing plans to separate the Monju-related section from the agency and put the unit in charge of maintenance and management of the reactor.
But that would do nothing but change the name of the operator. No wonder this idea has been met with skepticism and criticism within the government.
 文科省は、機構からもんじゅに関わる部門を分離して保守・管理を担わせる案を探ってきたようだが、そんな看板の掛け替えは許されない。政府内で疑問や批判が出たのは当然だ。

No one in the electric power industry, which would be the primary beneficiary of the fast-breeder reactor if it ever went into practical use, is calling for early development of the technology.
 高速増殖炉については、実用化後の利用者と目される電力業界に開発を急ぐ声は聞かれない。

That’s not surprising, given that producing the necessary fuel and developing the technology to use sodium would require a huge investment in time and money.
燃料製造に手間がかかり、ナトリウムを使う技術の確立も必要で、コストがかかる。

The power industry, meanwhile, has been pushing to restart ordinary nuclear reactors, partly because uranium is now easily available and cheap.
一方、電力業界が再稼働を急ぐ通常の原発は、燃料のウランの需給が緩んでおり、価格は安い。

With liberalization of the power market making their business environment much harsher, the private-sector companies have every reason to be reluctant to cheer for the Monju program.
 電力自由化で経営環境が厳しさを増すなか、民間企業が拒否反応を示すのは自然な流れだ。

The ministry appears to be trying to persuade the electric utilities and related manufacturers to become part of the new Monju operator. But it has been a hard sell.
文科省は新たな運営主体に電力業界や関連メーカーを引き込みたいようだが、難航している。

More than 1 trillion yen ($9.7 billion) has been poured into the development and operation of Monju.
 もんじゅにはこれまで、1兆円以上の事業費が投じられてきた。

The power industry and other private-sector players provided around 140 billion yen to cover a portion of the construction costs. But the rest of the funding for the beleaguered program has come from the pockets of taxpayers.
建設費の一部、約1400億円は電力業界など民間からの拠出金だが、残りは税金だ。

The fast-breeder reactor requires 20 billion yen in annual maintenance costs. The government can hardly expect to win public support for such a massive drain in taxpayer money when there is little prospect of the technology coming into practical use.
 今も毎年約200億円の維持費がかかっている。実用化とその後の利用のめどが立たないまま、巨額の税金を使い続けることに国民の支持は得られまい。

Research on fast reactor technology and radioactive waste can be accomplished--as long as safety is ensured--by using other existing facilities like the Joyo experimental fast reactor in Ibaraki Prefecture.
 高速炉や放射性廃棄物の研究なら、安全確保を前提に実験炉「常陽」(茨城県)などですればよい。

It is difficult to secure sufficient human resources for a plan that doesn’t seem to have a viable future. There are also concerns about technology and information management and accident prevention efforts for Monju.
将来の見通しを欠く計画に人材を確保することは難しく、技術や情報の管理、事故防止にも不安がつきまとう。

The troubled history of Monju clearly argues against keeping the program alive.
もんじゅのこれまでの歩みがそれを示していないか。

The establishment of a nuclear fuel recycling program itself is becoming a dead letter, and the government needs to reconsider this policy goal from scratch.
 核燃料サイクル自体が時代遅れの夢になりつつあり、白紙からの再検討を迫られている。

As for Monju, there is no doubt that decommissioning the reactor is the only rational choice.
もんじゅについては、廃炉が唯一の合理的な選択肢である。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月16日 (金)

北ミサイル対策 敵基地攻撃能力も検討したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
To cope with North Korean missiles, discuss SDF’s strike capabilities
北ミサイル対策 敵基地攻撃能力も検討したい

The threat of North Korea’s nuclear arsenal and missiles has entered a new dimension. Japan needs to build up its defense system commensurate with the increased threat.
 北朝鮮の核とミサイルの脅威が新たな次元に入った。それに見合う日本の防衛体制を構築することが急務である。

Committees of both houses of the Diet adopted resolutions denouncing the latest nuclear test by North Korea as a “direct threat to the safety of this country.”
 衆参両院の委員会が、北朝鮮の核実験を「我が国の安全に対する直接的脅威」と非難する決議を採択した。

North Korea has rapidly been improving its nuclear and missile technologies, conducting two nuclear tests and firing more than 20 ballistic missiles this year alone. It is necessary to prepare for such a contingency as Pyongyang’s deploying missiles mounted with nuclear warheads.
 北朝鮮は、今年だけでも2回の核実験と20発以上の弾道ミサイル発射により、核・ミサイル技術を急速に向上させている。核を搭載したミサイルの配備という深刻な事態にも備える必要がある。

Japan’s missile defense system comprises two tiers of preparedness: Standard Missile 3 (SM3) interceptors carried by four Aegis vessels and the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC3) surface-to-air guided missiles. The government plans to increase the number of Aegis vessels to eight, while also introducing next-generation interceptor missiles.
 我が国のミサイル防衛は、イージス艦4隻に搭載する迎撃ミサイルSM3と地対空誘導弾PAC3の二段構えで構成される。イージス艦を8隻に増やし、次世代型迎撃ミサイルも導入する方針だ。

Reinforcement of the missile defense structure is important. However, if Japan were attacked by a large number of missiles simultaneously, it would be impossible to bring down all the missiles.
 ミサイル防衛の強化は重要だ。ただ、多数のミサイルで同時に攻撃された場合、すべてを完全に撃ち落とすことは困難だろう。

To secure its safety, Japan should not rule out the option of the Self-Defense Forces acquiring the capability to attack enemy bases. Under the Constitution, attacks on enemy bases are allowed as self-defense measures if there is an imminent danger of a missile launch.
 日本の安全確保には、自衛隊が敵基地攻撃能力を保持する選択肢を排除すべきではあるまい。憲法上も、ミサイル発射が切迫した状況での敵基地の攻撃は、自衛措置として容認されている。

U.S. cooperation essential

Presently, the SDF serves as a “shield,” engaged only in defense, while U.S. forces serve as a “pike” for retaliatory attacks. U.S. forces, including the U.S. 7th Fleet, maintain a large number of missiles capable of directly attacking North Korea. The SDF supplementing part of the U.S. military’s striking power would enhance the deterrence power of the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 現在、自衛隊は専守防衛の「盾」、米軍は報復攻撃の「矛」の役割を担う。米軍の第7艦隊などは北朝鮮を直接攻撃できる大量のミサイルを保有している。その打撃力の一部を自衛隊が補完することは日米同盟の抑止力を高めよう。

In 2013, the government discussed the possibility of acquiring the capability to attack enemy bases. The new National Defense Program Guidelines stipulate that the government will continue to study “a potential form of response capability” to deal with ballistic missiles.
 政府は2013年に敵基地攻撃能力の保持を検討した。新たな防衛大綱では、弾道ミサイルへの「対応能力の在り方」を引き続き検討する方針を明記している。

Envisaged means of attack include a cruise missile system guided with the Global Positioning System to strike targets and F-35 stealth fighter jets.
 攻撃手段は、全地球測位システム(GPS)で目標に誘導する巡航ミサイルや、ステルス性を持つ戦闘機F35などが想定される。

Cruise missiles attacking enemy bases from a distance are considered to entail little human risk and low cost. On the other hand, targets must be inputted in advance to guide missiles, making it difficult for the cruise missile system to strike Rodong and other missiles that can be launched from mobile launching pads.
 遠方から攻撃する巡航ミサイルは人的リスクが少なく、費用も安いという。反面、目標の位置を事前に入力するため、ノドンなど移動式発射台への攻撃は難しい。

F-35s that would enter enemy airspace are capable of attacking such mobile targets. But because this would entail the risks of breaking through the enemy’s air defense system, it is vital to have an air force unit that includes support fighter jets, electronic warfare planes and airborne refueling aircraft. This would entail a sizable expense.
 敵の領空に侵入するF35は、移動する目標の攻撃も可能だ。ただし、防空網を突破する危険を伴うため、支援戦闘機や電子戦機、空中給油機などの航空部隊が不可欠で、相当な費用を要しよう。

It is important to discuss optimal measures by studying both the strong and weak points of each means of attack and considering the cost-effectiveness of each.
 それぞれの攻撃手段の長所や短所を研究し、費用対効果も踏まえて、どんな方策が最善なのかを議論することが大切である。

Needless to say, it is unrealistic for the SDF to attack enemy bases single-handedly. The cooperation of the U.S. military for such activities as intelligence gathering and detecting potential targets is essential. The important thing is to reexamine the roles to be shared by the SDF and the U.S. military, based strictly on the assumption of close cooperation between Japan and the United States.
 無論、自衛隊単独での攻撃は非現実的だ。攻撃目標の探知など情報面を含め、米軍の協力が欠かせない。あくまで日米の緊密な連携を前提に、自衛隊と米軍の役割分担を見直すことが肝心である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 15, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月15日 (木)

蓮舫氏の台湾籍 「二重国籍」への認識が甘い

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Renho’s lack of awareness regarding ‘dual nationality’ problematic
蓮舫氏の台湾籍 「二重国籍」への認識が甘い

It is nothing but a sorry state of affairs that a Diet member failed to correctly understand her own nationality.
 国会議員が自らの国籍を正確に把握できていないとは、あまりにお粗末と言うほかない。

Renho, acting leader of the opposition Democratic Party, admitted at a press conference Tuesday that she retains Taiwan citizenship. Taiwan is her father’s birthplace.
 民進党の蓮舫代表代行が記者会見し、台湾籍を保有していたことを認めた。台湾は父親の出身地だ。

Until that day, Renho had explained that she had renounced her Taiwan citizenship when she obtained Japanese citizenship in January 1985. After she filed her candidacy for the DP leadership election, it was pointed out that she may have dual citizenship. She then reportedly had the Taiwan side check whether she still possessed Taiwan citizenship, and it turned out she did.
 蓮舫氏はこれまで、1985年1月に日本国籍を取得した際、台湾籍を放棄した、と説明してきた。党代表選への出馬後、二重保有ではないかとの指摘を受けて、台湾側に確認し、判明したという。

It has transpired that Renho let this abnormal state of affairs go uncorrected for more than 30 years. “I have caused various sorts of confusion because of my inaccurate memory,” she said in apology. Renho said she would retake the procedures to renounce her Taiwan citizenship. This response, however, came too late.
 結果的に、30年超も不正常な状態を放置してきたことになる。蓮舫氏は「私の記憶の不正確さによって様々な混乱を招いた」と陳謝し、改めて放棄手続きを進めるというが、遅きに失した対応だ。

The Japanese government does not allow “dual nationality.” The Nationality Law stipulates that a Japanese national with dual nationality must choose one, in principle, before they reach 22 years of age.
 日本政府は「二重国籍」を認めていない。国籍法で、原則22歳までに、自らの国籍を選択しなければならない、と定めている。

Although there is no provision excluding people with a foreign nationality from becoming a Diet member, they are prohibited from being appointed as diplomatic officials. It is out of the question for a legislator — who is supposed to serve the interests of the nation, including in foreign affairs and national security — to leave their own nationality obscure.
 外国籍保有者が国会議員になることを排除する規定はないが、外交官への採用は禁止されている。外交・安全保障などの国益を担う国会議員が、自身の国籍を曖昧にしておくことは論外である。

Renho said that at 17 she undertook procedures to renounce her Taiwan citizenship at Taiwan’s de facto embassy, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan. She failed to confirm that the procedures were completed. Renho, who also failed to confirm this when she ran in the 2004 House of Councillors election, has such little understanding of what it means to be a politician that her quality as one will be put into question.
 蓮舫氏は、17歳当時、台湾の大使館に当たる台北駐日経済文化代表処で行ったとされる放棄手続きの完了を確認しなかった。2004年参院選の出馬時にも、その作業を怠った。政治家として認識が甘く、資質が問われよう。

Flip-flopping explanations

Although Taiwan is friendly toward Japan, it is in conflict with the Japanese standpoint regarding some issues, for instance, its ownership claims on the Senkaku Islands. If Renho retains her Taiwan citizenship, she could become the target of undesirable suspicions regarding her relations with Taiwan.
 台湾は親日的とはいえ、尖閣諸島の領有権を主張するなど、日本の立場と相反する問題もある。台湾籍があれば、台湾との関係であらぬ疑念を招きかねない。

That Renho’s explanations have been inconsistent is not to be overlooked.
 見過ごせないのは、蓮舫氏の説明が二転三転したことだ。

Initially, she asserted that she “had renounced Taiwan citizenship.” She even showed displeasure, saying: “It is very sad that the rumors are making their rounds.” Later, however, the age she said she took the procedures changed from 18 to 17. An interview carried in a magazine about 20 years ago came to light in which she referred to possessing Taiwan citizenship.
 当初は「台湾籍は抜いた」と断言し、「うわさの流布は本当に悲しい」と不快感さえ示した。その後、手続きをした年齢が18歳から17歳に変わったり、台湾籍保有に言及した約20年前の雑誌インタビューが発覚したりした。

Some have also pointed out that the description she made on an official list of the details of electoral candidates for the upper house election ran counter to the Public Offices Election Law. Her description said she “became naturalized from Taiwan citizenship.”
 参院選の公報に「台湾籍から帰化」と記したことが公職選挙法に抵触する、との指摘もある。

Saying that “there is no illegality,” Renho emphasized that she will not withdraw her candidacy in the DP leadership election. She must further clarify all the facts and be accountable.
 蓮舫氏は「違法性はない」として、代表選から撤退しない考えを強調した。事実関係をより明確にし、説明責任を果たすべきだ。

DP leader Katsuya Okada said, “It would be extremely unsound if the recent commotion partly stems from such a way of thinking as, it is inappropriate because her father is from Taiwan.”
 岡田代表は、「父が台湾人だからおかしいという発想が一連の騒ぎにあるとすると、極めて不健全なことだ」と主張している。

That such a twisted interpretation can be heard within the party, whereby criticism toward Renho could be taken as a form of racial discrimination, is hard to understand. What is being considered as problematic lies absolutely with the fact that Renho failed to take necessary procedures in accordance with the law.
 民進党内に、蓮舫氏への批判が民族差別であるかのような曲解があるのは理解に苦しむ。問題にされているのは、あくまで蓮舫氏が法に基づく手続きを適切に行っていなかったことだからだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 14, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月14日 (水)

香港議会選 習氏の圧力が「反中派」生んだ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Xi’s increasing pressure spawns ‘anti-China forces’ in Hong Kong
香港議会選 習氏の圧力が「反中派」生んだ

The heavy-handed posture of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s administration appears to have led to the rise of “anti-China” forces in Hong Kong.
中国の習近平政権の強権的な姿勢が、香港における「反中」勢力の台頭を招いたのだろう。

Continuing progress in democratization and political reforms is essential to maintaining Hong Kong’s stability and prosperity, rather than reinforcing a clampdown.
香港の安定と繁栄を維持するには、締め付けの強化ではなく、民主化の前進と政治改革が欠かせない。

In the recent elections for Hong Kong’s Legislative Council, newly emerging, anti-Beijing forces making such radical calls as “independence” from China have made headway.
香港の議会に当たる立法会の選挙で、中国からの「独立」など、急進的な主張を掲げる新興の反中勢力が躍進した。

For the 70-member legislature, 35 candidates are directly elected by voters, while the remainder are chosen through functional constituencies, mainly those representing particular professions or trades.
定数70の半数は直接選挙枠で、残りは業界団体などによる職能枠で選ばれる。

The newly emerging forces, which made a strong showing in direct voting, and the pro-democracy camp won a combined total of 30 seats, more than one-third of the seats needed to vote down important bills. The pro-Beijing camp managed to retain a majority, but won fewer seats than in previous elections.
直接選挙枠で健闘した新興勢力と、民主派が計30議席を獲得し、重要議案の否決に必要な3分の1を超えた。親中派は過半数を確保したが、議席を減らした。

In 2014, student-led demonstrators calling for democracy staged sit-ins on roads. It can be said the latest elections indicate that the Hong Kong people are increasing their watchfulness against China’s ever-growing influence, even after the demonstrations were resolved peacefully.
一昨年、学生らが民主化を求めて道路を占拠した。デモ収束後も強まる中国の影響力への香港住民の警戒を示したと言えよう。

The newly emerging groups are led by young people, including a former student leader of the demonstration, and those “localists” who, in opposition to China’s political interference, put Hong Kong’s interests first as they consider the territory their “motherland.” Among localists, some even approve of the use of violence.
新興勢力は若い世代が中心だ。デモの元学生指導者のほか、中国の政治干渉に反対し、「郷土」と位置づける香港の利益を最優先する「本土派」が含まれる。本土派には暴力を容認する者もいる。

China has granted Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy under the “one country, two systems” formula. The problem is that autonomy has increasingly become a mere formality.
香港では「一国二制度」の下に、「高度な自治」が認められている。問題なのは、その形骸化が一段と進んでいることである。

Anxieties will increase

The Electoral Affairs Commission of Hong Kong took such high-handed measures as pressing candidates to sign a declaration that they agree to the principle that “Hong Kong is part of China” and disqualifying some localists from running.
香港の選挙管理委員会は「香港は中国の一部分」という原則に関する「確認書」への署名を候補者に迫り、本土派ら数人の出馬資格を取り消す強硬策に出た。

When five Hong Kong booksellers and other people dealing with publications critical of the Chinese Communist Party disappeared one after another, it was regarded as an instance of “rule by force.” Deep suspicions remain that the Chinese authorities had removed them from Hong Kong, where they had no right to investigate, and detained them in China.
中国共産党に批判的な書籍を扱う香港の書店関係者5人が相次いで失踪した事件も、「力の統治」の表れだと受け止められている。中国当局が捜査権限もない香港から関係者を連行、拘束したといった疑惑が深まったままだ。

Without a convincing explanation, it is inevitable for Hong Kong people to grow more anxious about their future.
納得できる説明がなければ、香港住民の間に将来への不安が広がるのは避けられまい。

In June last year, a bill designed to elect the next chief executive of Hong Kong through “universal suffrage” was rejected by a majority of pro-democracy lawmakers. Although the bill was aimed at directly electing the chief executive through a one-man, one-vote formula, it was a system under which only pro-Beijing candidates could declare candidacy. This proposed method was naturally rejected as “phony universal suffrage.”
次期行政長官を「普通選挙」で決める法案が昨年6月、民主派議員の反対多数で否決された。「1人1票」の直接選挙とはいえ、親中派しか立候補できない仕組みだった。「ニセの普通選挙」と拒否されても仕方がなかろう。

Regarding the outcome of the latest elections, the Xi administration released a statement saying that Beijing would “resolutely oppose any form of Hong Kong independence activities inside or outside the legislature.” It appears that the Xi administration intends to drive a wedge between the pro-democracy camp and newly emerging forces, and stop them from joining hands.
習政権は選挙結果について、「立法会内外のいかなる形式の『香港独立』活動にも断固反対する」との談話を発表した。民主派と新興勢力を分断し、結束を阻む思惑があるのではないか。

It would not be implausible for localists and other groups to become offended by Beijing’s hard-line posture and become increasingly antagonistic to Hong Kong authorities.
中国の強硬姿勢に本土派などが反発し、香港当局との対立が先鋭化する事態が懸念される。

What Xi should do is respect Hong Kong’s autonomy and win the trust of the international community.
習国家主席に求められるのは、香港の「自治」を尊重し、国際社会の信頼を得ることである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 13, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 9日 (金)

日比首脳会談 中国の海洋権益拡大に警戒を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, Philippines must stay watchful over China’s maritime expansion
日比首脳会談 中国の海洋権益拡大に警戒を

Countries concerned should take concerted action and strengthen their cooperation over how to handle China’s continuing self-serving maritime advances.
 独善的な海洋進出を続ける中国に対し、関係国は足並みを乱さず、連携を強化すべきだ。

In Laos, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has held his first talks with Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte and unveiled a plan to provide two 90-meter patrol vessels to Manila. The vessels will be constructed in Japan, financed through yen loans totaling up to about ¥16.4 billion and delivered to the Philippine Coast Guard.
 安倍首相はラオスで、フィリピンのドゥテルテ大統領と初めて会談し、90メートル級の大型巡視船2隻を供与する方針を伝えた。最大約164億円の円借款を基に日本で建造し、フィリピン沿岸警備隊に提供する。

The poor maritime security capabilities of nations facing the South China Sea have allowed China to unilaterally establish a military foothold in the region. Duterte expressed gratitude for the new ships, saying they would enable the Philippines to strengthen its patrols and boost its presence in the area.
 南シナ海では、沿岸国の海上警備能力が低く、中国の一方的な軍事拠点化を許していた。ドゥテルテ氏は、「パトロール強化が可能になり、フィリピンの存在感が向上する」と謝意を表した。

Japan also is providing 10 40-meter patrol boats to the Philippines. Combined with these larger vessels, which are capable of traveling long distances, they should be effective in keeping China in check to a certain extent.
 40メートル級の巡視艇10隻の供与に続き、航続距離の長い大型巡視船がフィリピンに加われば、中国への一定の牽制けんせい効果を持とう。

During the Abe-Duterte talks, Japan formally decided to lend up to five of the Maritime Self-Defense Force’s TC-90 training aircraft to the Philippines. Japan will also help train the flight crews and maintain the aircraft, which will be useful in disaster relief operations and transporting supplies. We hope this support will be expanded in the future.
 海上自衛隊の練習機TC90を最大5機貸与することも正式決定した。整備や要員の訓練も日本が協力する。災害救援や輸送にも役立つ。今後も支援を拡大したい。

During the meeting, Duterte said the ruling handed down by an arbitration court that rejected China’s claims over the South China Sea should be respected. However, Duterte also said he was willing to have talks with China.
 南シナ海での中国の主権を否定した仲裁裁判所判決について、ドゥテルテ氏は会談で、「裁判結果は尊重されるべきだ」と強調した。ただ、「中国との対話は今後も行っていく」とも述べた。

Scarborough Shoal a concern

It is said that China has refused to recognize the ruling and wants to bring about an advantageous agreement through bilateral negotiations with the Philippines. If Manila easily yields concessions on this issue, China’s construction of artificial islands in the South China Sea, and the militarization of those islands, could become an accomplished fact.
 中国は、判決を棚上げし、フィリピンとの2国間協議で有利な合意に持ち込みたい考えとされる。フィリピンが安易に妥協すれば、中国の人工島造成や軍事拠点が既成事実化されかねない。

Establishing the rule of law in the South China Sea will benefit the entire international community. The Philippines needs to work closely with Japan, the United States and other nations with a stake in this issue.
 南シナ海における「法の支配」の確立は国際社会全体の利益だ。フィリピンは、日米など関係国と緊密に協調する必要がある。

It is worrying that China has dispatched dredging vessels and other equipment near Scarborough Shoal, which is close to the Philippines. There are fears China might start reclamation work around the shoal and construct an artificial island.
 懸念すべきは、中国が、フィリピンに近いスカボロー礁周辺に浚渫しゅんせつ船などを派遣したとされることだ。新たに埋め立てを行い、人工島を造成する恐れがある。

If China installs radar installations and builds a runway on the shoal, the range of its fighter jets would grow to cover the entire South China Sea. It also could lead to the establishment of an air defense identification zone.
 レーダー施設や滑走路を整備すれば、戦闘機の活動範囲が南シナ海全域に広がり、防空識別圏の設定にもつながりかねない。

It was regrettable that a bilateral meeting between U.S. President Barack Obama and Duterte was canceled after Duterte insulted Obama with an offensive remark.
 ドゥテルテ氏がオバマ米大統領を下品な言葉で罵ののしり、米比首脳会談が中止されたのは、残念だ。

Strained U.S.-Philippine ties will only benefit China. We hope they quickly normalize relations.
 両国のぎくしゃくした関係は中国を利するだけである。関係の正常化を急いでもらいたい。

Duterte’s foreign policies have yet to become clear, and a new administration will soon take office in the United States. It appears China is aiming to expand its maritime interests during this period.
 ドゥテルテ氏の外交政策が不透明で、米国も政権移行期に入る。この時期に、海洋権益を拡大するのが中国の狙いではないか。

The Obama administration has warned China that it will take unprecedentedly tough steps if China starts building an artificial island at Scarborough Shoal. To more effectively urge China to exercise self-restraint, it is important that the international community — not just the United States — shows unity and speaks up about this issue.
 オバマ政権は中国に対し、スカボロー礁で人工島造成に着手した場合、従来にない厳しい措置を取ると警告している。より効果的に中国に自制を促すには、米国だけでなく、国際社会が結束して声を上げることが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 8, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 8日 (木)

日中首脳会談 関係改善には緊張緩和が要る

The Yomiuri Shimbun
First ease tension to start improving bilateral ties between Japan and China
日中首脳会談 関係改善には緊張緩和が要る

For all the differences in what both sides assert, it is essential for Japan and China to make efforts to build trust through constructive dialogue.
 双方の主張に相違点はあっても、建設的な対話を通じて、信頼醸成を図ることが肝要である。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe held talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Hangzhou, China, on Monday and both agreed to work to improve ties between the two countries. It was their third bilateral talk and the first since April 2015.
 安倍首相は中国・杭州で、習近平国家主席と会談し、関係改善に努力することで一致した。両氏の会談は2015年4月以来で、3回目だ。

Abe and Xi also agreed that the two countries will accelerate discussions on soon putting into operation a “maritime and air liaison mechanism” aimed at preventing accidental clashes between the Self-Defense Forces and Chinese forces in the East China Sea.
 東シナ海での自衛隊と中国軍の偶発的な衝突を防ぐ「海空連絡メカニズム」の早期運用へ協議を加速させることでも合意した。

Included among the mechanism’s main pillars are establishing a hotline between the Japanese and Chinese defense authorities, and enabling naval vessels and aircraft of both countries to communicate directly on site if they get close to each other.
防衛当局間のホットラインの設置や、艦艇・航空機が接近した際の直接通信などが柱である。

There was a series of incidents around the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture in June, in which Chinese military vessels sailed in the contiguous zone around the islands and its military aircraft flew close by.
 尖閣諸島周辺では6月、中国軍艦の接続水域進入や中国軍機の接近が相次いだ。

To avoid any untoward incident, the defense authorities of both countries should put the finishing touches on the talks so as to hurry the launch of the mechanism’s operations.
不測の事態を避けるため、当局間の詰めの協議を行い、運用開始を急ぎたい。

Regarding such incidents as Chinese government vessels entering Japan’s territorial waters, Abe said they would be construed as “actions that will unilaterally escalate tension,” rightly calling on China to improve the situation.
 中国公船による領海侵入などを巡り、首相が「一方的に緊張をエスカレートさせる行動だ」と改善を求めたのは当然である。

Take concrete action

Xi responded by saying that the two countries should “properly handle the issue via dialogue and consultation.” But it would only be reasonable for China to first restrain itself in terms of deeds. To fully mend the bilateral relations between Japan and China, it is vital to ease tension.
 習氏は「対話と協議を通じて適切に対応すべきだ」と語ったが、中国がまず行動を自制するのが筋だ。日中関係を本格的に修復するには、緊張緩和が欠かせない。

During the talks, Abe and Xi also agreed that the two countries will hold discussions on resuming negotiations on the joint development of gas fields in the East China Sea.
 会談では、東シナ海のガス田共同開発の交渉再開に向けて、両国が協議することも決まった。

China has been developing the fields unilaterally, reneging on a 2008 bilateral accord. The accord must be carried out sincerely.
中国は08年の合意を反故ほごにし、勝手に開発を続けている。合意は誠実に履行せねばなるまい。

Referring to China’s moves to militarize artificial islands in the South China Sea, Abe urged China to abide by the international law and make efforts to dispel concern among neighboring countries.
 首相は、中国が軍事拠点化を進める南シナ海問題について、国際法のルールを守り、周辺国などの不安解消に努めるよう促した。

It is unacceptable that Xi hit back against Abe’s call by saying, “Japan should exercise prudence in its words and deeds.” Ensuring the safety of sea lanes is a common benefit to the international community.
 容認できないのは、習氏が「日本は言葉と行動を慎むべきだ」などと抗弁したことである。海上交通路(シーレーン)の安全確保は国際社会共通の利益だ。

During the talks, Abe brought up the issue of North Korea firing three ballistic missiles into waters off the coast of Hokkaido. He called on Xi to cooperate in “taking concrete steps against North Korea’s repeated provocations.”
 首相は会談で、北朝鮮が弾道ミサイル3発を北海道沖に落下させた問題を提起した。「度重なる挑発行動に対し、具体的措置を講じるべきだ」と、習氏に求めた。

China, which is a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council, has a certain amount of influence on North Korea. China fulfilling its responsibilities could constitute a step forward in the bilateral cooperation between Japan and China.
 中国は国連安全保障理事会の常任理事国で、北朝鮮に一定の影響力を持つ。その責任を果たすことが日中連携の一歩となり得る。

China has suffered a series of diplomatic setbacks in its foreign policy lately: a ruling by the court of arbitration categorically dismissed Beijing’s claim of sovereignty in the South China Sea; and its relations with South Korea have deteriorated.
 中国外交は、南シナ海での自国の主権を全面否定する仲裁裁判所の判決が出たり、対韓関係の悪化を招いたり、失点が続く。

The success of the summit of the Group of 20 major economies, which Xi chaired, was a challenge vital for China to recover its own prestige.
 習氏が議長を務める主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議の成功は、自らの威信を回復するために不可欠な課題だった。

Some believe that after the end of the G-20 summit talks, China will take a more hard-line stance in both the East China Sea and the South China Sea. Wouldn’t it be to China’s advantage to contribute to the stability of Asia, rather than intensify friction with its neighboring countries?
 会議終了後には、中国が東・南シナ海で強硬姿勢を一段と打ち出すとの見方もある。近隣国との摩擦を強めるのでなく、アジアの安定に貢献することこそが自国の利益にもなるのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 7, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 7日 (水)

G20首脳宣言 中国の「有言実行」が問われる

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China being tested over whether it will actually live up to G-20 accords
G20首脳宣言 中国の「有言実行」が問われる

It is essential to raise the growth potential of the global economy by steadily promoting structural reform and free trade, thereby putting the global economy on a sustainable recovery path.
 構造改革や自由貿易の着実な推進によって、世界経済の成長力を底上げし、持続的な回復軌道に乗せねばならない。

The Group of 20 major economies wrapped up its summit meeting Monday after holding a two-day session in Hangzhou, China.
 2日にわたって中国・杭州で開かれた主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議が閉幕した。

In a communique issued after the summit, the G-20 leaders warn that global growth is weaker than anticipated and that downside risks exist. The communique also mentions that all three policy tools of monetary and fiscal policies, and structural reform must be used separately or collectively.
 首脳宣言で「世界経済の成長は期待よりも弱く、下方リスクが存在する」との危機感を表明した。金融政策、財政出動、構造改革の全てを「個別にまた総合的に活用する」とも明記している。

Given Britain’s decision to leave the European Union and the decline in the prices of resources, both advanced and emerging economies lack the power to serve as an engine for global economic growth.
 英国の欧州連合(EU)離脱決定や資源価格の下落によって、先進国、新興国の双方とも成長の牽引けんいん力に欠けるのが現状だ。

The G-20 communique adhered to the agreements reached at the Ise-Shima Summit of the Group of Seven advanced nations hosted by Japan in May. It is highly significant that the G-20 economies, including emerging and oil-producing countries with different economic powers, have shared common views on the global economy.
 首脳宣言は、先進7か国による5月の伊勢志摩サミットの合意を踏襲した。経済の実力が異なる新興国や産油国などを含むG20が認識を共有した意味は大きい。

The crucial point is for all G-20 countries to play their role.
 肝心なのは、各国が役割をきっちりと果たすことである。

During the G-20 summit, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said it was important for all the countries to demonstrate their commitment through concrete action. It was natural for him to make such a statement.
 安倍首相が会議で「各国の具体的行動へとつなげていくことが重要だ」と発言したのは当然だ。

The key to reinvigorating the global economy is likely to be promotion of structural reforms to enhance productivity and boost growth.
 世界経済の活性化へカギを握るのは、生産性を高めて成長を後押しする構造改革の推進だろう。

Japan has announced plans to reform ways of working, including correcting long working practices and realizing equal pay for equal work. Fulfillment of the Abenomics economic policy package will lead to realization of the G-20 agreements.
 日本は、長時間労働の是正や同一労働同一賃金の実現など「働き方改革」を断行すると表明した。アベノミクスの履行がG20合意を実現することになる。

Key structural issue

The communique took up excessive production of steel and other products as a serious structural problem for the first time.
 首脳宣言は初めて、深刻な構造問題として鉄鋼などの過剰生産を取り上げた。

The overproduction issue was triggered by China, which has kept protecting loss-making state-owned companies. There have been rampant increases in the number of these so-called zombie firms, which have actually gone bankrupt but have continued to be supported by the Chinese authorities, posing a risk to the global economy.
 震源地は、不採算の国有企業を温存する中国である。実質的に破綻しながら当局が支え続ける「ゾンビ企業」が横行し、世界経済のリスク要因となっている。

It was agreed during the summit to set up an international framework to promote information-sharing in a bid to resolve the overproduction issue. Because China served as the host nation to work out the agreement, China will be required to carry out its commitments in deed.
 会議では、過剰生産の解消に向けて情報共有を進める国際的な枠組みの設立で合意した。議長国としてまとめた以上、中国の「有言実行」が求められる。

As for free trade, which is indispensable to economic expansion, the G-20 agreed to reject all forms of protectionism.
 経済の発展に不可欠な自由貿易については「あらゆる形態の保護主義への反対」で一致した。

In the United States, both the Republican and Democratic presidential nominees have expressed opposition to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade framework. In emerging economies, import restrictions to protect their domestic industries have been invoked one after another.
 米国では大統領選候補がそろって環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)への反対を表明している。新興国では、自国産業を守る輸入制限の発動が相次いでいる。

Signatories to the TPP agreement, including Japan and the United States, must promote early ratification of the accord while emerging economies must exercise self-restraint on excessive import restrictions. Each G-20 nation must work toward advancing free trade.
 日米などTPP関係国は早期批准に取り組む。新興国は過度の輸入制限措置を自粛する。G20各国がそれぞれ、自由貿易を進展させなければならない。

A questionable point is that China guided G-20 discussions into concentrating on economic issues in a bid to avoid discussions over the South China Sea, where it has been building military strongholds. If China remains indifferent to regional stability, it is doubtful whether the country will fulfill its commitment to economic cooperation, too.
 疑問なのは、中国が議論を経済に集中させ、自らが軍事拠点化を進める南シナ海問題の封印を図ったことだ。地域の安定から目をそらしたままでは、経済連携も実効性が疑われよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 6, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 6日 (火)

米中首脳会談 アジア安定に心残りはないか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Do Obama, Xi regret their summit talks didn’t do much for Asian stability?
米中首脳会談 アジア安定に心残りはないか

Given that both sides seemingly went to pains to give the appearance of getting along while putting aside pending questions over China’s high-handed maritime advances, this cannot be described as a relationship between responsible major powers.
 中国の独善的な海洋進出という懸案を先送りにしたまま、協調演出に腐心するようでは、責任ある大国同士の関係とは言えまい。

U.S. President Barack Obama has held talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping on the sidelines of the summit meeting of the Group of 20 major and emerging economies.
 オバマ米大統領が主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議に合わせ、習近平国家主席と会談した。

This was the first time Obama and Xi have met since a ruling by an arbitration court completely rejected China’s territorial claims over much of the South China Sea. Obama stressed that the “principles of international law” must be upheld and called on China to abide by the court’s ruling.
 南シナ海に関する中国の主権の主張を全面否定する仲裁裁判所の判決が出た後、両首脳の会談は初めてだ。オバマ氏は、「国際法の原則を維持する」と強調し、判決に従うよう中国に要求した。

It is unacceptable that Xi insisted China would “firmly continue to protect its sovereignty and maritime rights” in the South China Sea. Beijing has called on Washington to play a “constructive role” in dealing with this issue, but it is China that is raising tensions in the region and challenging the U.S.-led order there.
 容認できないのは、習氏が「南シナ海の主権と海洋権益を断固、守り続ける」と強弁したことだ。南シナ海問題で米国に「建設的な役割」を果たすよう求めたが、地域を緊張させ、米主導の秩序に挑戦しているのは中国である。

It was unfortunate that this last chance for Obama to draw out a compromise from China before his term ends in January 2017 failed to produce a positive result.
 来年1月のオバマ氏の退任前に妥協を引き出す最後の機会でも、成果がなかったのは残念だ。

Obama has avoided a sharp split in U.S.-China ties and has pushed a conciliatory approach that placed emphasis on expanding cooperation. This strategy was dependent on a positive change from China, but we think Obama ended up being viewed by Xi as merely an “opponent who is easily taken advantage of.”
 オバマ氏は、米中の決定的対立を避け、協力拡大に重点を置く融和路線を進めてきた。中国側の前向きの変化に期待する戦略だったが、習氏には「与くみし易やすい相手」とみなされただけではないか。

U.S. must stand up to China

Xi has broken a promise he made last year that China had no intention of boosting the militarization of manmade islands in the South China Sea, and has accelerated the building of runways and radar installations on the islands. The prospect of China establishing an air defense identification zone is becoming a reality.
 習氏は、南シナ海の人工島について、「軍事化を進める意図はない」という1年前の約束を反故ほごにし、滑走路やレーダー施設の整備を加速させた。防空識別圏の設定は現実のものになりつつある。

China probably intends to complete the creation of this military foothold while the Obama administration is still in office. Among the nations affected by these developments, there is growing dissatisfaction that the U.S. response has always been a step behind.
 オバマ政権の間に、軍事拠点化に目途めどをつける思惑なのだろう。関係国の間には、米国の対応が後手に回ったとの不満が高まる。

The United States must stand at the forefront of efforts to maintain stability in the South China Sea and strengthen the pressure being applied on China. It is essential that patrol activities conducted by U.S. military vessels and aircraft are stepped up around the manmade islands.
 南シナ海の安定を保つには、米国が先頭に立って、中国への圧力を強めねばなるまい。米軍の艦艇と航空機による人工島周辺での巡視活動の強化が肝要である。

Xi’s announcement that he opposes the planned deployment of the United States’ Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile system in South Korea also cannot be overlooked.
 習氏が、米ミサイル防衛システム「最終段階高高度地域防衛(THAAD)」の韓国配備に反対を表明したことも看過できない。

North Korea is continuing its dangerous provocations, including testing a submarine-launched ballistic missile. Deploying THAAD is an urgent task. China must adopt a tougher stance toward North Korea and ensure sanctions against Pyongyang are thoroughly enforced.
 北朝鮮は、潜水艦発射弾道ミサイル(SLBM)実験などの危険な挑発を続けている。THAADの配備は急務だ。中国は、北朝鮮により厳しい態度で臨み、制裁履行を徹底せねばならない。

Before the Obama-Xi talks, the leaders announced both nations had ratified the Paris Agreement, the international framework for measures to combat global warming from 2020. This collaboration by the world’s two largest emitters is a significant step toward the agreement coming into force before the end of this year.
 米中首脳は会談に先立ち、2020年以降の地球温暖化対策の国際的枠組みとなる「パリ協定」を批准したことを発表した。2大排出国の共同歩調は、協定の年内発効に向けた前進である。

There was no change in Xi’s assertions on human rights issues and Chinese cyber-attacks on U.S. companies and other entities, two issues of concern for the United States.
 米国が懸念する中国の米企業などに対するサイバー攻撃や人権問題では、習氏の主張に変化はなかった。

It seems progress can be expected only in fields where it will be to China’s advantage.
これでは、中国にとって利点がある分野しか、進展が見込めないのではないか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 5, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 5日 (月)

日露首脳会談 大統領来日で「領土」は動くか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can Putin’s visit to Japan help move N. territories issue forward?
日露首脳会談 大統領来日で「領土」は動くか

Will Russian President Vladimir Putin’s visit to Japan serve as the first step in moving forward with the northern territories issue, which has remained unsettled for as long as the 71 years since World War II ended?
 戦後71年間も未解決の北方領土問題を動かす一歩となるのだろうか。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe held talks with Putin in Vladivostok, Russia, and the two leaders officially agreed to meet in Yamaguchi Prefecture on Dec. 15. They also agreed to hold talks in Peru in November on the sidelines of an international conference.
 安倍首相はロシア・ウラジオストクでプーチン大統領と会談し、12月15日に山口県で会談することに正式合意した。11月のペルーでの国際会議時にも会談する。

“I was able to find a specific approach to move the negotiations forward,” Abe said following the talks with Putin. “I sensed a solid response.” Having held talks as many as 14 times so far, the two leaders have obviously built a certain relationship of trust.
 首相は会談後、「交渉を具体的に進める道筋が見えてきた。手応えを強く感じ取ることができた」と語った。両首脳の会談は14回にも上る。一定の信頼関係が築けてきたのは間違いあるまい。

There is strong opposition in Russia to the return of the four northern islands. The waters around them hold military significance as part of the Pacific route, and Russian forces have increased the number of soldiers stationed there. Therefore, we cannot have an optimistic view about the territorial negotiations.
 ロシアでは、北方4島の返還への反対論が根強い。周辺海域は太平洋航路として軍事上の重要性が高い。駐留ロシア軍も増強された。領土交渉は楽観できない。

We believe that no one but Putin, the most powerful figure in Russia, can make such a significant decision as returning the territories. It is understandable that Abe aims to settle the issue using a top-down approach while holding frequent talks with his Russian counterpart.
 領土の返還という重い決断は、最高権力者のプーチン氏にしかできまい。頻繁な首脳会談を通じて、トップダウンで決着を図ろうとする首相の意図は理解できる。

The prime minister apparently had a similar aim when he delivered a speech in Vladivostok calling for talks with Putin to be held once a year.
 首相が現地で演説し、年1回のウラジオストクでの首脳会談を提案したのも、同じ狙いだろう。

Leading up to Putin’s visit to Japan, the government should make every effort in the preliminary negotiations so this precious opportunity — the first visit by a Russian president in about six years — can give momentum to the northern territories issue.
 約6年ぶりの露大統領来日という貴重な機会を領土問題の進展につなげるため、政府は事前交渉に力を入れる必要がある。

During the latest talks, Abe and Putin reconfirmed that their countries will hold territorial negotiations using a “new approach,” without sticking to conventional ideas. Japan’s basic strategy is that it will look for clues to settle the issue while improving bilateral cooperation in various fields to move Japan-Russia relations forward as a whole and from a future-oriented standpoint.
 今回の会談では、従来の発想にとらわれない「新しいアプローチ」で領土交渉を進める方針を再確認した。様々な分野で協力を進め、未来志向で日露関係全体を前進させる中で、領土問題の解決の糸口を探るのが日本の基本戦略だ。

Don’t be hasty

Abe also discussed the current situation in the eight areas of economic cooperation Japan has presented, including energy and development in Russia’s Far Eastern region. The prime minister said that Economy, Trade and Industry Minister Hiroshige Seko has been named to concurrently serve as minister for economic cooperation with Russia, and a council comprising of government and private-sector entities will also be established.
 首相は、日本側が提案したエネルギー、極東開発など8項目の経済協力の現状を説明した。世耕経済産業相に担当相を兼務させ、官民協議会も設置するという。

Russia has great hopes for Japan because it has been suffering a sluggish economy hit by falling oil prices and other factors. We believe Japan also can enjoy advantages, such as securing natural resources and gaining profits from investment in Russia, depending on the extent to which bilateral cooperation develops.
 ロシアは、原油安などに伴う経済低迷が続き、日本への期待が大きい。日本側にも、協力の展開次第では、資源確保や投資の利益回収などのメリットがあろう。

However, Japan should never be hasty, because the history of bilateral relations shows that the northern territories issue has always been left behind while only bilateral economic cooperation was put forward. The government should scrutinize what is included in projects when promoting cooperation with Russia.
 ただ、経済協力だけが先行し、領土問題は取り残されるのが日露の歴史だった。前のめりになるのは禁物だ。事業内容を吟味し、協力を進めることが欠かせない。

It is also important for the two countries to work together in the security field. The Japanese and Russian foreign ministries held talks on the issue in early July. We hope they make sure to continue strategic dialogues.
 安全保障分野での協力も重要である。日露外務省による安保協議が7月上旬、開催された。戦略的な対話を着実に重ねたい。

A serious rift remains, with Russia on one side and the United States and European countries on the other, over Russia’s activities in Ukraine and Syria. Japan should refrain from disrupting cooperation among the Group of Seven major powers in terms of economic sanctions against Russia.
 ウクライナ、シリア情勢を巡る米欧とロシアの対立は依然、深刻だ。日本が先進7か国(G7)の対露経済制裁の足並みを乱すことは避けねばならない。

The U.S. government is taking a calm stance regarding Putin’s visit to Japan, saying it is “not concerned or worried.” Japan should continue its efforts to provide the United States and European countries with extensive explanations on its relations with Russia to seek their understanding.
 米政府はプーチン氏来日について「懸念も心配もしていない」と静観している。日本は、日露関係について米欧に丁寧に説明し、理解を得る努力を続けるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 4, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 3日 (土)

JOC報告書 納得にはほど遠い

--The Asahi Shimbun, Sept. 3
EDITORIAL: Report on probe into Tokyo’s Olympic bid far from convincing
(社説)JOC報告書 納得にはほど遠い

The Japanese Olympic Committee obviously faced some tough challenges in its investigation into the Tokyo Olympic bid committee’s dubious cash payments to a consulting company. But that doesn’t justify the JOC’s failure to produce a convincing report on the matter.
The JOC’s investigative team on Sept. 1 published a report on its probe into the bid committee’s payments totaling 230 million yen ($2,2 million) to a Singapore-based consulting firm.
It said the cash payments were not illegal and that the bid committee had no intention of resorting to bribery or other illegal acts.
 調査が難航したのはわかる。だとしても、これで人々の理解を得られるとは思えない。
 2020年東京五輪・パラリンピック招致の際にシンガポールのコンサルタント会社に2億3千万円が支払われた問題で、日本オリンピック委員会(JOC)の調査チームが報告書を公表した。日本側に買収などの意図はなく、違法性はなかったという内容である。

But the report failed to make clear how the money paid by the bid committee was actually used. The investigative team contacted a number of foreign figures suspected to be linked to the consulting company. They included Lamine Diack, a former International Association of Athletics Federation president who was then a member of the International Olympic Committee. Diak was in a position to influence the vote to decide the host.
His son Papa Massata Diack, who had close ties with the consulting firm, is also under the spotlight. But neither of them offered to cooperate with the JOC for the investigation, according to the report.
 だが2億円余の使い道は明らかになっていない。当時、開催都市決定の投票に影響力を持つ国際オリンピック委員会(IOC)委員だった国際陸連前会長や、コンサルタント会社と関係があったとされるその息子にもアプローチしたが、協力は得られなかったという。

The conclusion of the inquiry team was based almost entirely on remarks made by Japanese officials involved. It is far from a clear and complete picture of what transpired.
ほぼ日本側関係者からの聞き取りに頼った結論で、全容解明にほど遠い。

Since French prosecutors have also been looking into the matter, new developments could arise.
 この問題は、フランスの検察当局が捜査を続けており、状況によっては新たな局面を迎える可能性もある。

The probe has shed some light on the opaque nature of people who work as "consultants" in the international sports arena as well as on the bid committee’s slipshod approach to selecting consultants it hires.
 今回浮き彫りになったのは、コンサルタントといわれる人たちの活動の不透明さであり、それを選び、契約する招致委側の管理態勢の甘さである。

Senior officials of the bid committee had no independent information about the Singapore-based firm. The committee paid a large amount of money to the company it knew little or nothing about based on the advice of Dentsu Inc., Japan’s leading ad agency, which has been involved in marketing operations in the international sports community.
 招致委幹部は、問題のシンガポールの会社について独自に情報を持っていなかった。国際スポーツ界でマーケティング活動をする電通の勧めがあったとはいえ、そのような相手に巨額の金を支払った。

The bid committee for the 2020 Olympics hired 11 consulting companies, including the Singapore-based one. The committee that represented Tokyo’s unsuccessful bid to host the 2016 Summer Games, which were granted to Rio de Janeiro, struck deals with some 30 consulting businesses.
 20年招致ではこの会社を含めて11の、リオデジャネイロに敗れた16年招致のときは約30のコンサルタントと契約を交わした。

There are no market rates for fees to be paid to such companies, and deals are often done at the prices asked by the firms. The Japanese bid committee for the 2020 Games paid more than 1.1 billion yen in consulting fees.
契約料に相場はなく、先方の言い値になることが多いといわれる。20年招致では計11億数千万円が支出されている。

Only a small number of senior officials of the committee were aware of what roles the consultancies were playing and the kind of work in which they were engaged.
 契約したコンサルタントがどんな役割を担い、どんな仕事をしているかは、一部の幹部しか把握していなかったという。

The ways bidding cities contact with IOC members are limited, which make it virtually impossible for a city to host Olympics without the help of consultants. Even so, senior officials of the bid committee are at least responsible for making careful and conscientious decisions on whether the service offered by a specific consultancy is worth the cost.
 立候補都市がIOC委員と接触する方法が限られ、コンサルタントなくしては五輪を呼べないという現実があるとはいえ、出費に見合う契約かどうか、慎重に判断する自覚と責任が招致委幹部にはある。

As a first step in the reform of bids for Olympics, the IOC, starting with the 2024 Games, will require bidding cities to register the consultants they hire and disclose the information about the consultants working for the cities. In addition, the IOC has also decided to require consultants to declare they will abide by the rules concerning Olympic bids.
 IOCは24年五輪招致から、契約するコンサルタントの登録を義務づけたうえで公開し、コンサルタントには招致ルールの順守を宣言することを課す。改革の一歩といえる。

Many questions have been raised about the huge costs involved in trying to host the Olympics and actually holding the events.
 五輪は招致や開催費用の高騰が疑問視されている。

Still, there’s high level of social interest in the Olympics, with people around the world eagerly awaiting these events.
それでも社会の関心は高く、大会を心待ちにする人は多い。

Currently, the race to host the Olympics is determined to a large extent by people working behind the scenes.
その行方が、見えないところで見えない人たちによって左右される。

If this situation continues, the Olympics will eventually lose their luster.
こんなことを続けていては、やがて輝きは失われてしまう。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 2日 (金)

予算概算要求 危機感の乏しさを憂う

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 31
EDITORIAL: Government still ignoring Japan's fiscal woes at budget time
(社説)予算概算要求 危機感の乏しさを憂う

In early August, the government set its basic policy concerning budget requests from government ministries and agencies, based on which the nation's fiscal 2017 budget will be compiled.
"We will thoroughly review policy priorities, do everything to eliminate wasteful spending and boldly focus on the substance of the budget," the government declared.
 「施策の優先順位を洗い直し、無駄を徹底して排除しつつ、予算の中身を大胆に重点化する」
 来年度予算編成の出発点となる各省庁からの概算要求について、政府が今月初めに決めた基本方針の一節である。

But for all these brave words, we are appalled by the government's apparent lack of awareness of the dire, unprecedented fiscal straits confronting the nation.
 言葉は力強い。だが現実はといえば、決意表明はどこへやら、未曽有の財政難への危機感の乏しさに驚くばかりだ。

Aug. 31 is the final day for government ministries and agencies to make their fiscal 2017 budget requests.
For the third consecutive year, their total budget requests topped 100 trillion yen ($970.57 billion).
 きょう締め切られる概算要求の総額は、3年連続で100兆円を超える。

This can be attributed largely to the government's decision not to set a ceiling on budget requests and allow some budget requests to exceed the initial fiscal 2016 budget figures by nearly 20 percent.
 要求時の基準に天井(シーリング)を設けず、一部の予算については今年度当初予算から2割増し近くまで要求できる仕組みとしたことが大きい。

Obviously, not all requests are going to be met. They will be screened and trimmed by the Finance Ministry.
 もちろん、全額がそのまま認められるわけではなく、財務省の査定などを通じて絞られる。

Still, given the nation's serious fiscal problems, all budget requests should have been made in keeping with the government's basic policy, which went to the effect that every government ministry and agency "must thoroughly review and evaluate the performance results, efficiency and efficacy of its existing projects before submitting its budget request."
 とはいえ、厳しい財政を直視すれば、政府の基本方針がうたう通り、「既存事業の実績や効果を効率性、有効性等の観点から徹底検証して見直した上で要求・要望を行う」のは当然だ。

But how did individual ministries and agencies proceed?
 省庁の姿勢はどうか。

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism requested more than 6 trillion-plus yen for public works projects, up 16 percent from the initial fiscal 2016 budget.
 国土交通省は、公共事業費として今年度当初予算から16%増の6兆円強を要求した。

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's request topped 1.4 trillion yen, including a special account budget, up 9 percent from fiscal 2016.
経済産業省も、特別会計分を含めて9%増の1兆4千億円余を求めた。

But the Reconstruction Agency, whose reconstruction projects in areas devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 have already peaked, requested a smaller budget than for fiscal 2016.
Still, most government ministries and agencies seem intent on maximizing their chances of securing as much funding as possible by requesting as much as they could.
被災地での復旧事業が峠を越えた復興庁が要求を減らした例もあるが、「できるだけ多くの予算を獲得するために目いっぱい要求する」と言わんばかりの省庁が多い。

Against this backdrop, what attracted our attention was the budget sought by the Cabinet Office for promoting Okinawa's development. The requested amount of 321 billion yen was 14 billion yen less than in the initial fiscal 2016 budget.
 そうした中で目を引くのが、内閣府が所管する沖縄振興予算だ。要求額は今年度当初より140億円少ない3210億円。

Some people claim this reduction is meant to "restrain" Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga, with whom the central government has been at odds over the planned relocation of U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to the Henoko district in Nago.
米軍普天間飛行場の名護市辺野古への移設計画をめぐって対立する翁長雄志知事を牽制(けんせい)したのでは、ともささやかれる。

Dismissing this allegation out of hand, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga stressed, "When compiling a budget, it is only natural to make constant efforts to ensure the implementation of effective policies by reviewing various expenditures as needed. And the budget for Okinawa's development is no exception."
 菅官房長官はそうした見方を否定したうえで「予算については、効果的な政策を実現するために必要に応じて歳出の見直し、不断の努力をするのは当然。沖縄振興予算も例外ではない」と強調した。

If we are to take Suga's words at face value, then we must ask: Have all government ministries and agencies made such "constant efforts" in regard to their budget requests?
 ならば、問いたい。そうした「不断の努力」をすべての省庁がすべての予算について尽くしたのか、と。

Before the government started accepting budget requests for fiscal 2017, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe approved the second supplementary budget for the current fiscal year. With the additional issuance of construction bonds worth upwards of 2.7 trillion yen to fund more public works projects, the total came close to 3.3 trillion yen.
 来年度予算の概算要求に先立って、政府は今年度2次補正予算案を閣議決定した。2兆7千億円強の建設国債を追加発行して公共事業を積み増すなど、総額は3兆3千億円に迫る。

This is the same old pattern of using supplementary budgets as a "loophole" for spending more on items similar to those in the initial budget and letting the expenditures bloat.
当初予算と似た項目が並び、補正が抜け道となって歳出が膨らむ構図は相変わらずだ。

One thing is certain. So long as the government continues with this sort of fiscal management, the nation's fiscal health faces a long battle for recovery.
 こんな財政運営をしていては健全化への道は遠い。それだけは確かである。

| | コメント (0)

2016年9月 1日 (木)

大切な、あなたのお子様たちや、高齢者たちに、素敵なプレゼントはいかがでしょうか

内野株式会社 が開発に成功した驚異の繊維マシュマロガーゼ で、子供たちから高齢者に至るまで、熟睡にいざなってくれます。
具体的な数字で示したほうが納得していただけるので、数字で示しましょう。

国立信州大学には繊維学部というユニークな学部が存在しますが、学部が独自に行った着用実験の結果が出ています。
それによるとマシュマロガーゼのふんわり感に抱かれて、安眠できた人の数が、被験者全体の70%となっています。

マシュマロガーゼという繊維素材には、どうやら、人々を安眠にいざなってくれるような働きがあるようですが、それには秘密があります。
一言で表現すれば、それはやわらかな肌触りということになりますが、マシュマロガーゼ繊維が吸湿・保水性、通気性、保湿性に優れているからにほかなりません。

大切な、あなたのお子様たちや、高齢者たちに、素敵なプレゼントはいかがでしょうか。
マシュマロガーゼでつくられたウェアで、毎日、熟睡、安眠ができるようにしてあげるのです。
素敵なプレゼントができますように。







ブログで口コミプロモーションならレビューブログ   レビューブログからの情報です

| | コメント (0)

サバ漁国際規制 資源が枯渇してからでは遅い

The Yomiuri Shimbun
It will be too late to take steps after key fishery resources are depleted
サバ漁国際規制 資源が枯渇してからでは遅い

Even familiar fish could become luxury foods beyond the reach of ordinary people if their stocks are depleted. Japan must take a leading role in international management of fishery resources.
 身近な魚でも、資源が枯渇すれば、手の届かない高級食材になりかねない。国際的管理を日本が主導せねばならない。

The North Pacific Fisheries Commission, whose six members include Japan, China and South Korea, has reached an agreement on a recommendation not to increase the number of mackerel vessels on the high seas in the northern Pacific Ocean.
 日中韓など6か国・地域で構成する「北太平洋漁業委員会」が、北太平洋の公海上でサバ漁船数を増やさないよう推奨することで一致した。

It is the first international agreement on the protection of mackerel resources. Controlling the number of fishing boats was left to voluntary efforts of each country and region. The Japanese government considers the agreement to be equivalent to “standing at the minimum starting line.” Ensuring that the decision will be effective is a challenge.
 サバの資源保護に向けた初の国際合意だ。漁船数の抑制は、各国・地域の自主的取り組みに委ねられた。日本政府は「最低限のスタートラインに立てた」と評価している。今回の決定に、いかに実効性を持たせるかが課題である。

The domestic catch of mackerel exceeded 1.6 million tons in 1978, but dramatically decreased to 250,000 tons in 1991. After that, the mackerel catch was restricted with the aim of protecting stocks. Currently, the fish haul remains at about 500,000 tons a year, mainly in Japan’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ).
 サバの国内漁獲量は1978年に160万トンを超えたが、91年には25万トンまで激減した。その後、資源保護を目的に漁獲量が制限され、現在は、主に排他的経済水域(EEZ)内で年50万トン前後の水揚げで推移している。

The number of Chinese mackerel boats operating in international waters adjacent to the EEZ is rapidly increasing. This number increased from 20 in 2014 to at least 80 in 2015, based on reports. The 2015 fish haul increased five times to more than 130,000 tons compared with that of the previous year.
 隣接する公海上では、中国漁船が急増している。2014年の20隻から、15年は報告されているだけで80隻となり、漁獲量も5倍の13万トン余に増えた。

At the commission meeting held in Tokyo this time, Japan urged the other members to make it mandatory to limit the number of fishing vessels out of a sense of urgency that if the number of Chinese boats continues to increase at its recent rate, the fishery resources could be depleted again.
 東京で開かれた今回の会議で、日本は漁船数の抑制を義務化するよう求めた。中国の漁獲量がこのまま増えれば、再び資源が枯渇しかねないという危機感からだ。

Resource survey essential

However, China rejected Japan’s request, saying that the restriction should not be strengthened because it is unclear if the quantity of the resources is decreasing. In the end, the meeting did not adopt a mandatory restriction.
 しかし、中国は「資源量の減少が不明な段階で規制を強化すべきではない」と反発した。結局、義務化は見送られた。

To have China recognize the significance of the restriction, it is important for Japan to play a central role in swiftly proceeding with a fact-finding survey on the volume of stocks, which the participants in the meeting agreed to conduct, and provide scientific data.
 規制の意義を中国に認めさせるためには、会議で合意した資源量の実態調査を日本が中心となって速やかに進め、科学的データを示すことが大切である。

Against the background of diversifying dietary behaviors and the development of fisheries in China and other countries, there is a growing threat to the sustainability of fishery resources consumed mainly by Japan.
 中国などでの食生活の多様化や漁業の発達を背景に、主に日本が消費してきた漁業資源の持続性が危ぶまれる事態が増えている。

The commission, launched under the leadership of Japan last year, made it mandatory not to increase the number of sanma saury fishing boats.
 委員会は、日本の呼びかけで昨年発足し、サンマの漁船数を増やさないことを義務化した。

Concerning Pacific bluefin tuna, additional restrictive measures to be taken in case immature fish rapidly decrease are an immediate challenge. The catch of immature fish has already been restricted. An international conference is being held in Fukuoka to discuss concrete rules on the issue and conditions for implementing restrictions.
 太平洋クロマグロについては、既に漁獲量を制限している未成魚が急減した場合の追加規制策が、当面の懸案だ。具体的なルールや発動条件を協議する国際会議が福岡市内で開かれている。

Japan, as a major fishery country, has the responsibility to conduct sustainable fishing by taking such actions as first determining the volume of stocks and then protecting against overfishing of immature fish. It is vital to maintain a balance between the protection of various resources and the promotion of fisheries.
 水産大国である日本には、資源量を把握した上で、未成魚の乱獲を防ぐなど、持続的な漁業に取り組む責任がある。多様な資源の保護と漁業振興のバランスを維持していくことが肝要だ。

Large-scale fishing methods, such as trawling and longline fishing, which collaterally catch species on top of the targeted ones, also are considered problematic. We hope Japan will take a leading role in changing these fishing methods to ones that will minimize the adverse influence on the ecosystem.
 狙った魚種以外の生物も捕獲してしまう底引き網漁やはえ縄漁など、大規模漁法も問題視されている。日本が率先して、可能な限り生態系に悪影響を及ぼさない手法に改善していきたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 31, 2016)

| | コメント (0)

« 2016年8月 | トップページ | 2016年10月 »